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APR 271 Notes Weeks 1-6

by: Tricia Sylvia

APR 271 Notes Weeks 1-6 APR 271

Tricia Sylvia
GPA 3.7

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This is the notes for APR 271 weeks 1-6, the information covered is through tests one and two
Strategic Thinking (PR)
public relations, APR, apr 271, research, publics
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This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Tricia Sylvia on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to APR 271 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Fisher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Strategic Thinking (PR) in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 03/26/16
Proactive  strategies   Wednesday,  March  2,  2016   6:59  PM   Agenda  Setting  theory   •   The  media  doesn't  tell  us   what  to  think,  but  it  tells  us  what  to  think  about       • The  public  agenda  is  heavily  influenced  by  the  media  agenda     o   Suggests  that  we,  as  PR  practitioners   Priming  theory     •   Describes  the  process  by  which  (1)  the  media  activates  mental     •   As  it  relates  to  mass  medi a   o   It  suggests  that  the  amount  of  time/space  the  media  devotes  to  a  particular  issue  increases   audience  alertness  to  certain  themes       o   The  more  prominent  the  issue/theme  is  in  the  media,  the  greater  its  accessibility  in  a   persons  memory     •   E.g.  the  more  time  the  media  devotes  to  certain  issues  in  a  presidential  race  the  more   important  those  issues  become  to  evaluation  of  the  candidates   o   The  more  you  cover  it  the  more  it  will  be  talked  about     Framing  Theory     •   Explains  how  media  coverage  provides  a  frame  of  referen ce  that  influences  public  discussion  on  a   topic       •   Absolutely  biased     o   The  concept  of  framing  bias  suggests  that  how  something  is  presented  influence  the  choices   people  make     •   E.g.  human  trafficking/sex  trafficking     •   Migrant,  refugee,  asylum  seeker     o   Media  frames  help  us  decide  if  something  is  good,  bad,  right,  wrong,  fair,  or  unfair     •   In  other  words,  the  frames  tell  us  what  to  think  about  an  issue  or  topic     o   Different  type  of  frames     •   Metaphor     §   Comparison     •   Myth     §   Use  of  vivid/memorable  devices     • Tradition   §   Use  of  cultural  mores   •   Contrast   §   Defining  issues  in  terms  of  what  it  is  not   •   Spin/bias  introduction     §   Bias  by  definition     o   Framing  theory  suggests  that  we,  as  PR  practitioners  should:   •   Understand  that  frames  or  cues  that  accompany  discussion  play  a  meaningful  rol e  in   how  audiences  interpret  it     •   Understand  that  you  must  be  carful  in  your  terms  and  tactics  to  avoid  unintended   insult     Transparent  communication  can  be  used  to  talk  about     •   How/why  executives  make  decisions     •   The  process  behind  the  production  of  goods  and  services     •   Who,  exactly,  produced  certain  communication  materials     o   Ghost  blogging     •   An  employee  promoting  org  as  a  public     o   Astroturphing     •   Making  a  fake  company  to  support  you       Law  and  Ethics  (not  in  book  on  test)   Monday,  February  8,  2016   6:53  PM   LAW:   Copyright   •   Protect  the  creator   •   Provide  economic  incentive  for  knowledge   •   If  you  use  it,  ci    it o   Both  for  legal  and  ethical  protection       •   Common  law  copyright     o   Begins  when  the  author  creates  it   o   You  put  it  out  there/  may  not  be  officia   •   Statutory  copyright   o   Begins  when  the  work  is  published     o   Author  must  seek  copyright  and  show  copyright  symbol   •   Tm=trademark   •   Sm=service  mark     •   You  don’t  have  to  have  statutory  copyright  to  claim  copyright  infringement   o   Can  claim  common  law  and  seek  statutory       Fair  use •   o   Criticism   •   Can  show  a  commercial  on  the  news  talking  about  it  and  claiming  criticism   o   Comment       Write  an  opinion  piece  quoting  a  song  by  Beyoncé  is  comment   •   o   Reporting   •   Reporter  on  crimson  white  can  quote  lyrics  on  reporting     o   Teaching/scholarship     You  can  show  a  commercial  in  class  or  send  it  out  and  use  it  in  lecture •   o   