APR 271 Notes Weeks 1-6
APR 271 Notes Weeks 1-6 APR 271
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This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Tricia Sylvia on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to APR 271 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Fisher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Strategic Thinking (PR) in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/26/16
Proactive strategies Wednesday, March 2, 2016 6:59 PM Agenda Setting theory • The media doesn't tell us what to think, but it tells us what to think about • The public agenda is heavily influenced by the media agenda o Suggests that we, as PR practitioners Priming theory • Describes the process by which (1) the media activates mental • As it relates to mass medi a o It suggests that the amount of time/space the media devotes to a particular issue increases audience alertness to certain themes o The more prominent the issue/theme is in the media, the greater its accessibility in a persons memory • E.g. the more time the media devotes to certain issues in a presidential race the more important those issues become to evaluation of the candidates o The more you cover it the more it will be talked about Framing Theory • Explains how media coverage provides a frame of referen ce that influences public discussion on a topic • Absolutely biased o The concept of framing bias suggests that how something is presented influence the choices people make • E.g. human trafficking/sex trafficking • Migrant, refugee, asylum seeker o Media frames help us decide if something is good, bad, right, wrong, fair, or unfair • In other words, the frames tell us what to think about an issue or topic o Different type of frames • Metaphor § Comparison • Myth § Use of vivid/memorable devices • Tradition § Use of cultural mores • Contrast § Defining issues in terms of what it is not • Spin/bias introduction § Bias by definition o Framing theory suggests that we, as PR practitioners should: • Understand that frames or cues that accompany discussion play a meaningful rol e in how audiences interpret it • Understand that you must be carful in your terms and tactics to avoid unintended insult Transparent communication can be used to talk about • How/why executives make decisions • The process behind the production of goods and services • Who, exactly, produced certain communication materials o Ghost blogging • An employee promoting org as a public o Astroturphing • Making a fake company to support you Law and Ethics (not in book on test) Monday, February 8, 2016 6:53 PM LAW: Copyright • Protect the creator • Provide economic incentive for knowledge • If you use it, ci it o Both for legal and ethical protection • Common law copyright o Begins when the author creates it o You put it out there/ may not be officia • Statutory copyright o Begins when the work is published o Author must seek copyright and show copyright symbol • Tm=trademark • Sm=service mark • You don’t have to have statutory copyright to claim copyright infringement o Can claim common law and seek statutory Fair use • o Criticism • Can show a commercial on the news talking about it and claiming criticism o Comment Write an opinion piece quoting a song by Beyoncé is comment • o Reporting • Reporter on crimson white can quote lyrics on reporting o Teaching/scholarship You can show a commercial in class or send it out and use it in lecture • o Research • Can research it and publish research o HOWEVER-‐-‐MONEY CHANGES EVERYTHING If you're charging admission for your lecture ($50/head per example) it becomes copyright infringement • because it is for professional development Defamation • Intentional false communication that injures reputation o Libel is written • Elements of libel • Defamation § Ex: saying a teacher changes grades for sex § Something that can mess up your life • Identification § The person has to be identified but not necessarily by name • Communication (published/aired/posted) § If it isn't one of those it's sl r • Fault (malice or negligence) § Malice • "I'm goanna destroy him if it's the last thing I § Negligence • Reckless disregard for the truth • Poor reporting/not out to get them • Damage § In an absence of fault, must have provable damages § "you said I was having an affair with someone and I wasn’t but my wife divorced me and I lost a lot of money" • Defense • Truth • Privilege (taken from public document) § Quoting something said in court if it's true can't sue because lawsuit is a public document • Fair comment (community interest) § Sort of like criticism § Have a right to say what you think of people • Retraction § full and prompt apology § Won't stop the side from filing a lawsuit DON’T CONFUSE FAIR COMMENT WITH FAIR USE • Public figure (politician/celebrity) § Limited use • Ex: super bowl referee • Can say they made bad calls CANT say "I heard he likes incest • Private figures • It's easier to libel a private fi Public figures ask for it • § Remember Times v Sullivan (actual malice) § Actual malice means it was known to be false or there was reckless disregard to its truthfulness o Slander is spoken To be defamed plaintiff must prove • o Hatred o Contempt o Ridicule o Damages ETHICS PRCA Code of Ethics • Based on PRSA Code of Ethics • Enforcement is NOT its emphasis Values o Advocacy o Honesty • Accuracy and truth o Expertise • Professional development o Independence • objectivity o Loyalty • You won't leave your company with your client o Fairness • Core provisions o Free flow of information • Fix errors • No bribes o Competition • clean o Disclosure • Transparency o Safeguarding confidences o Conflicts of interest Transparency • o Enhancing the profession • Education • code Reactive Strategies Monday, March 7, 