Memory Part 1
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Ann Carter Herbert
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Ann Carter Herbert on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Psych 210 at Clemson University taught by Professor Chris Pagano, PhD in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Memory: • Model of memory: o Clear break from behaviorists because of a diagram • Attention: o Is like a spotlight or a filter o The book calls it a “gate” § Keeps out unwanted stuff and focus on the important stuff § Stuff that you are not paying attention to doesn’t get through the gate o Top-‐down control: § Later processing can influence earlier processing § The higher conscious processes control what gets through • Anatomical vs. Experimental Evidence: o Distinction between WM and LTM o Working memory: holds information in your head so you can process it o Long-‐term memory: unconscious holding of information, not active § Encoding=storing into long term memory § Retrieval: pulling long term memories out of long term and into working memory to reflect o Anatomical: § The patient HM; suffering from severe epilepsy § They removed part of his hippocampus that was causing seizures to start and it worked • Unfortunately, one of the side effects was amnesia (loss of memory) o Many different types of amnesia depending on the part of the brain o He lost the ability to form new long term memories • “remembering” includes encoding and retrieving o Experimental Evidence: § Serial Position Curve: • Subjects were given random words to remember • A buzzer goes off and you have to write down as many words as you can remember o The question was, what order did you remember? o The first words and the last words are the easiest to remember, the problem area is in the middle • Recency effect: o Wm • Primary effect: o LTM • Distinct components can be effected independently o Shows that the recency effect and the primary effect are separate § Working memory: • How long can stuff stay in there? • How much can fit? What is its capacity? o 7 + or – 2 items on average o but then what is an item? § Chunking: 15 letters is 15 items § But by rearranging the letters, you can make them into words and then chunk them so there are only about 5 items • This showed us that the brain pulls from our long term memory into working memory in order to maximize the space of our working memory • Meaningfulness allows “chunking” § Through information processing raw sensations are encoded (changing the information in some way before storing) into meaningful units • Key idea to the invention of the computer • Not what behaviorists would have believed • This was a key finding that caused the “cognitive revolution” § The brain is not like a hard drive: • Meaningfulness matters • The more knowledge you have, the easier it is to store info-‐opposite of a computer hard drive • The brain does not like randomness o It tries to find meaning in all stimulation § Working Memory: divided into three sections • Central Executive (has to divide its time between the two) o Phonological Loop (Verbal) o Visuospatial Sketch Pad (Visual) § These two are separate and have their own separate capacities • If you are worried about a test, you are actually taking up some of the 7 +/-‐ 2 space in your brain • It is easier to do 2 mental tasks at once if one is visual & one is verbal o Easy to watch football and have a conversation o Hard to watch the news and have a conversation because the news is very verbal o Example: hands free cell phone is no better when driving • Encoding: o What do you do to something to turn it into a memory? How do you alter it? o The importance is making it meaningful o The importance of Elaboration: § You are thinking about something, but you are thinking about more ideas to describe that thing • Memory is organized as networks • Memory is organized in a hierarchy o Example: animal-‐dog or bird-‐different types of species for each § Unlike WM, LTM is NEVER full o When you are Encoding, you are incorporating: § MEANINGFULNESS § CONNECT this info to info you already know o Another word for “remembering” is “retrieving” (from LTM) o Encoding and Retrieval are both Constructive processes § When you encode, you build something in your head § When you retrieve, you re-‐construct your memory from its components • This leads to many aspects of faulty memories • You pull the things you saw from one part of your brain, the sounds from another part of your brain, emotions from another o This means we do not store a video or a file of everything that happened, we break it down to store it • You don’t remember when you learn things, you remember what you learned o This makes it easier to misremember information § Due to the constructive nature of memory, & the influence of post-‐event information, eye-‐witness testimony is often unreliable § Memory distortions due to post-‐event information o Spreading Activation: § How the nervous system works when retrieving o Priming: § Red-‐apple-‐rose • Different types of memories: o Explicit memory: § (declarative, conscious) • Colombia is the capital of SC § Dividing into two kinds: • Episodic memories o (one’s own experience) o “replaying events” • Semantic memories: o (word meanings, facts, general knowledge) o Episodic part is not encoded o Implicit Memories § (non declarative, unconscious) • how to write your name, how to ride a bike § Priming with amnesia: • Implicit activation of an LTM that can’t be explicitly accessed § Three Kinds: • Classical Conditioning effects: o (conditioned emotional reactions) • Procedural memory: o (motor skills, habits, tacit rules) • Priming o (implicit activation of concepts in long-‐term memory) o spreading activation o A short list of memory problems: § Storage: (encoding problems) § Retrieval problems (“tip-‐of-‐the-‐tongue”) § Repressed memories (stuffing memories into consciousness so that people don’t remember it until maybe later in life) § False memories § Distorted memories § Lost (forgotten) memories
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