Research     •   Can  research  it  and  publish  research     o   HOWEVER-­‐-­‐MONEY  CHANGES  EVERYTHING     If  you're  charging  admission  for  your  lecture  ($50/head  per  example)  it  becomes  copyright  infringement   • because  it  is  for  professional  development     Defamation   •   Intentional  false  communication  that  injures  reputation   o   Libel  is  written   •   Elements  of  libel   •   Defamation   §   Ex:  saying  a  teacher  changes  grades  for  sex   §   Something  that  can  mess  up  your  life   •   Identification     §   The  person  has  to  be  identified  but  not  necessarily  by  name     •   Communication  (published/aired/posted)   §   If  it  isn't  one  of  those  it's  sl  r •   Fault  (malice  or  negligence)   §   Malice   •   "I'm  goanna  destroy  him  if  it's  the  last  thing  I     §   Negligence     •   Reckless  disregard  for  the  truth     •   Poor  reporting/not  out  to  get  them   •   Damage   §   In  an  absence  of  fault,  must  have  provable  damages     §   "you  said  I  was  having  an  affair  with  someone  and  I  wasn’t  but  my  wife  divorced  me  and  I  lost  a   lot  of  money"   •   Defense   •   Truth   •   Privilege  (taken  from  public  document)   §   Quoting  something  said  in  court  if  it's  true  can't  sue  because  lawsuit  is  a  public  document     •   Fair  comment  (community  interest)   §   Sort  of  like  criticism   §   Have  a  right  to  say  what  you  think  of  people   •   Retraction     §   full  and  prompt  apology   §   Won't  stop  the  side  from  filing  a  lawsuit   DON’T  CONFUSE  FAIR  COMMENT  WITH  FAIR  USE   •   Public  figure  (politician/celebrity)   §   Limited  use   •   Ex:  super  bowl  referee   •   Can  say  they  made  bad  calls  CANT  say  "I  heard  he  likes  incest   •   Private  figures   •   It's  easier  to  libel  a  private  fi   Public  figures  ask  for  it   •     §   Remember  Times  v  Sullivan  (actual  malice)   §   Actual  malice  means  it  was  known  to  be  false  or  there  was  reckless  disregard  to  its  truthfulness     o   Slander  is  spoken   To  be  defamed  plaintiff  must  prove   •     o   Hatred     o   Contempt     o   Ridicule   o   Damages       ETHICS   PRCA  Code  of  Ethics   •   Based  on  PRSA  Code  of  Ethics   •   Enforcement  is  NOT  its  emphasis     Values     o   Advocacy   o   Honesty   •  Accuracy  and  truth     o   Expertise   •  Professional  development     o   Independence   •  objectivity   o   Loyalty   •  You  won't  leave  your  company  with  your  client     o Fairness     •   Core  provisions   o   Free  flow  of  information     •   Fix  errors   •   No  bribes   o   Competition   •   clean   o   Disclosure   •   Transparency     o   Safeguarding  confidences   o   Conflicts  of  interest     Transparency   •   o   Enhancing  the  profession     •   Education   •   code   Reactive  Strategies     Monday,  March  7,  2016   6:41  PM   Seven  types  of  reactive  strategies     •   Pre-­‐emptive  action     o   Communication  efforts  launched  before  an  oppositional  public  makes  charges  against  an   organization     o   Org  tries  to  "get  in  front"  of  bad  news  by  providing  an  explanation  or  criticizing  the   information   •   Offensive  response  strategies     o   Attack   o   Embarrassment     o   Shock     o   Threat     •   Defensive  strategies     o   Denial     o   Excuse     •   Diversionary  response  strategies     o   Concession     •   The  attempt  to  rebuild  a  relationship  with  a  public  by  giving  something  it  wants     o   Ingratiation   •   The  cosmetic  attempt  to  divert  attention  away  from  the  problem  by  giving  the  public   something  of  little  meaning  to  the  org       o   Disassociation     o   Relabeling     Types  of  vocal  commiseration     •   Condolence     o   or  the  expression  or  grief     •   Regret     o   Expressing  sorrow  and  rem orse  relative  to  a  situation     •   Lawyers  want  you  to  express  regret  or  make  an  apology     •   Apology   o   Accepting  responsibility  and  asking  for  forgiveness     •   Beware  of  false/non-­‐apologies     §   I'm  sorry  you  took  the  offensive     •   Strategic  apologies  are  often  opposed  by  corp orate  lawyers     •   What  makes  a  good  apology?   •   Is  a  bad  apology  worse  than  no  apology  at  all?   §   Research  says  yes   •   In  what  situations  would  you  apologize?   §   If  there  was  a  shooting  in  a  police  department,  can  put  the  blame  on  you  even  if   it  wasn't  your  fault     o   Elements  of  a  good  apology     •   Apologize,  even  if  it  isn't  all  your  fault     •   Apologize  quickly     •   Be  sincere     •   Take  corrective  actions     Rectifying  behaviors  can  take  the  following  forms     •   Investigations     •   Corrective  actions     •   Restitution     •   Repentance     The  final  category  if  reactive  strategies  is  deliberate  inaction     •   Considered  decision  by  an  org  under  siege  to  offer  no  substantive  comment         What  happens  when  we  chose  the  wrong  tactic?   •   Streisand  effect     o   Barbra  Streisand     o   Tried  to  get  an  injunction   for  the  local  paper  taking  pictures  of  her  house     o   Went  to  national  news     o   An  ironic  response   o   Taking  a  small  thing  and  sky  rocketing  it     •   Public  humiliation       Message  Strategies   Monday,  February  22,  2016   6:34  PM   "Thousands  of  pr  and  marketing  messages  bombard  each  day…  amid  all  this  noise,  how  can  your   organization's  message  stand  out?"       Three  dominant  models  of  communication  in  contemporary  PR  practice:   •   Information  model     •   Persuasion  model     •   Dialogue  model       Information  model:   •   Who  says  what  to  who  and  to  what  effect?   •   One  way:  sender  to  receiver     Persuasion  model:   •   Centered  on  the  conscious  a ttempt  to  influence  the  receiver   •   Persuasion  =  propaganda   •   Many  social-­‐scientific  theories  on  how  and  why  people  are  persuaded     o   Elaboration  likelihood  model   o   Heuristic  processing  model     o   Cognitive  dissonance  theory   o   Inoculation  theory     Dialogue  model:   •   Built  around  a  sincere  attempt  at  a  mutual  understanding   •   Goals  of  dialogue   o   Nurture  information  exchange     o   Helps  partners  make  responsible  mutually  beneficial  decisions   o   Revives/retains  relational  vitality     o   Deepens  relationship  over  time     •   Symmetrical  communication   •    example:  a  rally     o   Can  be  an  exchange  of  information       • Aspire  to  this  one         Perceptions  of  a  messages  source:   •   Influence  the  ultimate  effectiveness  of  the  message   o   Three  C's   •   Credibility   §   Status   •   Social  position/prestige  of  messages  originating  status     §   Expertise   §   Honesty     §   competence   •   Control     §   A  message  sender's  command  over  the  audience   §   Power     §   Scrutiny     §   Authority     •   Charisma     §   A  message  sender's  personal  appeal     §   The  halo  effect  of  a  cognitive  bias  wherein  our  overall     §   Familiarity   §   Likability     §   Attractiveness   §   Similarity     o   **hardly  anybody  will  have  all  three   o   "the  4  elements  can  be  maximized  by  selecting  an  appropriate  spokesperson  who  is  likely  to   appeal  to  an  orgs  publics     Message  Strategy     •   Credibility  is  the  ability  to  aspire  belief     •   Sources  that  are  perceived  t o  be  credible  are  believed  on  their  own  merits         Under  what  conditions  is  it  ideal  to  use  a  celebrity  spokesperson?   •   Ex:  Tiger  Woods         Persuasion  on  the  basis  of  the  character/personal  characteristics  of  a  message  is  known  as  ethos   •   Ethos=  the  distinguishing  character,  sentiment,  moral  nature,  or  guiding  beliefs  of  a  person,  or   group  institution           Communication  strategies   Wednesday,  February  17,  2016   6:34  PM   Proactive  v  reactive     •   Proactive     o   Means  to  take  initiative  or  act     •   Depending  on  the  contest  pr  practitioners  may  either  take  proactive  or  reactive  strategies   Proactive   •   Action  strategies   o   Things  an  org  would  do  to  position  themselves  to  be  in  good  standing  in  the  community  to   protect  themselves   •   Organization  performance     •   Audience  engagement   •   Special  events  alliances/coalitions   •   Sponsorships     •   Philanthropy     •   Activism     •   Communication  strategies  (earned  media)   •  Publicity   •  Newsworthy  information   •  Transparent  communication     •   One  proactive  communication  is  organizational  performance   o   Do  we  offer  quality  products  and  services   o   Responsive  customer  service   o   Good  value   o   Are  we  responsible  members  of  society   o   Do  we  do  all  of  the  above  things  consistently??   •   Bad  organizational  performance  example:  cable  companies   •   Audience  engagement  is  another  proactive  action  oriented  strategy     •   Audience  engagements  requires  the  use  of  two  way  communication  tactics   o   Includes:     o   Generating  audience  interest     o   Soliciting  audience  participation   o   Requesting  audience  feedback   o   Using  triggering  events     •   Triggering  event  is  an  event  that  as  its  name  implies,  creates  action   §   Example:  a  rally   •   Another  type  of  proactive  action  is  use  of  special  events   •   Special  events  are  staged  activates  designated  to  generate  attention   •   Special  events  should  have  some  sort  of  value  for  participating  publics   o   If  they  fail  to  do  so,  they  are  generally  labeled  as  publicity  stunts     •   If  you  did  it  and  no  reporters  came,  was  it  still  a  failure   •   If  yes:  failed  publicity  stunt     o   Special  events  take  the  form  of:   •   Artistic  programs   •   Competitions   •   Community  events   •   Holiday  celebrations   •   Ribbon  cuttings     •   Forming  alliances  and  coalitions  are  another  proactive  strategy     o   Alliance  =  informal  relationship  among  orgs   o   Coalition=  formal,  structured  relationship  betwee n  orgs   •   Sponsorships  are  a  type  of  proactive  action  strategy  where  an  org  either  directly  indirectly   provides  resources  to  an  orgs  event   •   Strategic  philanthropy  is  a  type  of  proactive  action  strategy  where  orgs  provide  resources  to   community/social  relations  orgs  or  events   o   Orgs  receiving  funds  are  almost  always  reputable  non -­‐profits     **sponsorship  is  for  special  event,  philanthropy  is  expecting  less**   •   Activism   o   Generally  understood  in  the  context  of  social  issues  (poverty  eradication,  capital   punishment)   o   Sometimes  involves  civil  disobedience  or  street  theatre   o   Symbolism  matters       Message  Strategies     Monday,  February  29,  2016   7:25  PM   Proactive  Strategies   •   Publicity  is  what  happens  when  news  media  gives  attention  to  a n  org,  person,  product,  or  idea   o   Publicity  is  valuable  because  it  provides/implies  a  third  party  endorsement  of  the  message     o   Media  gatekeepers  determine  what  does  and  does  not  receive  attention     •   Gate  keepers  can  be  reporters,  editors,  news  directors   §   Those  who  control  access  to  media     §   WE  WANT  TO  GO  AS  SMALL/LOCAL  AS  POSSIBLE     o   Audiences  believe  that  info  that  comes  from  the  news  media  is  more  credible  than  the   information  that  is  obtained  directly  from  the  organization     o   The  value  of  "publicity"  flows  in  both  d irections     •   Good  helps/bad  is  devastating     o   Why  do  we  generate  publicity?   •   We  capture  the  attention  of  journalists/media/representatives   •   To  do  so  we  NEED  to  understand  how  journalists  think     o   Elements  of  newsworthiness   •   Timeliness     •   Magnitude     •   Impact     •   Human  interest   •   Celebrity   •   Proximity   •   Novelty     •   A  news  peg  is  an  item  in  the  media  is  already  reporting  on  that  is  also  relevant  to  an  organization     o   E.g.,  crisis  in  Argentina,  local  American -­‐Argentinian  think  tank  offers  media  members  a   nuanced/well-­‐informed  perspective  on  the  issue     o   Cheap  exploitation     •   If  you're  dealing  with  TV,  it  helps  to  have  a  strong  visual  element     Smith  list  ten  different  ways  of  making  the  news     •   Giving  an  award       • Conducting  research     •   Involving  a  celebrity  issue/cause     •   Localizing  a  general  report               IP  =  Interested  of  public     IM=  interested  of  media     I0=  interest  of  org         •   All  three  are  the  "sweet  spot"     Strategy   Monday,  February  15,  2016   6:52  PM   Strategy:   •   A  plan  of  action  or  policy  designed     Establishing  goals  and  objectives   •   What  do  we  want  to  achieve     •   What  are  we  working  towards     • Our  targeted  outcomes  are  rooted  in  (and  a  product  of)  our  formative  research     Research  Helps  Us   •   Clarify  objectives/goals   •   Establish  reasonable  outcome  expectancies     NOTE**   •   Many  strategic  communications  define  goals  as  