2016 6:41 PM Seven types of reactive strategies • Pre-‐emptive action o Communication efforts launched before an oppositional public makes charges against an organization o Org tries to "get in front" of bad news by providing an explanation or criticizing the information • Offensive response strategies o Attack o Embarrassment o Shock o Threat • Defensive strategies o Denial o Excuse • Diversionary response strategies o Concession • The attempt to rebuild a relationship with a public by giving something it wants o Ingratiation • The cosmetic attempt to divert attention away from the problem by giving the public something of little meaning to the org o Disassociation o Relabeling Types of vocal commiseration • Condolence o or the expression or grief • Regret o Expressing sorrow and rem orse relative to a situation • Lawyers want you to express regret or make an apology • Apology o Accepting responsibility and asking for forgiveness • Beware of false/non-‐apologies § I'm sorry you took the offensive • Strategic apologies are often opposed by corp orate lawyers • What makes a good apology? • Is a bad apology worse than no apology at all? § Research says yes • In what situations would you apologize? § If there was a shooting in a police department, can put the blame on you even if it wasn't your fault o Elements of a good apology • Apologize, even if it isn't all your fault • Apologize quickly • Be sincere • Take corrective actions Rectifying behaviors can take the following forms • Investigations • Corrective actions • Restitution • Repentance The final category if reactive strategies is deliberate inaction • Considered decision by an org under siege to offer no substantive comment What happens when we chose the wrong tactic? • Streisand effect o Barbra Streisand o Tried to get an injunction for the local paper taking pictures of her house o Went to national news o An ironic response o Taking a small thing and sky rocketing it • Public humiliation Message Strategies Monday, February 22, 2016 6:34 PM "Thousands of pr and marketing messages bombard each day… amid all this noise, how can your organization's message stand out?" Three dominant models of communication in contemporary PR practice: • Information model • Persuasion model • Dialogue model Information model: • Who says what to who and to what effect? • One way: sender to receiver Persuasion model: • Centered on the conscious a ttempt to influence the receiver • Persuasion = propaganda • Many social-‐scientific theories on how and why people are persuaded o Elaboration likelihood model o Heuristic processing model o Cognitive dissonance theory o Inoculation theory Dialogue model: • Built around a sincere attempt at a mutual understanding • Goals of dialogue o Nurture information exchange o Helps partners make responsible mutually beneficial decisions o Revives/retains relational vitality o Deepens relationship over time • Symmetrical communication • example: a rally o Can be an exchange of information • Aspire to this one Perceptions of a messages source: • Influence the ultimate effectiveness of the message o Three C's • Credibility § Status • Social position/prestige of messages originating status § Expertise § Honesty § competence • Control § A message sender's command over the audience § Power § Scrutiny § Authority • Charisma § A message sender's personal appeal § The halo effect of a cognitive bias wherein our overall § Familiarity § Likability § Attractiveness § Similarity o **hardly anybody will have all three o "the 4 elements can be maximized by selecting an appropriate spokesperson who is likely to appeal to an orgs publics Message Strategy • Credibility is the ability to aspire belief • Sources that are perceived t o be credible are believed on their own merits Under what conditions is it ideal to use a celebrity spokesperson? • Ex: Tiger Woods Persuasion on the basis of the character/personal characteristics of a message is known as ethos • Ethos= the distinguishing character, sentiment, moral nature, or guiding beliefs of a person, or group institution Communication strategies Wednesday, February 17, 2016 6:34 PM Proactive v reactive • Proactive o Means to take initiative or act • Depending on the contest pr practitioners may either take proactive or reactive strategies Proactive • Action strategies o Things an org would do to position themselves to be in good standing in the community to protect themselves • Organization performance • Audience engagement • Special events alliances/coalitions • Sponsorships • Philanthropy • Activism • Communication strategies (earned media) • Publicity • Newsworthy information • Transparent communication • One proactive communication is organizational performance o Do we offer quality products and services o Responsive customer service o Good value o Are we responsible members of society o Do we do all of the above things consistently?? • Bad organizational performance example: cable companies • Audience engagement is another proactive action oriented strategy • Audience engagements requires the use of two way communication tactics o Includes: o Generating audience interest o Soliciting audience participation o Requesting audience feedback o Using triggering events • Triggering event is an event that as its name implies, creates action § Example: a rally • Another type of proactive action is use of special events • Special events are staged activates designated to generate attention • Special events should have some sort of value for participating publics o If they fail to do so, they are generally labeled as publicity stunts • If you did it and no reporters came, was it still a failure • If yes: failed publicity stunt o Special events take the form of: • Artistic programs • Competitions • Community events • Holiday celebrations • Ribbon cuttings • Forming alliances and coalitions are another proactive strategy o Alliance = informal relationship among orgs o Coalition= formal, structured relationship betwee n orgs • Sponsorships are a type of proactive action strategy where an org either directly indirectly provides resources to an orgs event • Strategic philanthropy is a type of proactive action strategy where orgs provide resources to community/social relations orgs or events o Orgs receiving funds are almost always reputable non -‐profits **sponsorship is for special event, philanthropy is expecting less** • Activism o Generally understood in the context of social issues (poverty eradication, capital punishment) o Sometimes involves civil disobedience or street theatre o Symbolism matters Message Strategies Monday, February 29, 2016 7:25 PM Proactive Strategies • Publicity is what happens when news media gives attention to a n org, person, product, or idea o Publicity is valuable because it provides/implies a third party endorsement of the message o Media gatekeepers determine what does and does not receive attention • Gate keepers can be reporters, editors, news directors § Those who control access to media § WE WANT TO GO AS SMALL/LOCAL AS POSSIBLE o Audiences believe that info that comes from the news media is more credible than the information that is obtained directly from the organization o The value of "publicity" flows in both d irections • Good helps/bad is devastating o Why do we generate publicity? • We capture the attention of journalists/media/representatives • To do so we NEED to understand how journalists think o Elements of newsworthiness • Timeliness • Magnitude • Impact • Human interest • Celebrity • Proximity • Novelty • A news peg is an item in the media is already reporting on that is also relevant to an organization o E.g., crisis in Argentina, local American -‐Argentinian think tank offers media members a nuanced/well-‐informed perspective on the issue o Cheap exploitation • If you're dealing with TV, it helps to have a strong visual element Smith list ten different ways of making the news • Giving an award • Conducting research • Involving a celebrity issue/cause • Localizing a general report IP = Interested of public IM= interested of media I0= interest of org • All three are the "sweet spot" Strategy Monday, February 15, 2016 6:52 PM Strategy: • A plan of action or policy designed Establishing goals and objectives • What do we want to achieve • What are we working towards • Our targeted outcomes are rooted in (and a product of) our formative research Research Helps Us • Clarify objectives/goals • Establish reasonable outcome expectancies NOTE** • Many strategic communications define goals as desired ou tcomes that are general/global in nature • Objectives are desired outcomes that are specific in nature • Others "flip" the definitions of these terms while some use the terms interchangeably Goal: • We want to improve the public perception of our company Objective: • Among senior residents of the community we want to increase positive attitude toward our company 30% of the next 6 months Goals • The first and important thing to think about when establishing goals • What makes us distinct what is our niche A positioning statement is a formal written doc that details how we want to be understood as an organization • Heavily centered on the concept of perception or how we want our organization to be seen by our publics • They share many values w mission statements After setting up how you want to be understood as an org, next step is setting goals • Goals provide direction while objectives pinpoint the destination • A goal is stated in general terms and lacks measures In PR there are 3 different kinds of goals • Reputation goals o Organizations reputation • Task management goals o Getting things done • Relationship goals o How an org forms and maintains relationships Once we've established position and goals, we can do objectives • Objectives are consistent with an orgs goals • 11 elements associated with objectives 1. Goal rooted 2. Public focused 3. Impart oriented 4. Research based 5. Explicit 6. Measurable 7. Time definite 8. Singular 9. Challenging 10. Attainable 11. Acceptable • Objectives can be hierarchy organized • Should try to accomplish certain types of objectives first 1. Awareness • Deal with attention, comprehension, and information attention among our publics • Related to cognitive factors § Cognition refers to the process of acquiring information and understanding it through thought 2. Acceptance • Related to generating interest and developing positive attitude toward our org (or message) within our publics § Ex: I prefer Peter Pan peanut butter over others 3. Action • Related to behavioral outcomes among our publics § "conative" = behavior Key takeaways: • Understanding positioning, goals, and objectives • Three different typed of objectives **objective: to increase the use of safety equipment by 20% by the end of the calendar year** Communication Tactics Monday, March 21, 2016 6:55 PM Communication Tactic • A visible element to a s trategic plan • Deliverable o Any work product that you are on the hook for Mediated communication Sender -‐> media channel -‐> receiver Media channels • Organizational control o To what degree can the org sending the message control it? • Controlled media: newsletters, brochures, website • Uncontrolled: interviews and news conferences • Organizational tie o Describes the relationship between the org and media • Internal: newsletters, brochures, signage • External: newspapers, broadcast news, billboards § Billboard because you don’t own it, you rent it Audience size • How many people are regular users of a given media o Mass medias are