PSYC2013 Semester Lecture Notes
PSYC2013 Semester Lecture Notes
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Date Created: 01/20/15
Developmental Psychology 2415 918 PM What is development 0 Systematic changes and continuities in the individual that occur between conception and death 0 Development is lifelong o Neuroplasticity Brains ability to change in response to experiences 0 Development is multidirectional o It isn t always forward Nature vs Nurture 0 Why are boys and girls different 0 Nature its in their genes 0 Nurture their parents make them that way 0 NatureNurture their genes do a little but their parents also contribute Multiple influences LearningStudying 0 Have to do something beyond passively taking in the information 0 Stop and rehearse reading quiz yourself 0 Link it to emtion bc emotion helps you remember Multisensory 0 You remember things with smell things you both read and heard and sung Scientific Method 0 Use theories to derive hypotheses Hypothesis 0 Prediction an idea about how things fit together it is a statement 0 Sample selection 0 Once you have your question find people to help you answer it 0 Population Americans Europeans Adolescence People in general 0 Random sample Has to be representative and must make sure we don t generalize beyond that 0 Data collection 0 Verbal report Interview questionnaire self history involves words on a scale of 110 0 Physiological measure Measuring heart rate blood pressure cat scan fmri ffunctional o Behavioral observation Watch their reaction to the IV a Naturalistic 0 Just watch an individuals behaior n Structured 0 Case study method 0 If you don t have a lot of people 0 Experimental method 0 Independent and dependent variable 0 True experiment 0 Random assignment Don t let anything determine which group theyre in o Manipulation of IV 0 Experimental control Same materials for everyone 0 Correlational method 0 Scale between 10 and 40 o Directionality Positive or negative correlation 0 You can say there s a correlation but cannot say one causes the other Cannot assume causality based on Correlational data 0 Third variable Another aspect may influence the behavior besides what you re researching Meta analysis 0 Take a bunch of results from other studies and analyze them o Summarize results from a bunch of different studies Butter is apparently now good for you 0 Developmental Research Designs 0 Crosssectional designs cohorts Look at 3 year olds 6 year olds and 12 year olds and study them and the differences 0 Longitudinal design Choose a group of people and follow them for years and years 0 Sequential design Don t want to wait around for 9 years follow a certain group from 36 and another from 69 so you don t waste times How to measure concentration 0 Structured observation give them a quiz and see how they respond and concentrate Physiological measure track eye movement while reading measure brain activity while focusing Verbal report ask teacherparent to report or student themselves 0 Cross sectional follow 5 kids from 5 different grades Longitudal follow a class from prek to 8th grade Cultural sensitivity 0 You don t want to say one group of individuals is better than another because they are just culturall different Protecting rights of participants 0 Institutional review board 0 Any study with federal funding needs to be reviewed by this board even those without funding most universities make them be reviewed anyway Informed consent 0 Participants fully know what s going to happen and they agree 0 Kids can t technically consent because they are under their parents of guardianship legal consent is 18 Usually researchers working with children get consent from parents and ask them to assent ask them if they want to participate 0 Studies that need to have some part kept a secret get special permission from the review board 0 Debriefing o If the study involves deception this is where you tell them 0 Protection from harm 0 Make sure people using equipment are trained 0 Keep them safe from psychological harm 0 Don t want to harm someone financially don t mislead them that they ll get money from it 0 Confidentiality o Psychologists ask personal questions or about illegal activity can t just leave that sitting on a computer 0 Save on encrypted hard drive 2415 918 PM Freud Psychoanalytic theory 0 He put basic human instincts food sex affiliation into unconscious motivations o Freud is responsible for why people wonder about 0 Psychoanalytic therapy 0 To resolve deeprooted issues you were to go into intense analysis for an hour 5 days a week for multiple years 0 Id I want nowquot instictual Ego the you that is moderating the id and superego forces rational Superego no no don t do thatquot moral Psychosexual stages 0 Oral first year All about sucking mouth first 6 months you re sucking on your mother s breast 0 Anal 13 Depends how harsh toilet training is a Very harsh causes people to be very anal as they get older Phallic 36 Not always about a penis girls worry about having once had one and having lost it boys worry they re going to lose it Depends on how parents respond to children touching their private parts 0 Latent 612 Kids focus on just growing up and going to school all issues above mentioned are put to the side Genital 12 An actual interest in genital sexual Defense mechanisms you have to defend yourself against these intrusions into your life 0 Repression deny it try remove it from your brain 0 Regression when individuals go back to a younger stage 0 Freud s ideas are not testable hypotheses Erikson O O Watson Skinner Neofreudian psychoanalytic theory Psychosocial stages all about conflicts and how the child negotiates and deals with the conflicts is how they come out Trustmistrust01 o If your parents don t feed you you might not trust the world to give you what you need Autonomyshame and doubt13 o I want to do it myselfquot then doubt and shame bc they can t do it themselves Initiativeguilt36 o I will do things play wonderquot vs I tried it and they yelled at me I feel guilty for trying Industryinferiority612 O Identityrole confusion 1220 0 In adolescence it is common to be exploring roles and coming to a conclusion Intimacyisolation2040 0 Can someone risk enough to enter a relationship Generativitystagnation4065 0 Can the world still be interesting if you ve been doing the same job for a long time Do you stay in your job wo promotion or do you do something to make the world better Integritydespair 65 0 Integrity life well lived still making contributions 0 Despair never got to do what they wanted feel weak old etc Classical condition Unconditioned stimulus big noise leads to response ppl are startled US noise CS certain time leads to response scared CS R operant conditioning the results of an action reinforce the action Positive reinforcement o If something good happens you are more likely to do that behavior again Negative reinforcement o escape the annoyance o if you re not wearing your seatbelt the noise will go off and you put your seatbelt on to escape the annoying noise Positive punishment 0 negative consequence o if you do something bad and your mom swats youquot 0 Negative punishment 0 loose a privilege 0 Take the TV away Extinction o If there are no consequences eventually the behavior will probably go away Bandura social cognitive theory social learning theory 0 Observational learning watch people and learn then do the action right away bobo doll example 0 Can be latent not immediate but they do the action later Vicarious reinforcement o If you see someone being reinforced you ll learn from that Selfefficacy o I can impact the world around me I do have an identityquot Piaget Worked with Binet to develop IQ test 0 Became more interested in the wrong answers 0 Lots of kids at the same age had the same wrong answers Stage theorists Constructivists 0 Child constructs his or her sense of the world and how things work 0 Piaget focused on the relationship between the child and materials Assimilation understanding 0 Once they get the word moon down they call everything that s round moon 0 Accommodation adaptation o Eventually they understand that moon doesn t describe everything 0 Stages 0 Sensorimotor 02 sensory and motor input sees hears things motor responses 0 Preoperational 27 symbolic thought language easily fooled by appearances a conservation task a only able to focus on one thing at a time 0 Concrete 711 logical problem solving very literal and concrete a dress the chickenquot puts clothes on it 0 Formal operations 11 abstract hypothetical scientific method and reasoning The American question 0 how can I move my child along fasterquot 0 Piaget didn t care kids are going to move through these stages at their own pace Sociocultural perspectives Vygotsky 0 It s a social thing 0 What we do as adults is scaffold children s learning The structure that helps a child develop 0 Zone of proximal development Bioecoligcal model Bronfenbrenner Microsystem o The people who the individual has direct contact with 0 People who the individ is face to face with o Mesosystem 0 Relations among people in the microsystem Parent might have a relationship with the teacher Exosystem o All about the system the individuals participate in Employer School system Police Health care 0 Macrosystem 0 Culture 0 Laws 0 Policies 0 Practices School refusal Unwanted pregnancy Genetics Environment and Development 2415 918 PM Down syndrome 0 Not a recessive trait 0 Chromosomal problem 0 Supposed to have 46 chromosomes 23 pairs and sex chromosomes 0 If you get 3 instead of 2 in the first pair 0 Early onset Alzheimer disease 0 Physical and mental disabilities 0 Even with chromosomal limitations being in a rich support learning environment makes big difference Turner Syndrome When a female just gets one X instead of 2 0 Unable to reproduce some suggestion of cognitive limitations 0 Very female identified 0 Family might not know until she hits puberty Klinefelter 0 Boy is supposed to be XY but they get XXY Sterile unable to reproduce suggestion of cognitive deficits Fragile X syndrome 0 Fragile part of x chromosome looks like its going to fall off 0 Associated with mental retardation 0 Only in the last 20 years or so we identified it o More common in males because they have only 1 X Copy number variations 0 Three code leters AUT can be repeated up to 200 times 0 Sometimes lead to genetic problems not something you re going to see have to do a lot of analysis to find it Dominant and Recessive traits Sicklecell disease 0 More common in those of African and Mediterranean descent O 0 If you get the disease from both parents then you have the disease and instead of blood cells being round they are shaped as sickles and the get stuck and they can clump up and cause pain 2 parents who don t have the disease but are carriers there is a 1 in 4 chance their child will have sickle cell if you re a carrier there s a protection for malaria even a carrier can experience symptoms at high altitutdes Huntington s disease 0 O O O dominant characteristic effects mental functioning cognitive and interpersonal symptoms begin to look like mental health issues doesn t emerge until middle age then long period of mental degradation 0 Phenylketonuria PKU O O O O Recessive gene Metabolic disorder that builds up toxic substances in the brain that causes severe developmental delay and cognitive impairments Restrictive diet that eliminates phenylketonuria Screenings at birth are used to identify if they have it Prenatal detection of abnormalities 0 Preconception counseling 0 If there s any family suspicions its worth looking into Maternal blood tests 0 Enough change in the mother s blood you can either detect or suspect if there s one of these conditions 0 Ultrasound 0 Especially for down syndrome bc it has physical characteristics Amniocentesis o Amniotic fluid is what surrounds the fetus and some fetal cells are in the fluid so you can test the fluid for disease 0 50 chance of losing the baby 0 Chorionic villus sampling o Chorion is where placenta meets the uterus you can take some tissue from the placenta because it will match the fetus 0 You can do this even before the amniocentesis 0 Higher risk Preimplantation genetic diagnosis 0 If you re very worried about having a child with cystic fibrosis 0 Have the sperm and egg joined in a dish have it grow a few cells and test the cells 0 If one cell is affected then you can remove it o If the mother is very young or the parents are very old its more likely Nature Nurture Behavioral genetics 0 Field designed to address nature nurture Twin studies 0 If the twins are the same and you study them you can assume its probably genetic Adoption studies 0 A parent creates an environment for a chil and if they end up similar its due to the environment 0 Family studies 0 I should be more similar to my son than he is similar to a grandparent Why might siblings be similar or different 0 Genes 0 Share genetic material 0 Personality has a huge genetic component 0 Siblings are not genetically identical but similar Got similar genetic Nonshared environment 0 Parents don t treat all their children the same 0 Shared environment 0 Same school system same pets same home etc Heritability of intelligence 0 Correlation between IQ of identical twins raised in the same family and raised apart Heritability of personality 0 Very heritable 0 Some born Heritability of psychological disorders 0 Schizophenia o If your identical twin is schizo there is a 48 chance you will be too o If your fraternal twin is schizo there is only 17 chance 0 If your parent is schizophrenic there is a 10 chance 0 Environmental factors mom having flu during pregnancy lack of vitamin D Identical twins reared apart 0 Correlation rates heritability of others traits o IQ 69 0 Personality 48 0 Occupational interests 40 o Religiosity 49 Gene environment interaction Depressive episodes 0 Protective genes 5HTI39LPR o Stressful life events 0 If you don t have the gene and have stressful life events you are more likely to be depressed In younger kids where the protective gene is not there and parents are trained to be good parents then they wont suffer from depression Parents who read to their children have kids who are smart but perhaps even if they didn t read to their children they could still be smart Marital conflict o It doesn t seem to matter if its an adoptive or a biological family but being in the situation will lead to disruptions in children s behavior 0 This is environmental Identical twins don t always find themselves in the same situation 0 Environment pieces that lead to different behaviors and attitudes 0 One bullied and the other not 0 One receives more negative discipline Epigenesis 0 Gene expression over the lifespan 0 Each cell has the potential to be any kind of cell but you turn off the other parts of the gene that you don t know 0 Early experiences