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Memory Part 1

by: Ann Carter Herbert

Memory Part 1 Psych 210

Ann Carter Herbert

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About this Document

Introduction to Psychology
Professor Chris Pagano, PhD
memory, Psychology
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Ann Carter Herbert on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Psych 210 at Clemson University taught by Professor Chris Pagano, PhD in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 11/01/15
Memory:   • Model  of  memory:   o Clear  break  from  behaviorists  because  of  a  diagram     • Attention:   o Is  like  a  spotlight  or  a  filter     o The  book  calls  it  a  “gate”     § Keeps  out  unwanted  stuff  and  focus  on  the  important  stuff   § Stuff  that  you  are  not  paying  attention  to  doesn’t  get  through   the  gate   o Top-­‐down  control:   § Later  processing  can  influence  earlier  processing   § The  higher  conscious  processes  control  what  gets  through     • Anatomical  vs.  Experimental  Evidence:   o Distinction  between  WM  and  LTM   o Working  memory:  holds  information  in  your  head  so  you  can  process   it   o Long-­‐term  memory:  unconscious  holding  of  information,  not  active     § Encoding=storing  into  long  term  memory   § Retrieval:  pulling  long  term  memories  out  of  long  term  and   into  working  memory  to  reflect     o Anatomical:   § The  patient  HM;  suffering  from  severe  epilepsy     § They  removed  part  of  his  hippocampus  that  was  causing   seizures  to  start  and  it  worked     • Unfortunately,  one  of  the  side  effects  was  amnesia  (loss   of  memory)     o Many  different  types  of  amnesia  depending  on   the  part  of  the  brain     o He  lost  the  ability  to  form  new  long  term   memories     • “remembering”  includes  encoding  and  retrieving     o Experimental  Evidence:   § Serial  Position  Curve:   • Subjects  were  given  random  words  to  remember     • A  buzzer  goes  off  and  you  have  to  write  down  as  many   words  as  you  can  remember     o The  question  was,  what  order  did  you   remember?   o The  first  words  and  the  last  words  are  the  easiest   to  remember,  the  problem  area  is  in  the  middle     • Recency  effect:   o Wm   • Primary  effect:   o LTM   • Distinct  components  can  be  effected  independently     o Shows  that  the  recency  effect  and  the  primary   effect  are  separate     § Working  memory:   • How  long  can  stuff  stay  in  there?   • How  much  can  fit?  What  is  its  capacity?   o 7  +  or  –  2  items  on  average   o but  then  what  is  an  item?     § Chunking:  15  letters  is  15  items     § But  by  rearranging  the  letters,  you  can   make  them  into  words  and  then  chunk   them  so  there  are  only  about  5  items     • This  showed  us  that  the  brain  pulls   from  our  long  term  memory  into   working  memory  in  order  to   maximize  the  space  of  our  working   memory     • Meaningfulness  allows  “chunking”       § Through  information  processing  raw  sensations  are  encoded   (changing  the  information  in  some  way  before  storing)  into   meaningful  units     • Key  idea  to  the  invention  of  the  computer     • Not  what  behaviorists  would  have  believed     • This  was  a  key  finding  that  caused  the  “cognitive   revolution”     § The  brain  is  not  like  a  hard  drive:   • Meaningfulness  matters   • The  more  knowledge  you  have,  the  easier  it  is  to  store   info-­‐opposite  of  a  computer  hard  drive     • The  brain  does  not  like  randomness   o It  tries  to  find  meaning  in  all  stimulation   § Working  Memory:  divided  into  three  sections   • Central  Executive  (has  to  divide  its  time  between  the   two)     o Phonological  Loop  (Verbal)   o Visuospatial  Sketch  Pad  (Visual)     § These  two  are  separate  and  have  their   own  separate  capacities     • If  you  are  worried  about  a  test,  you  are  actually  taking   up  some  of  the  7  +/-­‐  2  space  in  your  brain     • It  is  easier  to  do  2  mental  tasks  at  once  if  one  is  visual  &   one  is  verbal     o Easy  to  watch  football  and  have  a  conversation   o Hard  to  watch  the  news  and  have  a  conversation   because  the  news  is  very  verbal     o Example:  hands  free  cell  phone  is  no  better  when   driving     • Encoding:   o What  do  you  do  to  something  to  turn  it  into  a   memory?  How  do  you  alter  it?   o The  importance  is  making  it  meaningful     o The  importance  of  Elaboration:   § You  are  thinking  about  something,  but   you  are  thinking  about  more  ideas  to   describe  that  thing   • Memory  is  organized  as  networks     • Memory  is  organized  in  a  hierarchy     o Example:  animal-­‐dog  or  bird-­‐different  types  of   species  for  each     § Unlike  WM,  LTM  is  NEVER  full   o When  you  are  Encoding,  you  are  incorporating:   § MEANINGFULNESS   § CONNECT  this  info  to  info  you  already  know   o Another  word  for  “remembering”  is  “retrieving”  (from  LTM)   o Encoding  and  Retrieval  are  both  Constructive  processes     § When  you  encode,  you  build  something  in  your  head   § When  you  retrieve,  you  re-­‐construct  your  memory  from  its   components   • This  leads  to  many  aspects  of  faulty  memories   • You  pull  the  things  you  saw  from  one  part  of  your  brain,   the  sounds  from  another  part  of  your  brain,  emotions   from  another   o This  means  we  do  not  store  a  video  or  a  file  of   everything  that  happened,  we  break  it  down  to   store  it   • You  don’t  remember  when  you  learn  things,  you   remember  what  you  learned     o This  makes  it  easier  to  misremember   information   § Due  to  the  constructive  nature  of  memory,  &  the  influence  of   post-­‐event  information,  eye-­‐witness  testimony  is  often   unreliable   § Memory  distortions  due  to  post-­‐event  information   o Spreading  Activation:   § How  the  nervous  system  works  when  retrieving     o Priming:   § Red-­‐apple-­‐rose   • Different  types  of  memories:   o Explicit  memory:   § (declarative,  conscious)   • Colombia  is  the  capital  of  SC   § Dividing  into  two  kinds:   • Episodic  memories     o (one’s  own  experience)   o “replaying  events”   • Semantic  memories:   o (word  meanings,  facts,  general  knowledge)   o Episodic  part  is  not  encoded   o Implicit  Memories   § (non  declarative,  unconscious)   • how  to  write  your  name,  how  to  ride  a  bike   § Priming  with  amnesia:   • Implicit  activation  of  an  LTM  that  can’t  be  explicitly   accessed     § Three  Kinds:   • Classical  Conditioning  effects:   o (conditioned  emotional  reactions)   • Procedural  memory:   o (motor  skills,  habits,  tacit  rules)   • Priming   o (implicit  activation  of  concepts  in  long-­‐term   memory)     o spreading  activation   o A  short  list  of  memory  problems:   § Storage:  (encoding  problems)   § Retrieval  problems  (“tip-­‐of-­‐the-­‐tongue”)     § Repressed  memories  (stuffing  memories  into  consciousness  so   that  people  don’t  remember  it  until  maybe  later  in  life)   § False  memories     § Distorted  memories   § Lost  (forgotten)  memories          


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