accessible to most/many people o Targeted medias are used by a narrower, more homogenous set of people • Ex: something in the crimson white vs gphi nightly Audience size • The degree to which media is consumed by an audience Audience interaction • One way media vs interactive media • "interactivity" can be considered in terms of both type and degree o Type: social interactivity, textual interactivity, technical interactivity o Degree: totally immersive, semi -‐ immersive Media Production • What are the technical means of production o Print o Electronic o Digital Media Richness *think fuel mixture • Media can be rich to lean (think airplanes ) o Rich: lots of fuel o Lean: more air than gas • How much sensory information is communicated • "richest" is face to face • Most "lean" is impersonal ad Organizational media tactics • Directly managed/controlled by organization • Rely on internal, nonpublic medi a o Newsletters, intranet, email • When to use? o When your publics are widespread/too large to interact with on an interpersonal level BUT you want to maintain control over the message and its delivery • When to avoid o When your publics are very small and/or so scattered that dissemination is very difficult o It just doesn't work • Exempt: paid by hour • Nonexempt: paid a salary • The middle ground between high impact, small audience tactics (interpersonal communication tactics) and low impact, large audience tactics (news/advertising) Electronic media tactics • Rely on audio and visual forms of communication • The author includes digital media in electronic, but not social media (social is owned/shared) • Note that many print deliverables have gone digital • Electronic media tactics include o Audio media (phone based communication tactics) o Video media o Online tactics (non social media in nature) • Putting a video on YouTube is a shared media tactic putting it on your website is an electronic media tactic General publication tactics • Published and printed by the org • General publication tactics include o Serial publications (weekly newsletters, bulletins) o Stand-‐ alone publications (brochures, fliers, pamphlets) o Reports (quarterly reports, research reports, whitepapers) Direct mail tactics • Directly addressed and mailed to individual recipients by the org • POSTCARD=SELF MAILER o Letters o Postcards o Invitations Social media tactics • Use the interactive, social internet to generate attention/engage ment among publics • Social media tactics include use of o Blogs o Social networking sites o Wikis News Media Tactics (earned media) • Rely on news orgs to act as mediator • Offer orgs limited control over the audience facing message • Require strong understanding newsworthiness • When to use o When your goal is to reach a large number of people • They may be heterogeneous in nature • News media tactics are "free" o We don’t pay the news media to write a story • However, we try to persuade the news media that writing a story serves their interest/their audiences interest o Traditionally, publicity via the news offers a third party endorsement • However, recent data suggest that people may increasingly mistrust the mainstream media • As mentioned previously, media requires that we understand how to "package" information for journalists o AP style o Newsworthiness o Media systems structures o The media industry 4 categories of news media tactics • Interactive o News conferences, interviews • Direct news material o News releases, fact sheets, b ackgrounders, media kits • Indirect news material o Media advisories, story idea memos, pitch ideas • Opinion material (op -‐eds, position papers, letter to the editor, guest editorials) Advertising and promotional media tactics • Borrows the techniques/approaches used by advertisers • Often/primarily relies on paid media • Can be better controlled by the org than other news media tactics • Lacks credibility associated w news media • When to use? o When your goal is to reach large number of people o When you have available funds 4 types of advertising/promotional tactics • Print advertising media (mag, newspaper, directory, house ) • Electronic media advertising (TV, radio, web) • Out-‐of-‐home (outdoor, transit, aerial) • Prosocial items aka Specialties (clothing, costume, home/office accessory) Foundations of Public Relations Wednesday, January 20, 2016 6:38 PM What is Public Relations? • Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) defines public relations as: "public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organization and their publics" o Other definition is management funciton • Strategic communication o As opposed to tactical • Management function o As opposed to staff function o Management function makes the decisions • Process o A series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular end • Mutually beneficial relationships o Not just relationships that benefit the company • Organizations and their publics Why is PR Valuable ? Swann identifies nine organizational benefits • Provides awareness and information • Fosters internal motivation • Provides an early warning system for/of potential problems • Helps identify opportunities • Helps manage crises • Helps ameliorate executive isolation • Helps facilitate change • Helps promote social responsibility • Helps influence public policy PR and Other Disciplines Types of media o Paid media • advertising o Earned media • Public relations-‐-‐if your client was on air or in the paper it was earned media o Owned media • Your website, your signs on campus, billboards • Don’t need permission to do it o Shared media • Social media: you may own fb or twitter but it can be breeched/taken over • You can't control it like you can control your property What is advertising? • The delivery of