can effect the expression of the gene through the process of epigenesis Rat pups 0 Mother than grooms and licks them regurally help the pups develop and progress 0 Early experiences can have a long lasting impact Rat pups o Mothers lick and groom the rats at varying amounts Rats that were groomed a lot are much calmer and collected Increased methylation of the glucocorticoid receptors if they weren t groomed well turns of the receptor for clucocoritcoid which is a normal process which helps in communication within the body a Methylation is part of the epigenetic process a Gluccocorticoid is related to the glucose adrenal cortex steroid receptors In Humans who committed suicide had increased methylation at the hippocampal gluccorticoid receptor 0 Change in the genetic expression based on the experience of being abuse Theres a physical change to this environmental input and we find something similar in people u If children are in a bad situation ie abuse it has an epigenetic effect and changes the way they respond to the hormonal responding system Multigene inheritance Most everything is really a combination of genes intelligence alcoholism 0 Not one specific alcoholism gene Could be a genetic trait but also children observe how their family consumes alcohol Different personalities are more likely to be alcohlics a Quick tempors adventure seeking and anxious Prenatal Perinatal and Postnatal Development2415 918 PM ConceptionInfertility Infertility trying to get pregnant for a year and not being able to 0 Options AI artificial insemination n Injecting the uterus w either the husbands or someone else s sperm In Vitro Fertilization n Sperm and egg are put together in a Petri dish then it s put in the mother s womb a 1200 for one trial very expensive not always successful Surrogacy In Another lady carries a couple s biological baby Adoption a Child has no biological or physical relation to the parent but they raise that child as their own 0 Conception o Germinal period Blastocyst when the sperm and the egg first join they create this ball of a bunch of cells n 6 days after the sperm and egg came together it begins to attach to the uterine wall 0 Embryonic period 38 weeks Organogenesis organ development Women may not know she s pregnant 0 Fetal period After 8 weeks Fetal weight gain and growth Critical for brain development a Proliferation making the cells a Migration go to the right spot a Differentiation they turn into the kind of cells they need to be u Myelination fatty sheath forms that helps neurons go from one cell to the next 0 Age of viability is 2225 weeks 0 Fetal programming 0 Epigenetic influences Things happening in the prenatal environment that turn on and off genes that affect the development of the fetus Teratogens things that negatively impact fetus 0 Critical period specific period in which effects will be worse For the most part its in the beginning of pregnancy FEA fetal alcohol effect caused by small consumption of alcohol 0 Dosage and duration 0 Fetus genetic makeup Determines their susceptibility to impacts 0 Environment Physical environment or things she consumes or conditions she has 0 Drugs Thalidomide a Used in Europe to combat morning sickness not approved for use in United States a Limb deformities a Used a little in the US now for nausea related to cancer treatment Tobacco n Fetus could be effected miscarrige premature a After birth impairments in learning and lung issues a If mother smokes before it wont reay cause effects on the baby Cocaine Fetal Alcohol Syndrome n Cognitive development but also facial features executive function superego making wise choices 0 Eyes wider apart area between nose and mouth flatter nose o Infections Rubella German measles El El Caused mental and physical problems All kids are vaccidnated Flu n Foot detachment issues schizophrenia Schiz is more common in pregnancies in the winter Syphilis HIVAIDS El 0 Conditions Motherchild transmission has dramatically decreased by retroviral drugs during pregnancy Can be transmitted in breast milk particularly after 6 months Diabetes El Sugar runs out of control and circulates throughout the system and can expose the fetus to the same condition Gestational diabetes El El El Women who were not diabetic before pregnancy develop it goes away after pregnancy Blood sugar can be controlled during pregnancy Babies expected to be very large Hypertension El High blood pressure Depression El Being depressed affects how you take care of yourself when pregnant Up to 14 of pregnant women in the US take antidepressants 0 Possible risks to the infant o Paxil can cause birth defects 0 Autism o Adhd 0 Lower language competence o Preterm birth 0 Lower apgar Apgar is the first test you re given when your born to check your condition 0 Disrupted sleep Withdrawal period for the baby after birth from the meds 0 Environmental hazards Radiation n Xray Pollutants a 911 babies had more birth defects if the mom was around the WTC a Particular risk during the development in the brain a Homes built before the 705 they used a lot of lead paint on window frames and outside paint 0 Lead dust comes into the air and the baby ingests the lead 0 Preparing to Parent Making an appointment to see a doctor nurse or midwife a First prenatal visit is in the 810 week range Eat healthy and exercise Take prenatal vitamins n Folic acid 0 Spinabifida n Calcium Stop drinking smoking and taking drugs Share the news a Needs to be a social support system Parent s schooling Parents who were abused or domestic violence have a likelihood that could happen again so they should seek counseling before the baby comes Breastfeeding Establishing paternity Cosleeping a Safe sleeping is baby sleep up a Baby shouldn t share the same bed but near the bed a Shouldn t be in their own room Taking care of teeth a Prematurity is linked to oral infections WIC Women Infants and Children a Food supplemental program for women who can t afford food Prematurity Carseat safety Siblings What to do about crying babies Perinatal development 0 The route through the birth canal 0 Stage 1 Fetus moves down the birth canal a Face down head down a As it moves down it turns slightly to the side to help fit the shoulders through 0 Stage 2 Baby appears Cervix expands from 1cm to 10cm 0 Stage 3 Placenta is expelled n Separates from uterus o On average 1St babies are the hardest Risks o Anoxia Not having enough oxygen Chord can be wrapped around the neck or a knot in the chord o Breech Feet or butt first Possible to have vaginal delivery but common for them to be delivered through csections o Cord issues Knots wrapped around neck 0 Medical assistnce o Forcepst Giant salad tongs o Vaccum extractor Sucks baby out by its head 0 Cesarean section 32 of women get it fear that once shes gotten one the csection will rupture n that s why its as high as 32 0 Medication Oxytocin n Brings contractions squeezes baby out a Body is already producing it Epidurals n Anesthetic put into the spinal chord than numbs the woman from the point of injection down I Use the minimal amount to make sure the baby is influenced or drugged Analgesics and anesthetics Birth as a sociocultural experience 0 Variations Different parts of the world offer different experiences a Pain meds natural birth v csection who s in the room 0 Postpartum depression 0 Babyblues Mom crying for a couple days off and on 0 Clinical depression Puts mom and baby at risk Single mother who is depressed could lead to poor care for the infant 0 Can move toward psychosis 0 Can last for month or be short lived 0 From the father s perspective 0 SidS Sudden infant death syndrome a Born healthy then suddenly die in sleep a Putting babies face down to sleep is a big danger for suffocation a Current recommendation is putting babies face up a No soft objects in the crib due to smothering a Recommendation is for the baby to sleep in your room not in your bed on a firm mattress o Varies tremendously from culture to culture on how much fathers are involved in delivery and rearing of children Breastfed vs bottle fed 0 O 0 Nutrition in breast milk is better Breast fed are likely to be more intelligent Hard to know if its true bc more intelligent women are more likely to breastfeed Recommended duration for breast feeding is 5 or 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding no other food breast feeding continued for 12 months in addition to food No effect of breastfeeding on attachment style 0 Baby friendly hospital 0 O O O A hospital that encourages breastfeeding Lots of info and encouragement to do so Babies are breastfed within 1 hour Don t give babies pacifiers to suck on because it gets them used to sucking on that instead of a nipple Don t send formula home w mothers bc it encourages her to use it o The first test Apgar 0 Virginia Apgar was very concerned about what was going on in the delivery room more concerned w mother than baby Babies can have serious issues though 0 Test them immediately then 5 minutes later 0 Test measures Heart rate Respiratory effort Muscle tone Color Reflex irritability 0 First number might be a little bit lower 6 or 7 then 5 mins later up to 9 Preterm Low birth week 0 40 weeks for full term delivery anything less than 38 is considered preterm u not too big of a deal 0 potential effects andness deafness cerebral palsy academic achievement issues autism 0 reduce likelihood of preterm prenatal care reduce maternal smoking NICU neonatal intensive care unit Kangaroo care a Skintoskin contact between mom and baby It matters what you go home to u If it s a supportive environment it ll be ok a If there s chaos maybe not 0 International data from unicef 0 Under 5 mortality per 1000 births 0 Since 1990 the number of deaths in children under 5 has declined by nearly half 0 The worst countries for infant death are all in Africa very poor places and chaotic Ranges between 120185 deaths 0 Best countries range from 2 or 3 out of 1000 babies die All relatively industrialized all of Scandinavia is represented 0 US is 8 babies per thousand die 0 Skilled birth attendent decreases likelihood of baby and maternal death Sensation Perception and Action 2415 918 PM Sensann 0 Process by which sensory receptor neurons detect information and transmit it to the brain Perception The interpretation of the sensory input Perspectives on Perception Constructivists nurture o Piaget o Perceptions of the world are constructed through learning Although we come equipped at birth with sensory systems understanding the input comes from interacting with the environment and learning the meaning of stimuli o Retinal image at 5ft away is different from one at 50ft away Takes experience to understand that small objects relate to those that are distant 50ft and big ones are closer 5ft If a round object is moving toward us Take all the pieces coming in from our sensory input and construct them together to understand what the object is 0 Past learning experiences are needed to interpretperceive the current perceptual situation Nativist nature 0 We have innate capabilities and maturational programs that cause perceptual development The sensory capabilities infants come equipped with are refined according to an innate plan leading to perception o Perception is direct doesn t need interpretation of external stimuli based on previous experience 0 Doesn t need experience to interpret different retinal images Brain automatically understands that a small object is far away Ecological theory 0 James and Eleanor Gibson 0 o Considers the organization of the environment like Bronfenbrenner o Tobeperceived obiects Information important for perception is directly available in the environment 0 As we change location our position relative to other objects is constantly changing and altering the flow of information and the images projected to our retina o Affordances Features of the object reveal what it has to offer us and how it might be used by us particular to you What an object affords depends on each person s capabilities genetic predisposition current goals and motivations o If a round object is moving toward usball Patterns of light gives us the information about what this object affords if we don t move we ll get hit in the face 0 Perception drives action We need to perceive to know how to move but we also must move in order to perceive o All the information needed to interpretperceive the current situation is available in the current environment 0 View nature and nurture as inseparable Because age and genetic predispositions affect affordances How do we determine what babies can see 0 Habituation 0 Same stimulus is repeatedly presented until the baby becomes bored bc the object has become familiar and looks away Researchers can measure how long until an infant becomes bored and how distinct a second new stimulus must be to recapture their attention 0 Preferential looking 0 Two stimuli simultaneously shown to determine which one they prefer the one they look at longer 0 Can be measured by using a headmounted camera to track eye movement Evoked potentials o Electrodes are attached to the surface of the skull and a computer records electrical activity corresponding to various stimuli 0 Electrical activity in various parts of the brain is measure while the infant is exposed to stimuli Operant conditioning o Conditioning infants to respond a certain way to a certain stimuli reward for turning their head every time they hear a sound then they can examine the conditions in which the infant doesn t produce the behavior turning head Continued conditioned response suggests infant doesn t detect a new stimulus but when there s a lack of conditioned response it proves they can tell the difference between the two stimuli 0 Eye tracking 0 See where baby is looking by moving a light and watching their eyes Vision 0 Visual acuity o ability to perceive detail 0 visual accommodation 0 ability of the lens to change shape to bring objects at different distances into focus 0 infants see the world in color not black and white 0 form perception o recognition of the patterns that constitute an object o 23 months 0 1 month old focus on outer contour of objects ex face to find the boundaries of the object chin hair top of head o 2 months onward they re exploring the interiors of figures thoroughly facial features 0 contour 0 patterns that have a large amount of lightdark transition 0 depth perception 0 size constancy infants recognize an object is the same size despite changes in distance 0 visual cliff glass platform divided into shallow and deep side a shallow pattern directly below the glass a deep pattern is several feet below the glass if they have depth perception they will be scared to cross the deep side infant hearing 0 nonnutritive sucking 0 measure how much newborns suck on a special pacifier when exposed to a variety of sounds difference in sucking rate