desired  ou tcomes  that  are  general/global  in   nature   •   Objectives  are  desired  outcomes  that  are  specific  in  nature   •   Others  "flip"  the  definitions  of  these  terms  while  some  use  the  terms  interchangeably   Goal:   •   We  want  to  improve  the  public  perception  of  our  company   Objective:   •   Among  senior  residents  of  the  community  we  want  to  increase  positive  attitude  toward  our   company  30%  of  the  next  6  months   Goals   •   The  first  and  important  thing  to  think  about  when  establishing  goals     •   What  makes  us  distinct  what  is  our  niche     A  positioning  statement  is  a  formal  written  doc  that  details  how  we  want  to  be  understood  as  an   organization     •   Heavily  centered  on  the  concept  of  perception  or  how  we  want  our  organization  to  be  seen  by  our   publics   •   They  share  many  values  w  mission  statements   After  setting  up  how  you  want  to  be  understood  as  an  org,  next  step  is  setting  goals   •   Goals  provide  direction  while  objectives  pinpoint  the  destination     •   A  goal  is  stated  in  general  terms  and  lacks  measures   In  PR  there  are  3  different  kinds  of  goals   •   Reputation  goals   o   Organizations  reputation   •   Task  management  goals   o   Getting  things  done   •   Relationship  goals       o   How  an  org  forms  and  maintains  relationships     Once  we've  established  position  and  goals,  we  can  do  objectives     •   Objectives  are  consistent    with  an  orgs  goals     •   11  elements  associated  with  objectives     1.   Goal  rooted   2.   Public  focused   3.   Impart  oriented   4.   Research  based   5.   Explicit   6.   Measurable   7.   Time  definite   8.   Singular     9.   Challenging   10.  Attainable   11.  Acceptable     •   Objectives  can  be  hierarchy  organized   •   Should  try  to  accomplish  certain  types  of  objectives  first   1.   Awareness   •   Deal  with  attention,  comprehension,  and  information  attention  among  our  publics     •   Related  to  cognitive  factors   §   Cognition  refers  to  the  process  of  acquiring  information  and  understanding  it   through  thought     2.   Acceptance   •   Related  to  generating  interest  and  developing  positive  attitude  toward  our  org  (or   message)  within  our  publics     §   Ex:  I  prefer  Peter  Pan  peanut  butter  over  others     3.   Action     •   Related  to  behavioral  outcomes  among  our  publics     §   "conative"  =  behavior     Key  takeaways:   •   Understanding  positioning,  goals,  and  objectives   •   Three  different  typed  of  objectives         **objective:  to  increase  the  use  of  safety  equipment  by  20%  by  the  end  of  the  calendar  year**     Communication  Tactics     Monday,  March  21,  2016   6:55  PM   Communication  Tactic     •   A  visible  element  to  a  s trategic  plan     • Deliverable     o   Any  work  product  that  you  are  on  the  hook  for         Mediated  communication     Sender  -­‐>  media  channel  -­‐>  receiver         Media  channels   •   Organizational  control     o   To  what  degree  can  the  org  sending  the  message  control  it?   •   Controlled  media:  newsletters,  brochures,  website   •   Uncontrolled:  interviews  and  news  conferences     •   Organizational  tie   o   Describes  the  relationship  between  the  org  and  media     •   Internal:  newsletters,  brochures,  signage   •   External:  newspapers,  broadcast  news,  billboards     §   Billboard  because  you  don’t  own  it,  you  rent  it     Audience  size   •   How  many  people  are  regular  users  of  a  given  media   o   Mass  medias  are  accessible  to  most/many  people     o   Targeted  medias  are  used  by  a  narrower,  more  homogenous  set  of  people     •   Ex:  something  in  the  crimson  white   vs  gphi  nightly     Audience  size   •   The  degree  to  which  media  is  consumed  by  an  audience     Audience  interaction     •   One  way  media  vs  interactive  media   •   "interactivity"  can  be  considered  in  terms  of  both  type  and  degree   o   Type:  social  interactivity,   textual  interactivity,  technical  interactivity   o   Degree:  totally  immersive,  semi -­‐  immersive     Media  Production   •   What  are  the  technical  means  of  production     o   Print     o   Electronic   o   Digital     Media  Richness  *think  fuel  mixture   •   Media  can  be  rich  to  lean  (think  airplanes )   o   Rich:  lots  of  fuel     o   Lean:  more  air  than  gas   •   How  much  sensory  information  is  communicated   •   "richest"  is  face  to  face     •   Most  "lean"  is  impersonal  ad         Organizational  media  tactics   •   Directly  managed/controlled  by  organization     •   Rely  on  internal,  nonpublic  medi a   o   Newsletters,  intranet,  email     •   When  to  use?   o   When  your  publics  are  widespread/too  large  to  interact  with  on  an  interpersonal  level  BUT   you  want  to  maintain  control  over  the  message  and  its  delivery   •   When  to  avoid     o   When  your  publics  are  very   small  and/or  so  scattered  that  dissemination  is  very  difficult     o   It  just  doesn't  work       • Exempt:  paid  by  hour   •   Nonexempt:  paid  a  salary     •   The  middle  ground  between  high  impact,  small  audience  tactics  (interpersonal  communication   tactics)  and  low  impact,  large  audience  tactics  (news/advertising)   Electronic  media  tactics   •   Rely  on  audio  and  visual  forms  of  communication     •   The  author  includes  digital  media  in  electronic,  but  not  social  media  (social  is  owned/shared)     • Note  that  many  print  deliverables  have  gone  digital     •   Electronic  media  tactics  include   o   Audio  media  (phone  based  communication  tactics)   o   Video  media     o   Online  tactics  (non  social  media  in  nature)   •   Putting  a  video  on  YouTube  is  a  shared  media  tactic  putting  it  on  your  website  is  an   electronic  media  tactic     General  publication  tactics     •   Published  and  printed  by  the  org     •   General  publication  tactics  include     o   Serial  publications  (weekly  newsletters,  bulletins)   o   Stand-­‐  alone  publications  (brochures,  fliers,  pamphlets)   o   Reports  (quarterly  reports,   research  reports,  whitepapers)   Direct  mail  tactics   •   Directly  addressed  and  mailed  to  individual  recipients  by  the  org   •   POSTCARD=SELF  MAILER   o   Letters   o   Postcards   o   Invitations     Social  media  tactics     •   Use  the  interactive,  social  internet  to  generate  attention/engage ment  among  publics     •   Social  media  tactics  include  use  of     o   Blogs     o   Social  networking  sites   o   Wikis     News  Media  Tactics  (earned  media)     • Rely  on  news  orgs  to  act  as  mediator     •   Offer  orgs  limited  control  over  the  audience  facing  message     •   Require  strong  understanding  newsworthiness     •   When  to  use   o   When  your  goal  is  to  reach  a  large  number  of  people   •   They  may  be  heterogeneous  in  nature     •   News  media  tactics  are  "free"   o   We  don’t  pay  the  news  media  to  write  a  story   •   However,  we  try  to  persuade  the  news  media  that  writing  a  story  serves  their   interest/their  audiences  interest   o   Traditionally,  publicity  via  the  news  offers  a  third  party  endorsement   •   However,  recent  data  suggest  that  people  may  increasingly  mistrust  the  mainstream   media     •   As  mentioned  previously,  media  requires  that  we   understand  how  to  "package"  information  for   journalists     o   AP  style   o   Newsworthiness   o   Media  systems  structures     o   The  media  industry     4  categories  of  news  media  tactics     •   Interactive     o   News  conferences,  interviews   •   Direct  news  material     o   News  releases,  fact  sheets,  b ackgrounders,  media  kits   •   Indirect  news  material     o   Media  advisories,  story  idea  memos,  pitch  ideas     •   Opinion  material  (op -­‐eds,  position  papers,  letter  to  the  editor,  guest  editorials)   Advertising  and  promotional  media  tactics     •   Borrows  the  techniques/approaches  used  by  advertisers   •   Often/primarily  relies  on  paid  media   •   Can  be  better  controlled  by  the  org  than  other  news  media  tactics   •   Lacks  credibility  associated  w  news  media   •   When  to  use?   o   When  your  goal  is  to  reach  large  number  of  people   o   When  you  have  available  funds     4  types  of  advertising/promotional  tactics     •   Print  advertising  media  (mag,  newspaper,  directory,  house  )   •   Electronic  media  advertising  (TV,  radio,  web)   •   Out-­‐of-­‐home  (outdoor,  transit,  aerial)   •   Prosocial  items  aka  Specialties  (clothing,  costume,  home/office  accessory)     Foundations  of  Public  Relations   Wednesday,  January  20,  2016   6:38  PM   What  is  Public  Relations?   •   Public  Relations  Society  of  America  (PRSA)  defines  public  relations  as:  "public  relations  is  a   strategic  communication  process  that  builds  mutually  beneficial  relationships  between   organization  and  their  publics"   o   Other  definition  is  management  funciton     •   Strategic  communication   o   As  opposed  to  tactical     •   Management  function   o   As  opposed  to  staff  function     o   Management  function  makes  the  decisions     •   Process   o   A  series  of  actions  or  steps  taken  in  order  to  achieve  a  particular  end   •   Mutually  beneficial  relationships   o   Not  just  relationships  that  benefit  the  company     •   Organizations  and  their  publics     Why  is  PR  Valuable ?  Swann  identifies  nine  organizational  benefits   •   Provides  awareness  and  information   •   Fosters  internal  motivation   •   Provides  an  early  warning  system  for/of  potential  problems   •   Helps  identify  opportunities     •   Helps  manage  crises   •   Helps  ameliorate  executive  isolation   •   Helps  facilitate  change   •   Helps  promote  social  responsibility   •   Helps  influence  public  policy   PR  and  Other  Disciplines   Types  of  media   o   Paid  media   • advertising   o   Earned  media   • Public  relations-­‐-­‐if  your  client  was  on  air  or  in  the  paper  it  was  earned  media     o   Owned  media   • Your  website,  your  signs  on  campus,  billboards   • Don’t  need  permission  to  do  it   o   Shared  media     • Social  media:  you  may  own  fb  or  twitter  but  it  can  be  breeched/taken  over   • You  can't  control  it  like  you  can  control  your  property     What  is  advertising?   •   The  delivery  of  information  through   paid  media   o   Message  is  one  way  or  asymmetrical         **Public  relations  uses  earned  and  owned  media.  Its  messages  are   two  way  or  symmetrical  forming   relationships  **   Marketing   •   Marketing  =  Product,  Place,  Price,  Promotion     •   Marketing  is  the  activity,  set  of  institutions  and  processes  for  creating,  communicating,  delivering,   and  exchanging  offerings  that  have  value  for  customers,  clients,  partners,  and  society  at  large              similar:            different:   o   PR  more  concerned  with  repu tation  and  marketing  is  concerned  w  bottom  line   o   Marketing  is  paid  media   o   Marketing  is  outwardly  focused  while  pr  focuses  on  both  internal  and  external  publics     Journalism   •   Activity  of  gathering  assessing  creating  and  pursuing        similar:   •    both  get  content  to  publics   •   Use  similar  styles  of  writing  (AP  Style)      different:   •   Journalists  are  bound  to  be  objective     •   PR  assumes  an  advocacy  role     •   PR  practitioners  are  hired  by  organizations  to  further  their  interests       IMC  (Integrated  Marketing  Communication)   •   With  increasing  frequency,  org  have  adopted  an  IMC   o   In  short,  IMC  can  be  understood  of  the  blending  of  pr  and  marketing  communications  within   an  org   •   Encourages  consistency  and  working  toward  a  common  goal   •   Increases  impact  at  minimal  cost     History  and  PR  Law  and  Ethics   Wednesday,  January  20,  2016   7:11  PM   Press  agentry:   •   Flack=press  agentry     •   First  PR  efforts  original  practitioner  was  PT  Barnum  of  Barnum  and  Bailey  circus   o   Would  have  people  go  ahead  of  circus  and  plant  information  about  people  in  circus   •   Bottom  feeding-­‐-­‐  BS   Publicity:   •   Non  profits     •   Getting  their  name  out  there   •   Ivy  Lee     o   Father  of  modern  day  PR  practices     o   Using  publicity  method     •   Corp  should  always  tell  the  truth  and  try  to  limit  damages   o   News  releases     Persuasive   •   WWI  when  we  got  into  the  war   and  US  was  not  happy  about  it     o   Sinking  of  the  Lusitania  by  Germany   o   President  Wilson  had  PR  people  sell  the  war   •   Propaganda     Relations   •   Last  and  most  recent  stage         RPIE  Formative  Research   Wednesday,  January  20,  2016   7:11  PM   Four  Steps  Public  Relations  Process   RPIE   •   Research   1.   Analyzing  the  Situation   2.   Analyzing  the  Organization   •   Planning   3.   Establishing  goals  and  objectives   4.   Formulation  action  and  response  strategies     5.   