information through paid media o Message is one way or asymmetrical **Public relations uses earned and owned media. Its messages are two way or symmetrical forming relationships ** Marketing • Marketing = Product, Place, Price, Promotion • Marketing is the activity, set of institutions and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large similar: different: o PR more concerned with repu tation and marketing is concerned w bottom line o Marketing is paid media o Marketing is outwardly focused while pr focuses on both internal and external publics Journalism • Activity of gathering assessing creating and pursuing similar: • both get content to publics • Use similar styles of writing (AP Style) different: • Journalists are bound to be objective • PR assumes an advocacy role • PR practitioners are hired by organizations to further their interests IMC (Integrated Marketing Communication) • With increasing frequency, org have adopted an IMC o In short, IMC can be understood of the blending of pr and marketing communications within an org • Encourages consistency and working toward a common goal • Increases impact at minimal cost History and PR Law and Ethics Wednesday, January 20, 2016 7:11 PM Press agentry: • Flack=press agentry • First PR efforts original practitioner was PT Barnum of Barnum and Bailey circus o Would have people go ahead of circus and plant information about people in circus • Bottom feeding-‐-‐ BS Publicity: • Non profits • Getting their name out there • Ivy Lee o Father of modern day PR practices o Using publicity method • Corp should always tell the truth and try to limit damages o News releases Persuasive • WWI when we got into the war and US was not happy about it o Sinking of the Lusitania by Germany o President Wilson had PR people sell the war • Propaganda Relations • Last and most recent stage RPIE Formative Research Wednesday, January 20, 2016 7:11 PM Four Steps Public Relations Process RPIE • Research 1. Analyzing the Situation 2. Analyzing the Organization • Planning 3. Establishing goals and objectives 4. Formulation action and response strategies 5. Developing the message strategy • Implementation 6. Selecting communication tactics 7. Implementing the strategic plan • Evaluation 8. Evaluating the strategic plan Phase One: Formative Research • Step one: analyzing the situation • Step two: Analyzing the organization • Step three: Analyzing the publics Step One: Analyzing the situation: Types of research: o Casual research (what you already know) Picking brains of client and colleagues • o Secondary research (existing info) • Organizational files, library, internet o Primary research (new info) • Survey, focus group, content analysis Subtypes: o Quantitative (scientific) • Random sample • Large enough sample • Proper questions • Should be reproducible § Example: random sample survey • "push survey" presents itself as a survey but is really a smear campaign • You can run a new survey and get new answers becau se of more news cycles etc. Ex: waiting for Trump to say something offensive • o Qualitative • Can tell why people answered as they did • Interviews • Not reproducible § Example: focus group Public Relations Situation: A set of circumstances facing an organization o Opportunity o Obstacle Issues Management: process by which an org tries to anticipate emerging issues and respond to them 1. Identify future issues 2. Research and analyze each issue 3. Consider response options 4. Develop action plan for best option 5. Implement the plan 6. Evaluate the effectiveness of the response Risk Management: Process of identifying, controlling, and minimizing the impact of uncertain events on an org Ethical Decision Making: Deontological approach: • Rooted in standards or moral code • "actions are inherently right or wrong Teleological Approach • Focused on impact and consequences • "Right/wrong actions produce good/bad results" Ethical Relativism Reflect particular social norms • • "right/wrong actions are determined by society" Basic Planning Questions: 1. What is the situation facing the org 2. What is the background of the situation 3. What is the significance or importance of the situation Step 2: Analyzing the organization Public Relations Audit • Outline of strengths and weakness of an organization or client • SWOT analysis o Strength o Weakness o Opportunities o Threats Internal Environment Audit Performance • o Quality of goods and services, viability of causes and ideas • Niche o Specialty/function/role that makes org different • Structure o Purpose/mission of org; role of public relations • Ethical base o Conscience of an organization • Internal impediments o Obstacles within org that limit effectiveness of pr program Public Perception • Visibility o Extent to which organization is known AKA top of mind • Reputation o How people evaluate information about organization External Environment • Supporters o People/groups who share interests w org and can further its objectives Competitors • o People/groups who provide similar product/service • Opponents o People/groups organized to fight org • External impediments o Obstacles outside organization that limit effectiveness of pr program Basic Planning Questions (Internal Environment) 1. What is the quality of the orgs performance 2. What communication resources including budget are available 3. How supportive is the org of pr activity? Step 3: Analyzing the Publics Publics vs. Market, Audience and Stakeholder Market: consumer public with similar demographic s targeted for financial interaction supporting the orgs bottom line Total number of people who could give you money for goods/services • Audience: people who use a particular communication medium • Ex: people who watch fox
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