shows they can discriminate between native and nonnative sounds heart rate 0 measure fetal heart rate when listening to their mother s voice and it increases compared to a stranger s voice 0 hearing is more developed than vision at birth Deaf infants 0 Need intervention before age 2 if they want to use spoken language 0 Infants are tested before leaving the hospital with auditory evoked potentials 0 Also infants behavior in response to sounds turn their head when being spoken to Soothed by voice Amplification device cochlear implant o Implanted in inner ear through surgery and connected to a microphone outside the ear Works by bypassing damaged sensory receptors in the ear and directly stimulating the auditory nerve with electrical impulses o The earlier the implant the better 0 Sign language 0 The earlier they acquire it the better their command of language is going to be Other senses 0 Taste and smell rely on detection of chemical molecules so they re called chemical senses Taste 0 Sensory receptors taste buds located on tongue Produce perceptions of sweet salty bitter or sour o Facial expressions reflect enjoyment of the taste 0 Preference for sweets flavor preferences are responsive to learning 0 Smell olfaction o Sensory receptors located in nasal passages 0 Very sensitive can detect smell of mother s milk armpits and skin in general also their own amniotic fluid 0 Helps babies and parents get to know each other better 0 Somaesthetic senses 0 Body senses Touch temperature pain 0 Kinesthetic sense Where your body is in relation to other things 0 Sensitivity to touch develops in the Cephalocaudal direction head to toe Face is more sensitive Early experiences 0 Sensitive periods 0 Period of time when an individual is more affected by experience thus higher level of plasticity than at other times 0 Visually driven normal development Normal visual input causes expected visual development o Sensitive period for damage Abnormal or absent visual input leads to permanent deficits in vision 0 Sensitive period for recovery Visual system has the potential to recover from damage 0 First 3 months considered critical period 0 Congenital cataracts o Clouding of the lens that leaves infants nearly blind from birth if not corrected 0 Sleeper effects 0 Delayed outcomes of deficits CHILD Locomotion 0 Movement from one place to another 0 Gibson s ecological approach says this opens up new environments and affordances 0 Gross motor skills 0 Kicking wholebody or limb movements 0 Fine motor skills 0 Picking things up writing involve precise movements of the hands and fingers or feet and toes Motor skills develop in Cephalocaudal movement can move head before toes and Proximodistal because they can move their torso before arms and legs 0 DYNAMIC ACTION SYSTEMS 0 Motor developments take place over time through a self organizing process via use of sensory input to modify their motor behavior in adaptive ways 0 Sensory input gt motor response 0 Rhythmic stereotypies Infants move their bodies in repetitive ways especially before a new skill emerged but not after the skill a On hands and knees rocking body back and forth until they learn to crawl Crossmodal perception o Recognizing through one sense an object familiar through another Having to identify an object based on touch ADOLESCENT 0 Better attention 0 Multitasking 0 Hearing 0 Should be time of optimal acuity of all senses but technology and concerts compromise them 0 Sounds above 75 decibels leave listener with loss of hearing 0 Tinnitus Most common outcome of noise exposure Ringing sounds in ears 0 Taste 0 Less sensitive 0 Less preference for sweets more for sour o More adventurous eaters 0 Develop acquired taste for something they used to dislike o Chemosensory irritation Sense of taste is influenced by how the skin in our mouth and nose reacts n Cooling from methanol burning from spicy o Influenced by cognition Taste what you expect to taste Smell 0 Gender differences women more sensitive to a variety of odors May reflect hormonal differences Men think odor during ovulation is more pleasant that at other times of menstrual cycle Chose mates based on one who is healthy and capable of reproductionodor provides clues ADULT Sensory and perceptual capacities decline gradually with age 0 Raised sensory thresholds O Stimuli below the thresholds cannot be detected so rise of threshold means sensitivity to low level stimulation is lost 0 Perception is declined even if sensation is still good 0 Vision 0 O O Pupil is less responsive to changes in lighting conditions and to dim light Cataract Clouding of the lens Presbyopia Thickening or hardening of the lens Age related macular degeneration AMD Receptors in the retina deteriorate Loss of central and peripheral vision Glaucoma Increased fluid pressure in the eyeball 0 Aging and Driving 0 00000 Older adults involved in more automobile fatalities but 1624 year olds are more prone for accidents Limited visual acuity or clarity effects driving performance Diminished peripheral vision Can t simultaneously process multiple pieces of information Slower response times Solutions Driving less driving at safe times day time no traffic etc Mandatory license retest Refresh knowledge with a driving class 0 Hearing 0 0 Hearing impairments are three times more prevalent than visual impairment Presbycusis Problems of the aging ear Most noticeable is loss of sensitivity to highfrequency pitched sounds Lower frequency sounds also become more difficult to hear after age 50 How do you speak to old people Low pitch louder than expected Face them directly from 36ft away allows for lip reading Many adults don t like to admit they have lost their hearing and don t want to wear hearing aids because it stigmatizes them as old or they say it doesn t work Can suffer from depression decreased independence and strained relationships as a result Quality of life improves for those who use hearing aids Can t restore normal hearing a Distort sounds and magnify background noise Can take awhile to get used to the cochlear implant and to interpret the messages Environment can also help people with hearing loss Furniture set up for face to face interaction Lights turned on to permit visual and nonverbal cues Avoid shouting n Distorts speech and raises the pitch and makes it hard to read lips Getting along in an aging body Harder if theres visual impairments than hearing impairments even harder if there s both 2415 918 PM Ageappropriate Toys 0 This year s hot toy 30inch Elsa doll from frozen that lights up and sings O o Besttoys o Developmentally appropriate 0 Flexible Can do a lot of things with the toys 0 Related to concrete experiences 0 Reenact the past prepare for the future Do we prepare them to mother 0 Why do we give toys 0 Learn to share social skills 0 As a reward o Encourages creativity Alien assignment 0 Strategies 0 Habituation Preferential looking Evoked potentials Operant conditioning Eye tracking 0 Visual cliff Early child care 0 Child care center 0 Location where multiple kids are taken care of 0 Each state has laws amount of kids someone can take care of facility etc 0 Family child care 0 Someone taking care of a kid within their home or the child s home multiple kids 0 Head start early head start 0 Early head start before 3 head start before school age 0 Care for kids with disabilities or impoverished 0 Federal regulations Exempt programs OOOO 0 Don t need to be covered by licensing o If a school runs a private program for small children Quality of care Good kid instructor ratio Group size not too many kids Comfortable safe environment Sanitary environment Caregiver training Constructive plan for the days Affording child care Child care assistance because its so expensive International Perspective Japan 30 kids in tiny room Scandinavian countries standards are particularly high Developing worlds no standards at all Cognition Piaget Constructivist approach child is constructing a sense of the world by intereacting with it Schemes schema 0 Internal representation that the child builds o Rattle schema is this thing makes a noise when I move it Organization 0 Organizes schemes together to get a concept of the world Things that do and don t make noise Adaptation 0 Existing schema change when child realizes not all four legged animals are called dog Assimilation 0 Call everything that s round moon once they learn the word Accommodation 0 Doesn t make sense anymore so they change the mental representation of moon and plate one is round thing in the sky and another is something u eat on Equilibrium 0 State of cognitivemental balance 0 Existing schemas capable of explaining whats around them What s wrong with Piaget Long ago so he missed things bc now we have technology to help Underestimated young minds 0 Discrepancy between the understanding and the performance They can understand a lot more than they can show us Big emphasis on stages C Says organism is entirely different between stages What actually is the process What is the role for social influences 0 He says its interaction between child and material but leaves out room for social influences Vygotsky s Sociocultural perspective All learning is Sociocultural learnt in social interactions Zone of proximal development 0 What I can do with a little help that I can t do by myself Guided participation 0 Small suggestion Scaffolding 0 Putting a structure there so they can do the work Tools of thought 0 Trying to create them so they can use tools to solve problems on their own Private speech 0 A tool to help them solve problems Fischer s dynamic skill framework Dynamicchanges in response to context Behavior in its context behavior emerges from interaction between the person and context Piaget believes cognitive structures develop whereas Fischer believes skill levels change and develop Skil persons ability to perform on a particular task in a specific context 0 Skill is in context Ex writing I Write to take notes to send an email for an essay I Haven t just learned to write but the skill of writing emerges in all the different contexts that require the skill Don t exist in isolation from the task and the context Tiers like Piaget s stages 0 Reflexive Just stimulus and immediate response first month or so 0 Sensorimotor Sensory input and motor response Actions on observable objects 0 Representations Use a toy telephone as a phone or also a block until finally you don t need anything there at all and can just think about it Symbolic operations on concrete objects 0 abstraction Operations integrate earlier representations into abstractions that involve mental juggling of concepts 0 Moves from one tier to the next with zone of proximal development 0 Developmental range 0 People s abilities vary with context 0 Pulls together vygatsky and piaget more contemporary but uses new concepts to account for variability observed in actual performance Sensorimotor period 0 Reflexes birth1 month 0 stimulus from outside and involuntary response 0 exercise and refinement of inborn reflexes 0 Primary circular reactions 14 months 0 Repetition circular of interesting acts motor centered on the child s body sensory Sensory input motor response Within self Thumbsucking Identifies the sensory input of sucking felt good then keeps trying the motor response Secondary circular reactions 48 months 0 Repetition circular of interesting acts sensory on objects secondary 0 Outside of the self 0 Rattle shakes rattle hears noise sensory shakes again motor does it again and again circular Coordinated secondary schemas 812 months 0 First evidence of intentionality 0 Combination of actions to solve problems or achieve goals Tertiary circular reactions 1218 months 0 Experimentation to find new ways to solve problems or produce interesting outcomes 0 Toy mallet and try pounding on a bunch of different things experiment 0 Sensory input is the response adults give them Beginning of thought 1824 months 0 Mental problem solving 0 Use symbols to stand for objects and actions 0 Being able to plan it rather than execute it as sensory input motor response visualize how a stick could be used 0000 Object permanence Infants lack object permanence Understanding that objects continue to exist permanent when they are no longer visible or detected by the senses A not B error 0 Tendency for 812 months to search for an object where they last found it A rather than in its new hiding space B 0 Item was associated with its place even when they see it being put elsewhere she associates it with location Invisible displacement 0 Infant will search where the object was last seen o Sees penny in hand hand goes under pillow penny no longer in hand but looks in hand anyway not under the pillow Symbolic thinking 0 Language 0 12 months 2 years 0 imaginary friends 0 associated with advanced cognitive and social development and higher level of creativity and imagery pretend play 0 big piece 0 25 all day pretending to play lunch house explorer olden days 0 perceptual salience 0 focus on the most obvious features of an object or situation can be fooled by appearances Limitations in thinking preoperational thinkiners 0 Lack of reversibility 0 Cannot reverse an action in their mind 0 Conservation of liquid Doesn t play back the person pouring the liquid into a new cup so thinks they re different 0 Centration o Centering on one aspect of the problem Cup A has more because its taller 0 Static thought 0 Fail to understand transformations or processes of change from one state to another 0 Perceptual salience 0 focus on the most obvious features of an object or situation can be fooled by appearances 0 understanding based on how things look rather than logical reasoning Egocentrism 0 Can t see things from other perspectives and assume what is in their mind is also what others are thinking 0 Three mountains Child is asked what the mountains look like on the other side and pick the drawing that represents how they see it Concrete operational stage mental operations 0 Conservation 0 Idea that certain properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered in some superficial way pouring water into another glass Conservation of liquidquanity task 0 Seriation 0 Putting things in order or based on quantifiable measures 0 Transitivity o Necessary relations among elements in a series John is taller than Sam and Sam is taller than Mark whose taller 0 Sense you can take an operate and reverse it 0 Classification 0 Based on 1 or 2 dimension 0 Number 0 Understanding of number 0 Decentration 0 Ability to focus on two or more dimensions of a problem at once Reversibility 0 Process of mentally undoing or reversing an action Adolescent thinking 0 Formal operations 0 Required to proceed w scientific reasoning 0 Scientific reasoning Hypotheticaldeductive reasoning o Reasoning from general ideas or rules to their specific implications 0 Decontextualize 0 