Developing  the  message  strategy   •   Implementation   6.   Selecting  communication  tactics   7.   Implementing  the  strategic  plan   •   Evaluation   8.   Evaluating  the  strategic  plan       Phase  One:  Formative  Research   •   Step  one:  analyzing  the  situation   •   Step  two:  Analyzing  the  organization   •   Step  three:  Analyzing  the  publics         Step  One:  Analyzing  the  situation:   Types  of  research:   o   Casual  research  (what  you  already  know)   Picking  brains  of  client  and  colleagues   •     o   Secondary  research  (existing  info)   •  Organizational  files,  library,  internet   o   Primary  research  (new  info)   •  Survey,  focus  group,  content  analysis     Subtypes:   o   Quantitative  (scientific)   •  Random  sample     •  Large  enough  sample   •  Proper  questions   •  Should  be  reproducible     §   Example:  random  sample  survey   •   "push  survey"  presents  itself  as  a  survey  but  is  really  a  smear  campaign     •   You  can  run  a  new  survey  and  get  new  answers  becau se  of  more  news  cycles  etc.     Ex:  waiting  for  Trump  to  say  something  offensive •     o   Qualitative     •  Can  tell  why  people  answered  as  they  did   •  Interviews   •  Not  reproducible     §   Example:  focus  group         Public  Relations  Situation:  A  set  of  circumstances  facing  an  organization     o   Opportunity   o   Obstacle     Issues  Management:  process  by  which  an  org  tries  to  anticipate  emerging  issues  and  respond  to  them   1.   Identify  future  issues   2.   Research  and  analyze  each  issue   3.   Consider  response  options   4.   Develop  action  plan  for  best  option   5.   Implement  the  plan   6.   Evaluate  the  effectiveness  of  the  response   Risk  Management:  Process  of  identifying,  controlling,  and  minimizing  the  impact  of  uncertain  events  on  an  org               Ethical  Decision  Making:   Deontological  approach:   •   Rooted  in  standards  or  moral  code   •   "actions  are  inherently  right  or  wrong   Teleological  Approach   •   Focused  on  impact  and  consequences   •   "Right/wrong  actions  produce  good/bad  results"   Ethical  Relativism     Reflect  particular  social  norms •   •   "right/wrong  actions  are  determined  by  society"       Basic  Planning  Questions:   1.   What  is  the  situation  facing  the  org   2.   What  is  the  background  of  the  situation     3.   What  is  the  significance  or  importance  of  the  situation             Step  2:  Analyzing  the  organization       Public  Relations  Audit   •   Outline  of  strengths  and  weakness  of  an  organization  or  client   •   SWOT  analysis     o   Strength     o   Weakness   o   Opportunities   o   Threats       Internal  Environment  Audit   Performance   •     o   Quality  of  goods  and  services,  viability  of  causes  and  ideas   •   Niche     o   Specialty/function/role  that  makes  org  different     •   Structure   o   Purpose/mission  of  org;  role  of  public  relations   •   Ethical  base   o   Conscience  of  an  organization   •   Internal  impediments     o   Obstacles  within  org  that  limit  effectiveness  of  pr  program     Public  Perception   •   Visibility   o   Extent  to  which  organization  is  known  AKA  top  of  mind   •   Reputation   o   How  people  evaluate  information  about  organization     External  Environment     •   Supporters     o   People/groups  who  share  interests  w  org  and  can  further  its  objectives     Competitors •   o   People/groups  who  provide  similar  product/service   •   Opponents   o   People/groups  organized  to  fight  org   •   External  impediments   o   Obstacles  outside  organization  that  limit  effectiveness  of  pr  program         Basic  Planning  Questions  (Internal  Environment)   1.   What  is  the  quality  of  the  orgs  performance   2.   What  communication  resources  including  budget  are  available   3.   How  supportive  is  the  org  of  pr  activity?       Step  3:  Analyzing  the  Publics       Publics  vs.  Market,  Audience  and  Stakeholder   Market:  consumer  public  with  similar  demographic s  targeted  for  financial  interaction  supporting  the  orgs  bottom  line     Total  number  of  people  who  could  give  you  money  for  goods/services   •   Audience:  people  who  use  a  particular  communication  medium   •   Ex:  people  who  watch  fox  


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