Separate prior knowledge and beliefs from the demands of the task at hand Adult Thinking Context specific 0 Limited to the context 0 Perform better in areas they are familiar with familiar context 0 Your context has informed your experience and give your opportunities for learning 0 Postformal thinking 0 Relativistic thinkingit depends Knowledge depends on its context and the subjective perspective of the knower Problem can be viewed in multiple ways Giving excuses its happened before this is no different 0 Dialectical thinking reconciling paradoxes Detecting contradictions and inconsistencies among ideas and trying to settle them Aging and cognitive skills 0 A lot of info that is more remote not really part of your life fades but the info you re still using is present 0 Links to the everyday Memory 2415 918 PM Information processing approach 0 Information comes in through the sensory register but you have to be paying attention to it 0 Whatever you re attending to goes into the short term memory working memory 0 Those memories need to consolidate before they go into the long term memory 0 Memories can be fragile and you ll lose it but after a good nights sleep the info can be consolidated better Working memory or short term memory 0 Central executive supervises what goes into the memory 0 Also drawing things out of memory to help decide if it should go into longterm memory Phonological loop auditory 0 Having to do with the sounds 0 Processing to do with the loop of sounds 0 Hence why you repeat and say things aloud Episodic buffer auditory and visual 0 Memory for episodes that include auditory and visual scene of being in the classroom is episodic 0 Help keep something in short term by picturing it Visualspatial sketchpad 0 Where is it o Visualize where things are ConsoHdann 0 Process of putting it into long term memory 0 Sleep helps consolidate ideal if you can take a nap after class 0 One of the reasons its more helpful to study over intervals because each section gets consolidated over time Retrieving information 0 Recognition memory Multiple choice tests Don t have to come up with it just be able to recognize it Lower level of memory not as demanding What gives you d javu I ve been here before seen this before 0000 0 Recall memory 0 Short answer 0 Put up your own answer and recall it o Cued recall memory 0 Giving a hint in the question that helps trigger the memory Different kinds of memory 0 Implicit memory 0 Automatic memory 0 Takes place in a different part of the brain 0 Procedural memory 0 Things you don t sit around and think about they just come to you Riding a bike can t do it step by step its just got to all happen Natural language you learn growing up very little teaching you just pick it up from what s going on around you Grammer adding es to things mouses vs mice 0 Explicit 0 Classroom memory trying to remember someone s name 0 Much more cognitive 0 Most of memory 0 Things you are conscious of learning and trying to remember 0 Semantic memory 0 The meaning the intellectual knowledge the book learning 0 Having to do with words knowledge 0 Episodic memory 0 Includes visual and auditory o A memory of something that happened what you ate who you talked to 0 Memory of the episodes that weave together to create your life events Where is memory processed Limbic system Hippocampus 0 Very important for memory 0 Especially episodic memory 0 Without one you can t make anymore memories you can still have implicit learning like new vocab but can t have episodic or semantic memory Amygdala o Emotional memories 0 Things that are happy sad scary o Strongly etched into your memory 0 Striatum 0 Good for procedural memories 0 Riding a bike or playing an instrument Infant memory 0 What evidence do we have they remember anything at all 0 Teach them something today then see if they can do it tomorrow 0 If you stick your tongue out at them or open your mouth they ll do the same Deferred imitation 0 Later on the next day or a few minutes later they re doing the same thing still sticking their tongue out o Saying they have remembered that 0 Also something they do with a fairly high frequency so its hard to tell 0 Habituation 0 Present something novel several times in a row and they stop responding to it they show us they learned it and can remember it o Operant conditioning especially cued recall 0 Ribbon tied to foot attached to a mobile shake feet leads to mobile moving you can teach that to a baby in the first few months and see if they do that later 0 Recall over a short period of time o If you cue it then the memory is much stronger Shake the mobile and they remember 0 Recall If theres no extra cueing and they just put the baby back in the crib under the mobile they ll remember 2 year olds 20 months recalling emergency room visit 0 asking kids if they remember their visit 20 month olds could recaHit 26 months 0 recall it very detailed for 2 years 0 memory processed through amygdala bc its very emotional so they remember it better Why do children do better than toddlers hardware improvements changes in basic capacities 0 brain and nervous system 0 hippocampus is maturing thus gets better at encoding short to long term and consolidation keeping it in long term 0 Myelination speeds up messages 0 Improvement in short term memory process becomes more working memory with more executive control 0 software improvements 0 changes in strategies 0 decrease in perseveration errors young children create a strategy and use them even if they don t work as they get older they try new strategies 0 more use of rehearsal stay in working memory buffer for a little bit longer so they can remember it for longer when they get older then organization organize stimuli together put things together than go together 0 then elaboration real cognitive understanding link it to things you already know u make a story out of it u make a picture of it o metamemorymetacognition o ability to think about memory 0 don t see it until school age 0 0 they realize there s things they can try like strategies 0 metacognition thinking about thinking 0 just have more knowledge 0 if you have more information you have more things you can link it to Special case expertise 0 Chess dinosaurs harry potter baseball 0 These experts know more than adults bc they re really interested in it o In that domain they can exceed average adults 0 Very hard once having expertise to go back to not knowing Special case autobiographical memory Infantile amnesia childhood amnesia 0 Not being able to remember things from childhood Earliest memories are 25 years old 0 Maybe because we switch from visual based creatures to language based and we don t have words for them 0 Early memories do seem to be verbatim very detailed complete 0 Fuzzytrace theory Memories go from verbatim to gist memories I As we get older we focus on the gist big picture and we have difficulties retrieving the verbatim memories Scripts 0 The details of how to do something 0 How to pack to go to preschool o How to eat at a fast food restaurant Richer scripts more detailed develop through experience Eyewitness memories 0 Sometimes children are witnesses to things that have possible criminal implications but its hard to believe what they say Preschoolers memories are accurate 0 If you just ask what happens they will respond accurately But they recall less o Frustrating for adults because they don t give as much detail as they desired 0 They are suggestible with leading questions 0 did he touch you therequot leading vs what happened nextquot not leading Forensic interviewing 0 Can t have the child tell the story multiple times bc it can be shaped over time 0 Want to do a really good interview once without leading questions to get all the info you need 0 State of the art interviewin o Comfortable room for child with one interviewer with a camera recording it 0 Want to ask the questions as soon as possible so there s not suggestions shaping their memories Multiple people can be interested so get 1 interviewer gets familiar with the child and asks the questions from everyone hopefully in one time through Problem solving 0 Children have available multiple strategies 0 Because of metacognition they get better at selecting the best strategy Memory Adolescents 0 Getting better at elaboration 0 Develop schoolrelevant skills 0 Underlining note taking 0 Organization 0 Putting words together that make sense 0 Do a better job w earlier strategies 0 Better organization repetition elaboration 0 Get better at ignoring irrelevant material Why 0 Much more rapid processing 0 Myelination speeds up transmission of messages 0 Proliferation o Synaptic pruning The irrelevant stuff prunes o More efficient system programmed for the individual Simultaneously process more chunks 0 Can keep more information in working memory buffer zone Greater functional use of working memory 0 Not just a stage or place but a process is happening there might draw something out from long term memory to decide if its something worth keeping Can choose a strategy that matches the task 0 Is it multiple choice Recall o For example choose elaboration over repetition based on how they ll be tested Metamemory and metacognition Much broader knowledge base 0 Know about the world and school subjects 0 That knowledge base lets them do better w linking between known to new Better problem solving skills 0 Because the memory skills help them access what they need when in the middle of solving a problem 0 Remember something you ve tried in the past and remember what you re doing as you go Who uses the best strategy Adolescent girls more likely to pick best and most relevant strategies more girls entering college Higher social class uses better strategies than lower class 0 Fam w more education and income If you live ina more orderly world less chaotic and more resources in your fam then u may be better at organizing bc you ve been in an organized world or encouraged to use the strategies 5 strategies for booklearning pg 249 Pay attention 0 Becaue info needs to come in through sensory input to go to short term memory then long term Organize and make connections 0 Helps it stick 0 Connect it to what you know Enrich and elaborate 0 Thinking about what this might imply enrich 0 Visual put it in a context Customize 0 Put it into your own perspective 0 Over learn 0 Don t just want to learn it enough to just be able to remember tm but if you overlearn and keep enforcing it you ll remember later in life 0 Teaching someone else Elaboration strategies 0 Link new to known known to new 0 If learning about moths you compare them to butterflies what you already know moths have different wings than butterflies Think of similarities and differences 0 Comparing concepts ie Piaget to Vygotsky o Create a story 0 Very rich detail in good stories so its easy to remember the info 0 Works very well for vocab and foreign language College success through a KIPP window how children succeed Kipp schools are all about college success from kindergarten on o In DC they re free charter schools 0 Focus on underserved communitites and encourage kids and families to go to college Follow kids even after college 0 Academic preparedness 0 Financial stability 0 Socioemotional wellness Noncognitive preparedness Aduks Have the ability to develop expertise o Expertise very specific topic Can be a hobby or profession o Expertise in one subject doesn t make it easier to learn another subject Autobiographical memories what do we remember best 0 Not the events of personal significance bc as you age they re not as important Distinctive or unique events Emotional events bc of amygdala Events from your teens and 20 s Events from the last 10 years Memory and Aging 0 Yes 0 Yes 0 Yes 0 But 0 Research is crosssectional We have more technology there s been more education is this a limitation o Declines are not noticeable until people get into their 70 s 0 Most noticeable in the most aged Deficits are more prominent in 90 s 0 Not all tasks are difficult Processing is slower so timed tasks are harder If there s unfamiliar content its more difficult a If they haven t worked w the content in a long time Unexercised skills you haven t used in a long time is harder But if its familiar content every day life or tasks you use at work its easier Recognition is easier for them than recall 0 Not every person experiences these difficulty 0 Checklist for mild cognitive impairment OOOO Has it gotten worse in the last 6 months Does it interfere with home or work Are friends and family concerned Mild cognitive impairment is the stage before dementia Dementia being significant memory problems that interfere o What causes these impairments Different for children 0 Knowledge base Elderly still have a knowledge base and a good one from experience 0 Metameory Thinking about memory elderly can still do it 0 Strategies We say children don t have the strategies but elderly have them and just don t necessarily use it but once they re suggested they can use them 0 Basic processing capacities Working memory a Its fine in the elderly with straight forward things but bc processing is slower and theres not as much capacity when theres a lot of things juggled in working memory it becomes harder Focusing on the relevant information a Bc of working memory capacity its hard to sort out whats relevant Slower functioning of the nervous system Activate different brain areas 0 Sensory capacities Diminish didn t hear it well you ll have a hard time remembering it 0 health and mental health depression makes memory issues worse 0 medication brain has a lot of cholesterol in it already thus cholesterol medications could impair memory Lipitor crestor OOOO lifestyle exercise keeps memory working longer educa on the more education the less decline could just be a cohort effect I having time and money could affect type of food you re eating characteristics of the learner their age motivation level characteristics of the task what is it measuring Characteristics of the broader environment culture cohort If there s a cultural negative stereotypes elderly are senile bad memory etc it ll impair their performance a Stereotype threat In china theres no negative stereotypes in fact positive ones and the elderly perform better Elderly and problem solving 0 Good with familiar tasks 0 Unfamiliar tasks Not as successful 0 Reallife problems Perform better 0 Implicit memory Still going in age ie riding a bike 2415 918 PM Intelligence psychometric approach Binet and Simon were hired to sort French children as primary school became available for all children Created a 30 item test for natural intelligencequot aptitude for learning 0 Common sense questions 0 Ex when anyone has offended you and asks you to excuse him what out you to doquot 0 Beginning of IQ testing More questions evolved over the years And now we have the StanfordBinet IQ test Different types of evidence 0 Fluid intelligence Using intelligence to solve new problems What temperature do you need to bake a cake at in denver because they re not at sea level like us 0 Crystallized intelligence Use of knowledge common sense things you ve learned like what temperature does water boil at Solid class related and common knowledge IQ 0 Mental age divided by chronological age 10 year old functioning at level of 8 year old 810 IQ80 0 need close to 100 for college 0 we now use test norms meaning we give test to hundreds of different kinds of people in different kinds of places and compare results u can t be taken in different countries 0 Individually administered IQ test StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale Wechsler Scales a Different test for different ages 0 Normal curve Mean100 Standard deviation 15 or 16 depending on the test 95 between 70 and 130 Gardner s multiple intelligences 0 000000 0 Linguistic measured on normal IQ tests Logicalmathematical measured on normal IQ tests Musical Spatial Bodily kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist Sternberg s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence 3 pieces that come together to make intelligence 0 Practical Depends on the sociocultural context a Street smarts Creative Fresh insights Analytic Critical and analytic thinking Successful Intelligence Establish and achieve reasonable goals Optimize strengths minimize weaknesses Choose a good environment and adapt Use all 3 analytic creative and practical Creativity Coming up with novel responses I That are appropriate in context a Valued by others Divergent thinking a Originality or uniqueness n Flexibility of thinking a Fluency of ideas ideational fluency 0 Ideas keep coming 10 ideas Investment theory a Confluence of 0 Intellectual skills 0 Knowledge base Enjoys toying with ideas 0 Stay focused and preserve Environment that rewards creativity 0 Environmental constraints on IQ pg 286 0 000000 0 Member of minority group Head of household unemployed or low skill level Mother did not complete high school Family has 4 or more children Father is absent Many stressful life events Rigid child rearing Mother has poor mental health 0 Home Inventory effects on IQ pg 287 O Emotional and verbal responsivity o Avoidance of restriction and punishment 0 Organization of physical and temporal environment 0 Provision of appropriate play materials 0 Parent involvement with the child 0 Opportunities for variety in daily stimulation Infancy o Bayley Scales of Infant Development Motor and mental part a Baby working with blocks can they stack them Place in cups Hold in both hands Doesn t predict IQ a Only predicts if child is far behind Habituation is skipped Childhood O 0 Stability of IQ You can predict a Decent correlations between IQ at 8 and 12 a Genetic component and external influences Probably room for 2025 point change Children in poverty have lower IQs Role of nutrition Prenatal care preterm effects intellectual development Lack of toys Test isn t set up to measure street smartsquot Parent education a Range of vocabulary used 0 Early intervention Head Start a Federally funded program 0 Childhood education for those in poverty 0 Access to doctors and dentists Work with parents employment I Impact Attitude kids think of themselves as successful 0 Education most graduate highschool but many schools aren t as good or as invested as head start 0 Civic participation most of them vote pay taxes and are employed 0 Negative life events less crime teen pregnancies Language and Education 2415 918 PM Parts of language Phoneme o Smallest unit of sound 0 Single letter is single letter of sound 0 Words are made up of phonemes o Exb th m Morphemes 0 Sounds come together to make morphemes 0 Unit of meaning 0 Ex boy boys two units of meaning 0 Semantics 0 Meaning of the wordsentence Syntax 0 Rules for combining words to make language 0 Rules are different in different languages Pragmatics 0 Uses for language 0 Do you greet people Strangers Under what conditions Prosody o Melody o Pitch 0 Put these together to think about language Additional info Endangered languages 0 Only a few speakers left 0 Language isn t being taught to the children anymore 0 Interest 0 The way we label things reflects the culture and a way of being Brain areas involved in language 0 Brocca s area processing of language Wernicke s area comprehension of language Night descended quickly like a theatre curtain and the misty rain began 0 Semantic expectancies meaning and grammar The kayak opened his oranges before fire engines melted into bread Grammatical and syntactical expectancies but didn t have any meaning Descended door the hurry wherefore now dog throw not well the hunger 0 Met neither set of expectancies no meaning no grammar Nature or nurture Kids can learn more than a word a day by the time theyre 23 they can learn almost 1000 words 35 is 10000 words 0 Language Acquisition Devise 0 We come ready in some way to make meaning out of all these sounds o Chomsky 0 Still has some favor bc we couldn t do it this fast if we didn t come ready to do it 0 Critical period 0 Easiest to learn language before 10 or 12 0 Some people suggest before puberty 0 Combination of both nature and nurture 0 Some environments are richer in language Growing up with sign language 0 Babeng 0 In sign language and also sounds 0 Playing with gestures just like hearing babies play with words 0 First words 0 May come younger Word combinations 0 Just like the hearing child is putting words together the deaf child is sequentially putting signs together 0 Understanding precedes production 0 Easier to understand what someone is saying than to come up with something to respond First sounds Cooing 68 weeks 0 ooooh aaah when they are content and in response to being spoken to in a happy voice 0 Babbling 34 months o produce consonant sounds dada baba 0 primary circular reaction repeating an interesting noise for the pleasure of making it 0 infants understand many words before they can produce them How do we talk to language learning children 0 Corrections 0 Unlikely the adult will correct goed to wentquot but will say went when they respond The use of goed shows that they have extracted the rules of grammar by adding ed to past tense and s to plurals 0 Correct around the content say its red not blue 0 Minor piece of children learning language 0 Pitch 0 Higher pitch 0 Small babies are attracted to high pitch 0 A way for the child to know the language is addressed to them 0 Mean length of utterance 0 Count the number of morphenes in what the child says big dog has 2 dogs has 2 units 0 We tend to stretch them a little bit If child is at one word stage and says dog we might say big dogquot 0 Expansion 0 Expansion in terms of adding words like above but also expansion of meaning 0 Unique pronunciations 0 Those modifications make it an easier model to hear and reproduce doggy 0 Sounds at back of the mouth are hard to make 0 Joint attention 0 social cue 0 two people looking at the same thing helps baby know what the parent is referring to Infancy the first year Cooing 0 Sounds like oooh ahhhh in response to being spoken to in a happy tone and a sign of being content 0 Babeng 0 Produce consonants dada baba 0 Primary circular reactions repeating of interesting sounds for the pleasure of meaking them 0 First words holophrase o The single word represents more than just that ball can mean please pass the ballquot How do they do it o Vocabulary spurt 18 months 0 Child has mastered 3050 words 0 Fast mapping 0 Can have as little as one exposure and they pick up on it 0 Children determine the object or referent of a word then remember it for future encounters with the word 0 Overextension 0 Calling everything round a moon 0 Underextension 0 Only calling the moon in their picture book moon but not the one in the sky Combining words telegraphic speech 0 Around 50 words you start putting them together 0 Putting together constructions you may not have heard before 0 Mean length of utterance 0 Build step by step to longer utterances more morphemes 0 Functional grammar at first 0 Just a few grammar uses possessive emphasizes semantic relationships among words 0 Gradually extracting the rules of grammar o Saying goed instead of went 0 Overregularization Overlapping rules to cases in which the proper form is irregular Early Education 0 Baby Einstein baby Mozart brainy baby baby wordsmith 0 None really work 0 They need to hear language from people 0 American pediatrics recommends children don t get screen time before 2 may be detrimental bc it takes away time from daily experiences with play material and people 0 North Carolina and Milwaukee 0 You can provide children from poverished environments with enriched experiences and have positive impacts October 28th exam 0 Ch 6 sensation perception and action 0 Ch 7 cognition 8 memory and info processing 0 9 intelligence and creativity 0 10 language and education Monday office hours 912 2125 G st room 208 205 Children s language 0 Begin first grade with 1000 word vocabulary 0 Add 5 to 13 words a day Metalinguistic awareness can think about language 0 Understand semantics Know that words have meaning 0 Understand syntax 0 Understand pragmatics How and when we use words When do you say thank you Achievement motivation Fixed mindset 0 Sense that you have inborn talents and skills that are fixed some of us are not talented while some of us are very talented in a specific area and we need to find out what our talents are 0 See no need to put forth great effort in a task because it has little difference in the results 0 Growth mindset o I have talents now but that doesn t limit me These talents are just at a particular point in time o IfI put effort into it there s room for me to grow 0 Talents aren t fixed but are malleable talents can be fostered through hard work and effort 0 Can be fostered by praising students effort not the end product 0 Tend to do better in school Mastery goals 0 Striving for mastery or competence 0 Learn new things to improve their abilities common in elementary school Curious about topic and eager to learn Focused on the learning process Associated with growth mindset Don t become as disheartened by a low grade if they have progressed in their level of understanding 0000 Performance goals Ho 0 Want to prove the talent you have and seek to be judged as smart 0 Generally develop fixed mindset and performance goals in late elementary school and as they age School is organized around performance goals Focused on the grade Associated with fixed mindset More likely to report anxiety and boredom do parents foster growth mindset and mastery motivation Don t criticize failure Exposure to multiple experiences sports art and music Not high expectations don t live vicariously through them No comparisons Stimulating home environment reading material intellectual conversation visiting museums lectures cultural events 0 Praise effort for getting a good grade not praising their intelligence oooooEoooo O O Stressing and reinforcing the process of learning rather than emphasizing the product grade Parents getting involved with their child s education Influence of schools 0 O 0 Performance goal Performance would be compared to other children and evaluated by an expert Mastery goal Although they make mistakes working on the tasks would sharpen the mind and help them at school In an experiment children were told they had High abilities or low abilities All were told they were doing more difficult tasks Who did worse a Kids who were told they had low performance and were given performance goals did worse a Kids with low ability in mastery conditions were told it would be hard but they d learn a lot Good kinds of praise O O O 0 Descriptive what do I see with my eyes in the effort Not evaluative Don t compare Not say you re the next Picasso because that s high expectations You did that so quickly you re so smartquot is a fixed mindset because saying they have intelligence also makes them think they can t do things slowly Paying students O 0000 Lots of money for good grades Not as much money for good grades Paid kids for attendance and good behavior Paid for reading 2 for the book and taking a quiz on it Could potentially take away the intrinsic motivation to studyread Learning to read Process o Alphabetic principle Letters in printed words represent the sounds in spoken words There are symbols that go with sounds o Phonological awareness need to be aware of the phonemes Sensitivity to the sound system of language that enables them to segment spoken words into sounds or phonemes Can decode words never seen before by applying their knowledge of phonetics Phonemes are unit of sounds ph or b 0 Consolidated alphabetic phrases Able to group letters that regularly occur together into a unit Ing ed unis a unit 0 Emergent literacy The developmental precursors of reading skills Knowledge skills and attitudes that facilitate the acquisition of reading 0 Why isn t this easy 0 No evolution for reading only 100 years that it was 0 Dyslexia Difficulties with reading descriptive term Some difficulty with auditory or visual processing a Can you clearly hear the difference in pu and bu a Can you see clearly the differences in b and d o How best to teach reading 0 Phonics Correlating sounds with letters or groups of letters Analyze words into their component sounds letter sound correspondence rules Once they master phonics they can attend to meaning and context 0 For many kids it doesn t matter but for some about 13 learning is hard 0 Learning to read in Japanese Know the symbol know the word Effective teachers classrooms and schools Emphasize academics o Create a task oriented but comfortable environment 0 Manage discipline effectively 0 With this kind of classroom kids can make 15 years progress in 1 year 0 Opposite environment is half a years progress in 1 year Adolescents declining achievement 0 Boys show greater declines in motivation than girls do 0 Motivation becomes more extrinsic o The way we set things up for adolescents isn t really working 0 Where is decline biggest o Minority group 0 Uneducated mother or mentally ill 0 Single parent 0 What undermines achievement motivation 0 Individual level Damaged selfesteem and selfefficacy regarding school but mastery goals give students better grades 0 Peers saying its not good to be smart or work hard Don t want to appear to smart want to be normal Black students don t want to act whitequot and lose cultural identity 0 Switch into middle school from elementary school Changes in puberty and emotions PLUS change in school and peers 0 Fit between student and the environment Has to be a good fit for the student developmentally small classes one on one attention all girls coed etc Mindset The new psychology of success Carol S Dweck Kids all born w love of learning but fixed mindset can change that o If its hard and you think im not good at this its fixed 0 Should put yourself in growth mindset and take the challenge and keep on going Adolescents is one big test am I smart or am I dumb Good looking or ugly Winner or loser o Fixed mindset just has to figure it out once then you re that forever 0 Did research including interventions o Notion of teaching children the growth mindset Learning math 0 What did Barbie say 0 math is hardquot 0 creating and reinforcing a stereotype o moms got upset and she doesn t say it anymore 0 how do American kids perform compared to other kids 0 We re pretty average certainly not outstanding 0 Asian kids do better on math What do they do in Asia I Spend more time in school shorter summer a More time on task in school 0 As opposed to in US moving from room to room taking role talking disciplining n Teachers have more prep time to prepare the class so very careful lesson I More homework I More parent commitment n More communication between parent and teacher a More belief in hard work and growth mindset a Following up on correct and incorrect answers 0 More likely to listen to an incorrect answer and offer an explanation and talk it through because its likely other students also misunderstood it What about teen who work and school 0 20 or more hours is associated with poor performance 0 8 or so hours is ok 0 more stress and anxiety psychological problems 0 more drugs alcohol and delinquency in students who work a lot 0 more independence from parents decline in academic performance attendance homework and interest in school Adukhood Vocabulary continues to grow into 705 and 805 0 Greater knowledge of semantics and pragmatics o Elderly have tip of the tongue experiences Not that they no longer know the word but that they can t retrieve it from their memory 0 No support that older adults are unmotivated o Achievement motivation affected by change in work and family context rather than ageing 22 have very low literacy but largely do not admit it 0 can sign name read basic instructions probably couldn t fill out an application 0 25 are just functional toward the edge of being able to read a newspaper continuing education 0 many traditional students 1724 are motivated by external factors whereas nontraditional students 25 are motivated intrinsically 2415 918 PM Potential Exam questions 0 List reason why older people lose their memory 0 Sensory deterioration can t encode as well less use of strategies slower processing synaptic pruning loss of skills they don t use everyday 0 Gibson ecological theory with hints 0 Role of environment perception drives action we perceive based on affordances what the object has to offer us 0 How is creativity measured 0 Divergent or convergent thinking 0 Originality flexibility and fluency of ideas 0 Define and give an example of semantic 0 Facts when the constitution was ratified Difference between fluid and crystallized intelligence 0 Fluid problem solving crystallized school learnt book smarts Different parts of language system 0 Phoneme smallest unit of sound single letter b th m o Morpheme units of meaning boy ed 5 re 0 Semantics meanings of words sentences 0 Syntax rules for combining words to create sentences and language 0 Pragmaticsuse for language 0 Prosodymelodypitch Role of hippocampus and amygdala o Amygdala for emotional memories hippocampus for episodic memories 0 Successful intelligence 0 Optimize strength minimize weaknesses 0 Good environment and adapt 0 Establish and achieve reasonable goals 0 Use sternberg s 3 intelligneces practical creative analytic 0 Strategies for memorizing 0 Pay attention overlearn customize elaboration rehersal Vygotskey o Emphasis on social influence Why are adolescents better at remember and learning than children And eldery 0 Speed of processing mylenation increased knowledge base use of strategies Good choice of toys in piaget or Vygotsky context 0 Piaget for child in sensory motor stage something that will give a pleasant sensory experience 0 ngotsky a puzzle to work in zone of proximal development with parent providing guided participationscaffolding Another person bc role of social influence Average IQ o 100 SD1516 Stages of language learning during infancy brain Flynn effect 0 generations getting smarter 0 better and more education now How does it go from sensory perception into long term memory 0 Sensory info goes into sensory register pay attention to it and encode it into working memory consolidation into long term and retrieval from long term to get it back Ways to test how much a baby can see 0 Habituation o Evoked potentials o Operant conditioning o Preferential looking 0 Eye tracking What undermines achievement in adolescents Poverty 0 Unsupportive home environment 0 Transition from elementary to middle school 0 Role of peers O 2415 918 PM Psychoanalytic Theory 0 Personality is more or less formed in the first 5 years Frued o How you manage the anal and oral stage are very formative 0 Personality emerges socially and developmentally Erikson Big Five Personality Dimensions trait theory Openness to experience 0 Curiosity variety 0 Conscientiousness o Disciplined organized Extraversion o Sociability outgoingness Agreeableness o Compliant cooperative Neuroticism o Emotional instability Alternative Social learning theory 0 Behavior is influenced by the situations we are innot necessarily continuity 0 Act differently in family settings classroom social etc Emergence of self in infancy Selfrecognition Categorical self 0 Put yourself in categories 0 Different llist of temperant for infancy 0 Activity level Distractibility Intensity Regularity Sensory threshold Approachwithdrawal Adaptability Persistence o Mood Behavioral inhibition 0 Shy restrained avoids novelty o Might be associated with blue eyes Scandanavian OOOOOOO 0 Nature or nurture o Goodness of fit Good environment Good relationship w parents gradnpaerntS The Childareas of esteem Scholastic Social Behavioral conduct 0 Athletic 0 Physical appearance Adolescence the growing self 0 Physical gt psychological 0 Who are you Child describes physical characteristics where adolescent does psychological 0 Concrete gt abstract 0 Diffuse gt differentiated 0 Lots of different senses of self to how do I stick out from others Inconsistent gt coherent Forming an identity p 345 0 Identity achievement 0 Identity diffusion o A little this a little that a little today tomorrow etc trying different identities Foreclosure 0 Without thinking about it too much this is what I m going to do 0 12 or 14 Moratorium o This isn t an issue I m concerned with 0 Same thing happens for ethnic religious and vocational identity 0 Premature closure foreclosure taking on what their parents do Who gets to chose 0 College 0 Major 0 Activities 0 Living situation 0 Career choice 0 In a lot of other cultures you don t get to chose your parents do Task of adulthood Erikson 0 Identity role confusion Intimacyisolation Generativity stagnation o Generativity being productive asa worker vs not moving forward at all 0 Integrity despair Is personality stable 0 Research overall says yes but there s room in each individual life Experimenter effects 0 Professor writes the final could make it really easy confirmatory bias Gender and Sexuality 2415 918 PM Biological sex 0 Hardware body parts 0 girls grow up to be momsquot Gender 0 Socially constructed Gender roles 0 Social expectations of gender 0 moms stay home while dads workquot Gender stereotypes Constructions we make that arrange differences sometimes a little more extreme Comunality Connectedness Women are more connected more willing to engage in connection 0 Women as kinkeepers Stereotypes Individual action and achievement 0 Men are more associated with this 0 Stereotypes Gender similarities hypotheses Verbal abilities o Is there a difference in verbal abilities 0 Difference isn t huge largest in terms of reading women are better 0 Spatial abilities 0 Men have higher spatial abilities but the change difference isn t huge Especially rotating figures 0 Math skills 0 Girls grades in math in highschool are better 0 Boys grades in SATs are better 0 Difference between performance and aptitude measure 0 Memory 0 Women have a better memory 0 Physical and verbal aggression 0 Men are more aggressive starts at 17 months Physically active 0 Males more physically active Developmentally vulnerable o Males more vulnerable Tactful and cooperative o More females Nurturing and empathetic o More females 0 Anxiety depression phobias 0 Females Antisocial behavior drugs alcohol 0 More male 0 Use computers more 0 More male but gap is closing Social Role theory 0 Gender role stereotype is part of the reason why 0 See those roles want to fit into those roles so you assume them and takes you toward occupational segregation Occupational segregation 0 Pay difference same occupation different pay 0 Specific professions 0 Teaching nursing secretary is more female 0 Females can work in business Glass ceiling can only be promoted to a certain point Infants and Toddlers Differential expectations 0 What girls are going to be like 0 Differential treatment 0 More energetic with boys 0 Differential behavior 0 Boys are more active some suggestion girls talk sooner Categorization of behavior 0 Behavior as male or female 0 Permanent gender identity 0 Doesn t come right away 0 Doesn t come until about age 25 or age 3 Early Sexuality Freud C Says there s a sexuality even in babies 0 Body can bring pleasure even babies make contact with their genitals and repeat it again to gain pleasure 0 Sex education 0 Important to think about what messages you re giving children about bodies 0 Easy to give negative attitudes to babies about diapers All those parts of the body are more or less in the same spot The Child 0 Barbie GI Joe 0 Sex roles 0 Kids know who s supposed to play with each toy Flexibility emerges after 7 years 0 Roles are rigid until 7 then they re freed up a little 0 Flexibility in the toys they play with and the way they dress 0 Boys more constraint after age 7 Gender Socialization Certain things girls and boys do 0 Kitchen and housekeeping area in preschool is for girls and trucks and blocks for boys Gender segregation Caused by gender socialization Biosocial theory p376 Biological foundation with the social response to it Males who are not sensitive to testosterone o Testosterone their body makes it not masculanizing them in body or in brain and end up with a persona that looks less manly Androgynized females 0 For one reason or another mother has taken hormones during pregnancy and produces androgen hormones then they grow up in androgynous environments Likely to grow up as tomboys Social learning theory 0 Differential reinforcement 0 oh you look so cute todayquot vs you are so strongquot 0 observational learning 0 they see different things observe fathers having wider range of roles role of fathers n becoming more involved role of books TV a changed in last 25 years still a lot of active characters as male and passive characters as females a media is providing a different role for observational learning Cognitive theories 0 Mental reconstructions and child works through it mentally Developmentally 0 Gender identity I m a boy or a girl 0 Gender stability I will always be a boy 0 Gender constancy I will be a boy no matter what 0 Gender schema theory schema mental construction 0 Organized set of beliefs and expectations schema Get to be very persuasive Develop schema from interaction w world about what is male and what is female 0 Schema processing theory pg 382 When you take in new information you take it into the existing schema in terms of what you ve observed before Schemas unlikely to change ignore things that aren t consistent with the schema Act as framework for understanding the world Childhood sexuality Freud was wrong about latency 0 He said people forget they have genitals at all not true May be a decrease in the visibility of what children are doing may do it in private now 0 Before 12 23 of boys and 12 of girls have masturbated before age 13 o By 10 they develop sexual attractions 0 Beginning of interest in either the same sex or different sex 0 Possible androgens male sex horomones that are in bodies around that age Not puberty that determines it feelings come along before physical body chaning Children construct their own hypotheses Children explore their own bodies and others 0 Sexual attractions being around 10 0 Sex education Childhood sexual abuse 0 Incidence is hard to determine 0 Often don t tell 0 Only 14 tell immediately 14 tell a little later 0 A lot dn t tell at all or not until adults 0 Usually a power relationship 0 Parent family friend minister teacher head of club 0 Makes children reluctant to go against them 0 A variety of resultant problems 0 Anxiety 0 Depression 0 Posttraumatic stress disordered o Sexualized behavior Or precautious interest in sex 0 Can go on and victimized others Particularly males who have been sexually abused 0 Work with survivors perpetrators and all children 0 Have adults in the child s life to make sure they have someone to talk to 0 Different kind of programs for children Good Touch Bad Touchquot Adolescence 0 Gender roles o What are boys and girls supposed to od 0 Kindergarten is very ridgid All little girls are in dresses 0 3RD and 5th graders more tolerant o Adolescence more strict Becoming aware of how they should be acting Peers enforcing it I Also pressure of what you think your peers think 0 Gender intensification 0 Kindergarten and adolescence Comparing moms to teens on when they have sex 0 At age 15 o Mom s think 15 has had sex 0 Most teens think 35 0 At age 17 o Mom s think 55 0 Teens think 75 Percent of American teens having sex 0 1988 o 52 female and 60 male Teen birth rate is falling Peaked in early 19905 0 Has been cut in half 0 Why 0 Fear of HIVAIDS 0 Information is easily available 0 Adults too are postponing pregnancy General sense that people in America will wait 0 Medical recommendation about IUDs Intrauterine devices form of contraceptive birth control for teens used to think it wouldn t respond to work for teenagers Now is best choice for girls wanting birth control 0 Sex education Not vastly more but a little more Impact of sex education programs not abstinence Delays first sex 0 Good because younger the more risky Increases use of birth control Lowers pregnancy 0 Lowers STI Sexual orientation influences 0 Use to stay it was all the parents fault in the way they responded and raised their child 0 NOW Not a bad thing Isn t parents gault Not parents fault o Hetero and homosexual parents are no more or less likely to raise a homo or hetero child 0 Some concordance from twin studies 0 Not 100 Probably some of it is genetic 0 Some of it is prenatal 0 Female fetuses growing up in a womb with more androgens Androgenized females a Not 100 roof 0 Gender nonconformity o Dressing as the opposite sex 0 More likelihood to have homosexuality Emerges fairly early for children know it before they can express it Sexual Orientation over a lifestpan If its on a spectrum 0 Its not as stable 0 If they re 100 homo or hetero its stable 0 Less stable for bisexual Sexual morality 0 Sex in the context of a committed relationship 0 Hookup culture 0 Can be casual sex 0 Double standard 0 Not as much as it was 0 Religious and cultural meaning Condom Use 0 40 report using condoms For males declines across adolescence 0 Maybe because there s a committed partnership 0 STI page 391 0 Not as effective as preventing pregnancy as an IUD Kids are driven by what they think other kids are doing Adukhood Androgyny o Realistic and it benefits from agency for male can accomplish something and commonality I am connected out to a broader community 0 Having male and female characteristics are good 0 Agency and community 0 Does raising children traditionalize the roles Sexuality 0 Sex and happiness covary Desire and practice continue into old age 0 Why the decline General infirmity too fragile think it looks ridiculous old people shouldn t do that no bicycle no one to have sex with Sex education for very young children 0 Body parts Mr Rogers 0 Knowing the actual names 0 Where do babies come from 0 Protective behaviors 0 Good touchbad touch 0 Tell an adult Sex education for early adolescence Puberty Contraception STI Flexibility of sexuality 0 How does sex work 0 Condom use 0 Consent 0 Sex is for grown ups 0 Resources 0 For lgbt o For pregnancy contraception Community approach to sexual abuse 0 Understanding sexual abuse 0 Understanding grooming 0 Educate people so they don t think oh I should have seen that comingquot rather they saw it coming and could stop it Cognition and Moral Development 2415 918 PM Social cognition theory of mind 0 False belief task 0 Information that one person has is different from the information someone else has 0 A watches B put apple in lunch box C then puts it in purse A thinks B will look in lunch bag 0 Typically developing 4year olds 85 0 Children with down s syndrome Match them for cognitive level and they perform about the same 0 Children with autism Match them on developmental level they do very poorly Autism has a limitation in understanding the mind and perspective of others Moving towards a theory of mind 0 Theory of mind I can understand that you have a different perspective Joint attention 0 Adult and child looking at the same object and understand the adult is talking about it Pretend play 0 Second year 0 Taking roles mutually have roles Show there s an understanding of the role and perspective of other kids Imitation o Observing what another does and takes it in Emotional understanding empathy 0 Even in first year 0 One child cries another moves toward them Neuropsychological underpinnings Mirror neurons 0 Activated when you do an action and when you see someone else do an action Environmental underpinnings o In Samoa there s not much of a sense of an internal mind so the cultural beliefs make it hard for kids to develop a theory of mind as early 0 Talking about feelings of self and others 0 Putting words and language to feelings 0 Having a sibling o Constant companion and antagonist helps this develop Social perspective taking 0 Understand another s thoughts and feelings 0 Very useful lifelong skill o More for adults Moral Development Emotional component 0 Do you feel guilty about things you shouldn t have done 0 Cognitive component 0 Can you discern between right and wrong Behavioral component 0 What you actually do Piaget premoral Pre moral 0 Consequences over intentions Preschool kids taken by the consequences I Trying to help mom by carrying a big plate and you drop it feel like something really wrong happened 0 Good intentions bad consequences 0 Heteronomous 0 Rules are unchallengeable No notion that under certain circumstances you don t need to follow rules Autonomous 0 Understand rules follow them not for superficial reasons Kohlberg s Moral Reasoning Terrible painful cancer 0 A woman has terminal cancer begging Dr Jefferson to help her end her life Preconventional morality o Punishmentobedience Must not do that because it s against the law and will go to jail 0 Instrumental hedonism Follow the rules for rewards People will admire the doctor for upholding the doctor s laws 0 Conventional morality 0 Good girlgood boy Acts in a way to please others 0 Maintain social order Rules of authority Doing what is expected not because you ll be punished but because of the social chaos that would occur if you didn t act morally Postconventional morality 0 Social contract democratic process 0 Individual principles of conscious Respect for all Trying to see the situation through many eyes a Respecting position of Dr the patient her family Marshmallow Test Mastering self control 0 Walter Mischel Effortfulselfcontrol 0 Child is brought into very plain room and there s a marshmallow and the child is told if you don t eat the marshmallow until I come back I ll give you two and if you need me sooner you can ring the bell but you ll only get the one marshmallow Predictive 0 Kids who do well do better in school and college and in life less likely to be criminals and can wait 0 How do they do it 0 To delay gratification and exert selfcontrol is an ability 0 It is a set of cognitive skills 0 You can use or not use those skills o The tired will Already made a big effort at eating a healthy breakfast and skipping the first two cigs of the day get to mid morning and used up all your will 0 Radish cookies math problems Not eat before the experiment plate of radishes and cookies I Either in radishes or cookies groups 0 Compare math performance of both groups 0 Only had the radishes and showed a lot of will by not eating you don t work as hard on the math problems 0 strength model of selfcontrolquot Training in Executive Function Gamelike exercises Dramatic play 0 Memory tasks 0 Learning to focus and control attention Adult executive functioning interventions Exercise Reduceloaness Moral socialization 0 Love withdrawal 0 Pretend theyre not in the family anymore 0 Power assertion o Punishment 0 Take away privileges Induction 0 Explain why its wrong Antisocial behavior 0 Juvenile delinquency 0 Low level term for kids who are doing things they shouldn t be 0 Conduct disorder psychiatric diagnosis 0 Small group of early onset seriously distributed individuals 0 Larger group of late onset less seriously antisocial individuals By in large will age out of it Antisocial youth 0 Less empathy May have theory of mind putting self in position of others but don t have feelings associated with it 0 Less guilt and remorse Dodge s Social information processing model 0 Hostile attribution bias 0 The world is a hostile place harm was deliberate 0 Different mental representation 0 Where does this come from o Abandonment o Neglect 0 Abuse 0 Bullying Patterson s coercive family environments 0 Poor parent disciple leads to child conduct problems 0 Parents learn to Yell Threaten Hit 0 Focus on negative behavior and escalating series of disciplinary strategies 0 Kids learn to respond by Ignore punishment Whine Have tantrums Be difficult Rejection by normal peers and academic failure 0 Once you re distant from other kids its hard to be successful academically Deviant peer group can lead to delinquency o The other kids who are rejected The nature and nurture of antisocial behavior Monoamine oxidase A MAOA 0 Gene on X chromosome Control our tempers Because males only have 1 X chromosome they re more likely to have the version that gives them difficulty controlling their tempers Geneenvironment interactions 0 If you have a nurturing environment then you ll be less likely to struggle with temper whereas if you have a difficult environment its more likely to manifest Evocative geneenvironment correlation Adoptive families 0 1 child has the negative gene 0 having a difficult child evokes coercive parenting for even adoptive parents Cultural context 0 US Japan 0 In US we re pretty violent incarcerate more people than almost any other country violent media rampant guns 0 Japan no guns few incarcerated expected you will maintain the law and harmony Mentally iii are mostly hospitalized for long periods of time to prevent them from disrupting the harmony Neighborhood effects 0 In some areas there s a lot of kids badly parented so kids developing the conduct problems can find one another 0 Families move to areas like that because they don t have many options Prevention of antisocial behavior 0 Patterson encourages training parents 0 Parents who are coercive tend to be parents who were parented that way themselves Coercive meaning trying aggressively to get compliance Multipronged approach 0 School involvement afterschool psychologist doctor neighbors to know 0 Positive youth development 0 Focus on the good things happening and making it easier for them to be good Helping kids be u Con dence n Competence a Character a Connection n Caring 0 Connect them to caring adults Stopping the bullies p 424 0 Norway has a program to stop bullying 0 Not focused on the kid being bullied 0 Focus on school class individual family and community 0 Comprehensive approach for stopping bullying 2415 918 PM Emotional Development Birth 0 Primary emotions o Contentment Long period of contentment after their born 0 Interest More alert and focused on something Vision only good for 1214 inches a Hard to be interested in something far away 0 Distress Demonstrated with crying o 6 months 39 J39Oy surprIse sadness disgust anger fear 0 9 months socia referencing a how should I feel a Look to adults nearby 0 1824 months emotional regulation n times when you re sad when you re not supposed to scream and times when you re happy when you should only be a little bit happy I regulate emotions in line with cultural expectations 0 2 years Secondary of selfconscious emotions they know they re an individual different from everyone else these come on later because they re part of a social construct pride shame guit embarrassment U need to know there s some standard out there that you need to meet a standard is outside of yourself envy empathy What did you learn about emotions at home 0 Display rules 0 Varies culture to culture and situations 0 Emotion coaching 0 Help a child put words to how they re feeling Sometimes can make them even more sad but it coaches the experience and labeling of emotions Emotion dismissing o Invalidating their emotions 0 I ll give you something to cry aboutquot Relationships 0 Konrad Lorenz o Careful observer of animals Realized baby duck follows mother realized baby duck hatched ready to follow the first largest object a Most of the time it s the mother but sometimes he d have ducklings follow him 0 Suggests there some programming that makes it easy for us to build relationships 0 Imprinting Attachment theory 0 Bowlby british o How loving relationships build between parents and children concerned about application of this knowledge 0 Wrote an international report about children being raised in orphanages don t have the opportunity to build the relationships between small babies and adults that are instrumental for people to get through life 0 He was one of the reasons orphanages got closed down Replace with foster family kids need families 0 Ainsowrth 0 Did research visiting mothers and babies in their home and observing the different relationships 0 Put it into an ethological model Babies are born ready to attract attention Suck Cling 0 Cry 0 Coo babble Smile 0 cute proportions adults seem to be responsive to infant signals 0 baby makes vocalization it draws adult attention 0 sets up natural system for building relationships Oxytoci n The love hormone o Induced by caressing touching hugging o Produced by sex and breast feeding Produced in the hypothalamus Facilitates parentchild attachment romance and trusting social relations 0 Used to induce or speed up labor 0 Physical and psychological underpinning of relationships Internal working models 0 Cognitive representation of relationships 0 What relationships should be like Stages of infant attachment 0 Undifferentiated social responsiveness first 23months 0 Can be held by anyone Discriminating social responsiveness to 67 months 0 Specific people can comfort them 0 Active proximity seeking to 3 years 0 When they re upset they ll touch a parent for comfort keep track of where adults are but not too much this is why kids go to preschool at around 3 0 Goal corrected partnership beyond 3 years What behaviors do we observe Stranger anxiety 0 Develops over first year knows who they can trust and feel comfortable with 0 Secure base safe haven 0 Using parent as a secure base to go forth and explore the world Touch their leg then go away and explore 0 Use adult as safe haven if they re scared Come back Individual differences in attachment 0 Assessed with the strange situation 0 Mother and baby come to lab playroom playing and a stranger comes in not much anxiety because parent is there Parent then leaves and baby is alone with stranger then the parent comes back and you look at the reunion 0 Mary Ainsworth worked in Baltimore 0 Group of 25 mothers and babies she visited over time o Hypothesized first 3 of attachment patterns Attachment patterns 0 Secure attachment 0 Secure base 0 Safe haven 0 Happy to be reunited Resistant attachment 0 Anxious ambivalent 0 Child may be unsure about the mother coming back kicks when being picked up Avoidant attachment 0 Child who looks up at mom and looks back at toys doesn t enter into the relationship Disorganizeddisoriented attachment 0 For the people they couldn t put in categories Reflect the internal working model the child has created of what relationships should be like How do we build these early relationships 0 Contact comfort Synchronized routines 0 Games routines at meals Responsiveness 0 Not rejection 0 Not intrusion 0 Not abuse neglect Respond to distress Express delight 0 They re happy you re happy 0 Don t frighten them Separations Workchild care Deployments Hospitalization 0 Kids used to be left alone for days 0 Now they re shorted for kids encourage parents to stay try to prevent them from spending the night What about orphanages Or foster care 0 Is it better for a child to have loved and lost than to have never loved at all 0 Yes because if they have a personal relationship they have an internal working model and can transfer that to a new person if they need 0 Foster care isn t inherently a bad system but when it doesn t work is if the kid is moving around a lot Cultural variations in attachment relationships 0 Japan 0 Collectivist 0 Close motherchild relationship 0 One word for mother and baby together 0 Mother sees her role as bringing the independent infant into a dependent 0 Children become very upset at the separations 0 Germany 0 Individualistic 0 Child rearing is deisgned to move children past dependency as fast as possible Kids sleep in their own room don t respond to every vocalization Different attachment relationship a Avoidant Long term impacs of attacment styles 0 Curiosity 0 Social competence Emotional regulation 0 Probably mediated through peer relations The child 0 Goalcorrected partnership 0 They can be apart chose to be together know where one another are not a lot of anxiety about relationship Agegraded gendersegregated peer experiences more nowadays Stages of play 0 Solitary play 0 Putting block in cup 0 Parallel play 0 Both playing with blocks and looking at one another and doing something together but not interacting really Associative play 0 Interacting using same materials but they re not playing together together 0 Cooperative play 0 Rolling car between them pretend play Pretned play 0 Age 25 Reflects cultural norms and roles 0 American kids are much more assertive and rude in their pretend play due to their individualistic culture Schoolage More games with rules 0 Cultural variations here Chance vs skill What is good play 0 Vygotsky puts you in the zone of proximal development Piaget 0 Motor cognitive language social and emotional skills Peer acceptance see it start in elementary school 0 Popular 0 Rejected Neglected Controversial Average Adolescent social relations 0 Attachment to parents Friendships Changing social networks cliques to crowds o Cliques are the people you know personally o Crowd is larger group you may identify with 0 Dating GLBT teens Adukhood 0 Social convoy posse Posse 0 We re a cohort and move through life with them 0 The group of people who move through life together are posse o Posse capital P program that transition urban kids from high school to college and help them be successful there Recruits groups of kids from one area to go to college together 0 Partners homogamy complementarity 0 Find people like themselves opposites do not attract 0 Once you find someone like you they need to add to you complement you Triangular theory of love p461 Three kinds of love 0 Most optimal is a way to have all of them together 0 Intimacy Closeness sharing o Passion Excitement sexual 0 Commitment Make a decision we re in this for the long run Internal working models of relationships p 463 0 Sense of self other and history in terms of relationship effect your attachment as an adult with other peoples 0 Possible to have different attachment patterns with different parents Being an only child 0 Higher selfesteem 0 Higher social maturity Higher intelligence 0 Less success with peers 0 Not the case in China lots of contact with cousins Daily Pe in 1969 was 80 in 2005 it was 8 0 Us and Canada half 5 to 14 year olds get 60 minutes of physical activity daily High school sports 0 Associated with greater alcohol 0 More negative impact of alcohol 0 Particularly high contact sports 0 Usual assessment 0 Social drinking on the weekends 0 Times drunk in 1 month 0 Peak consumed The Family 2415 918 PM The Family As a System 0 Family systems theory 0 Each person contributes interactions to the whole family Look at the family when there s dysfunction Before it was focused just on the mother relationship The Infant 0 Motherinfant relationships 0 Fatherinfant relationships 0 Can also be primary caretaker 0 Parents can take on different roles in the family Parenting styles 0 Parental demandingnesscontrol compared to parental acceptance responsiveness 0 First one is who is the decision maker in the relationship parent or child 0 Second is how the parents responds to and treats the child 0 Authoritarian 0 Lots of rules expect strict obedience and rarely give reasons for why 0 High low 0 Moody unhappy Authoritative o More democratic explain why theres rules 0 High high 0 Permissive 0 Low high 0 Kids running the show comforting and validating but not rules 0 Aggressive impulsive selfcentered Neglectful 0 Low low 0 No warmth or rules 0 Related to culture Bringing up B b More European parenting style Family violence Intergenerational transmission of violence Developmental Psychopathology 2415 918 PM What is abnormal 0 Statistical deviance o Is it different from the norm Maladaptiveness o How you fit into the external world 0 Personal distress o It may look odd to the person on the outside but the actual person suffering doesn t see it as a difficulty and gets use to it o How you fit within yourself DSMS Helps you decide whether or not to diagnose certain illnesses Depression p507 5 symptoms over 2 weeks 0 Depressed mood nearly every day 0 Decreased interest or pleasure in activities 0 Significant weight loss or gain Too little or too much sleep Agitation or sluggishness Fatigue Worthlessness or guilt 0 Feeling guilty about things in the past people may not have even noticed Decreased concentration or indecisiveness Thoughts of death or suicide Cultural perspectives Developmental perspectives If a child is throwing tantrums put it in the context of their age to see if its developmentally appropriate 0 If you re in a collectivist culture appearing a little different may be seen as a mental illness Diathesisstress model Propensity 0 Some kind of genetic or biological propensity inclination Environment 0 Something in the environment that might be a stress 0 Those in northern places with less vitamin D are more likely to have schizophrenia 0 Risk from genes play out differently in different environments What emerges in infancy Autism spectrum disorder 0 May not be diagnosed until the child is 25 0 Defined as social and communication deficits and restricted and repetitive interests and behavior Epidemic of autism o CDC 1 out of 68 1 or 2 0 5X as common in boys sometimes they refer to autism as supermale because they lack female characteristics like socializing Also the fact boys have 1 X n Genome analysis shows that it is fairly hereditable because certain genes come with autism 0 Can you outgrow it Certain people have been diagnosed early on and as they age don t show the symptoms anymore 0 Comorbidity cooccur with autism 0 Intellectual disability 0 Language disorders 0 ADHD o Epilepsy 0 Anxiety disorders 0 What s going on in the brain 0 Perhaps poor interconnectivity and pruning Connection and pruning of cells 0 Deficits in the mirror neuron system Mirror neuron sees an activity and the nuron within the brain is activated 0 Impaired executive functions Poor decisions not seeing it through 0 Where does this come from o Prenatal testosterone Supports super male theory 0 Genetics 6095 concordance in identical twins 019 in siblings 0 Early environment Teratogens Virus Chemicals Maternal obesity Pregnancy complications 0 Treatment and outcome 0 Skill training For language and social skills 0 Applied behavioral analysis Look at what skills the child does and doesn t have and what the best path is Emerging in childhood 0 ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 0 Inattention Sustained attention on things they choose to pay attention to but not others Poor organization skills Lower Memory Following instructions 0 Hyperactivity impulsiveness Wiggling moving around Interrupting a Look at it developmentally normal for 4 year old but not 10 year old 0 Incidence o 10 of boys 4 of girls 4 of adults possible the increase in ADHD could be because the education system and thus paying attention system is new to us and we haven t adapted and evolved fast enough 0 Where does it come from o Genetically 6576 0 Low birth weight 12 Better prenatal care and no maternal smoking will reduce this 000 o Prenatal alcohol 4 0 Lead 3 Particularly in paint on houses windows boats etc o Prenatal smoking 3 0 Brain functioning 0 Low levels of dopamine and epinephrine Treatment 0 Ritalin adderall stimulant drug 0 What does the data show from a study 0 Medications alone Looking at symptoms alone medication treats them the best but doesn t help with learning 0 Behavioral treatment alone 0 Medications and behavioral treatment Influenced learning more 0 Routine care 0 8 year follow up 0 effects faded 0 little difference in those using or not using medications 0 all kids who were in the ADHD study had some kind of issues Childhood depression 0 Hard to detect depression in children 0 Most people recommend cognitive behavior therapy 0 Addresses distorted thinking emotions and behavior Adolescence eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Anorexia nervosa Binge eating 0 All life threatening and very difficult to address 0 Cause 0 Genetics 0 Environment 0 Serotonin o Diathesisstress model Adolescence substance abuse 0 Ethnicity problems with alcohol 0 Native American youth most likely 0 White non Hispanic second likely o AsianAmerican and African American 0 Youngest adolescent teens are more likely to use inhalants that are accessible at hardware stores and stuff 0 Gender males are higher Peer impact or peer choice Identical twin study 0 One went into heavy drinking and the other didn t In different peer groups suggesting a role for peer influence because genetically they d be similar for attraction to peer group Depression and suicide 0 Risk factors 0 Psychological disorder 0 Family pathology 0 Stressful life events 0 Access to firearms 0 Warning signs 0 Threatening to commit 0 Looking for ways to commit suicide 0 Talking or writing about suicide or death Schizophrenia Emerging in adolescence and early adulthood Characterized by 0 Break from reality Hallucinations Delusions Disorganized speech Grossly disorganized behavior Catatonic o Deficits in emotion and behavior 0 Incidence 0 100 0 Emerging in late adolescence and early adulthood Genetics 0000 o Identical twins concordance 48 o Fraternal twins concordance 17 o Offspring to 2 schizophrenic parents 46 o What is going on in the brain 0 Excessive dopamine and other neurotransmitters o Enlarged central ventricles The are in the center of the brain where there is the cerebral spinal fluid if this is large then there is different brain functioning Dementia Emerges in aging Highest percentage is for 90 0 What is it 0 Memory impairment 0 Decline in tested IQ Information and problem solving is decreasing 0 Poor judgment Executive function 0 Difficulty thinking abstractly Better in concrete areas 0 Alzheimer s disease is one cause Brain changes in Alzheimer s n Senile plaques betaamyloid core a Neurofibrillary tangles tau core a Mild cognitive impairment as the route there 0 Other causes Vascular dementia executive function a Series of small strokes have taken out small areas of the brain Alcoholism a Does serious damage to the brain over time Medicationrelated n Increase confusion decrease cognitive skills a Ex cholesterol medication Malnutrition n Often accompanies alcoholism Pets Flow Depression Pets are used as service animals provided specific concrete help and also companionship Having a pet contributes to cognitive development Psychology term of operating in the zone of optimal cognitive challenge kind of like zone of proximal development Tickets were used to keep us attentive and in the flow Death and Dying 2415 918 PM Total brain death 0 Irreversible loss of functioning of the entire brain 0 How do we know 0 Totally unresponsive to stimuli o Fail to move for an hour 0 Fail to breathe for 3 minutes when taken off respirator o No reflexes Shine a light in the pupil o No electrical activity in the cortex 0 This testing is repeated in 24 hours Between life and death 0 Coma 0 Not responsive to environment no sleepwake cycle 0 Persistent vegetative state 0 Closer to consciousness can swallow can open their eyes 0 Can be caused by injury or disease 0 The hard choices 0 Withdrawing lifesustaining treatment 0 Withholding lifesustaining treatment 0 Assisted suicide If physician prescribes something that you could choose to commit suicide Brittany Maynard age 29 0 Active euthanasia Doctor gives you something that will kill you What would you want 0 Advanced directive writes down the hard choices 0 Appointment of an agent If you are incapacitated would you like to appoint someone to make decisions for you 0 Health care instructions They can say if you start life support reconsider after x many days 0 Anatomical gifts Organ donations 0 Death is imminent Unaware of my surroundings unable to interact reasonably certain I will not recover When will you die 0 On average 0 Male life expectancy is 769 0 Females life expectancy is 816 How do we process the knowledge of our death 0 Denial o Anger Bargaining 0 Talking with God and ask for more time o Bargain with doctor and say you ll do treatment but never on weekend 0 Depression 0 Acceptance KublerRoss Stages Beyond KublerRoss Probably not stagelike Probably different for different diseases 0 They have different courses and risks 0 Probability different with different personalities o Optimistic will think the last few months will be good and I m sure I ll get some time after that o Pessimistic will be dressed the whole time 0 Different strategies 0 Control dying Assisted suicide 0 Value living in the present 0 Create a legacy Finishing a project creating work of art starting new hobby things that might live beyond you ParkerBowlby Attachment Model 0 Denial KS 0 Numbness Anger KS 0 Yearning anger and guilt Bargaining KS 0 Depression KS 0 Disorganization and despair 0 Acceptance KS 0 Reorganization For those left behind 0 Dual process model of bereavement grief Lossoriented 0 Dealing with the loss Restorationoriented 0 Trying to move on 0 Back and forth between the two How do children understand death 0 Finality 0 Can they move Eat Speak Irreversibility 0 Can they become alive again 0 Universality 0 Does everyone die 0 Biological causality 0 Why do people die How to we talk to children about death 0 asleep 0 doesn t make it easier because it equates death with sleep so kids can be scared to sleep 0 gone to heavenquot 0 what about reincarnation Grief workquot confront the loss 0 experience painful emotions move towards detachment o is there one right way 0 A lot of different approaches around the world and across religions Adolescents adults and death Loosing a parent friend spouse child o All have different amounts of devastation and grief The good death Palliative care 0 Goes from trying to cure someone to make them comfortable by controlling pain 0 Hospice 0 Organization takes care of people during their last 6 months either at home or at a place 0 Supported mourning o Mourning a loss is a long process so there needs to be some support family friends group religion professional psychologists All families and cultures 0 Until recently gay partners weren t able to visit their dying partner in a hospital because they weren t family 0 Need to make dying process available for all families 2415 918 PM
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