MIFS * Notes
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Date Created: 01/23/15
22614 News amp Discussion 0 Net neutrality and Net ix deal won t lead to Net ix price hike bc of boosted streaming speeds O Net ix will pay for direct access to Comcast39s broadband network I OpenNet for less Internet traffic 0 Backlash from users of Net ix who won t be able to access the site despite paying for Comcast s service 0 Time Warner Cable and Comcast merger 0 Drives down competition from other cable providers 0 Will they honor net neutrality Is it in their best interest I Not really so they mostly likely won t 0 Will the FCC allow it I Most likely but they will go through the merger w a finetoothed comb 0 Piers Morgan being fired from CNN 0 Channel context and audience matter low vs high ratings 0 Morgan a British bully who chastised American issues Americans don t want to be told by someone of another culture that their opinions are incorrect Notes The News 0 Definition 0 Current events 0 Domestic and international 0 Relevant to the audience 0 Information stories ideas 0 David Brinkley s definition News is what I say it is O Predeterminedin uenced by the media corporation behind the journalists 0 Phalen definition News is what journalists say it is 0 Readings 0 People to remember Gans and Schudson 0 About journalistic practice and how that practice professionalism affects the info we get through news channels 0 The news is O Eventcentered I Driven by events press conferences protests announcements I Indicates that certain people have ability to control news President Obama speaking automatically becomes news 0 Negative I More likely to focus on what is wrong than on what is right 0 Objective or detached I Objectivity is the goal of the journalist 0 Technical I More focused on strategies and tactics than on policy 0 Official I Dependent on official sources aka government officer etc I News bias becomes relevant because journalists work within the system of newsgathering and reporting 3514 0 Not necessarily because of personal viewpoints and politics 0 It is the factors that constrain them as they try to report Selection 0 Which stories to cover I Stories about underrepresented groups middleincome whites or lowincome groups I Inherently a source of bias 0 How to frame these reports I Based on little tacit theories about what exists what happens and what matters Schudson I Framing is giving stories a context The golden mean is the midpoint between two extremes 0 Best stories strike the perfect balance between polarized viewpoints What qualifies as news 0 The news picks up exceptions more often than rules 0 Con ict scandals crises disasters 0 Sports weather etc Limits on coverage 0 Budgets I Cannot cover Afghanistan from NY 0 Time 0 Sources I Where information is received from Information subsidy is a shortcut 0 Press releases put out by corporations from which journalists gather information Challenging he said she said journalism 0 Are objectivity and fairness merely masking lazy thinking 0 Does every argument really have equal merit 0 Should we be demanding a journalism of truth 0 Who are we listening to as credible sources News amp Discussion Notes The Oscars Ellen s viral tweet Ukraine different news outlets cover the story differently Wag the D02 Plot Spin doctor fabricates war to get the president reelected thus covering up a sex scandal Themes Powerful people with money can make an impact forces behind the government will manipulate whatever they can issues are often entertainment trivialization of lifewar Effect How does it affect our view of the news How farfetched is thiscould it happen The Press and Democracv Democracy in America 1838 Classic text by French aristocrat Alexis de Tocqueville outlining his observations of democracy as a whole while studying the prison system 0 The US Press I Writes about the political sphere I Acknowledges wider in uence of press on culture I Not just news but entertainment 0 Freedom of the press in the US I Not much of a deep argument opinions uff I Journalists are uneducated and vulgar I But newspapers are a powerful source of in uence I The more there are ideas in circulation in society the more stable the society is I Freedom of the press is not a good he appreciates the free press more for the evil it prevents than for the good it creates 0 Government would control press if we did not take the bad with the good I The press circulates facts this is because the people govern I People can develop their opinions the tribunal of public opinion is what we need to inform correctly I Universal suffrage and censorship 0 Freedom of the press 0 Ideas in circulation 0 Citizens choose their opinions I But they become attached to them out of pride pay less attention to facts 0 Gans quote about the idea that facts don t often change opinions 0 Democracy in the news 0 Gans working theory if citizens pay attention to the news they will be informed 0 Journalists fulfill four roles I Messengers for political elites I Messengers for the citizenry I Disaster messengers I Watchdogsinvestigators 0 Digital technology and the internet are now players in the news space which can be either good or bad I Good 0 Greater amount of commentary 0 Voice to minoritiespeople who don t usually have a voice I Bad 0 The importance of credible journalism is decreasing 0 Time constraints trying to get news quickly causes problems 0 Lowers visibility of news citizens have to seek it out 0 Reduction in number of journalists 0 Journalism by Gans I Professionals are trained to inform society about itself I One characteristic about good journalists is that they are able to decide newsworthiness what makes a story important and to whom 31914 News amp Discussion 0 Significantly more coverage on the missing Malaysian Airlines ight than on the annexing of Crimea by Russia 94 of US news coverage 0 Fox CNN NYT Malaysian Flight 0 Huff Post WaPo Crimea 0 CNN has blown other networks programs out of the waters with its nearly 24hour coverage on the ight with Anderson Cooper s program beating Bill O Reilly s program because it was entirely about the ight ight coverage ethical bc it is a human drama with an international aspect but why isn t Crimea I Ethical dilemma journalistic integrity vs profit pays the bills I Most of CNN s and other news outlets coverage has been speculation not facts Kurtz believes that doublechecking info would serve audience better in other words reporters should filter 0 The word breaking has become meaningless because every rehashed detail is breaking O Hardwired to think Oh they finally figured it out when it actually means We don t have all the facts yet I Who counts as an expert 0 Are they credible and are the media outlets vetting these experts for valid qualifications Or is anyone with a mouthpiece and an opinion considered an expert Notes Media Theories about Effects of Media 0 Theory a useful simplification of reality not abstract and impenetrable but rather a helpful way to explain something 0 Researchers in academia and business want to know how media affect citizensconsumers 0 Conduct research to explain how media serve or don t serve society these studies usually have a practical application 0 Business conduct research constantly but it is proprietary meaning we as the public audience don t have access to it I Academics publish so we know a lot about what they study 0 Research in MPA focuses mainly on news 0 These theories try to explain 0 Media content what gets into the news I Why is this content present and not something else I What role does personal opinion play in a journalists work 0 Public opinion what effects media content have on the way people form opinions about issues 0 How people process the news what they understand I Do people believe everything in the news I Do they understand the details of a story or just the main idea 0 How media affect society as a whole patterns of media use I Do people seek out stories that con ict with their worldview I Or do they stick with stories that reinforce it 0 This is often the case bc people can pick and choose what news they re exposed to nowadays I Effects research began when Jewish refugees wanted to study why Hitler s use of media radio and newspaper was so effective first researchers thus were Jewish 0 Theories 0 Magic Bullet Theory I Media are very powerful only need to be seen to have an effect I Individuals understand the news in similar ways Individuals respond to the news in similar ways Effects on thought and behavior are direct immediate uniform and powerful This theory has been discredited 0 Selected and Limited Effects Theory The psychological makeup of individuals varies considerably from person to person There are many social categories with their own subcultures Different subcultures have different beliefs attitudes and values People exist in social networks People are selective in what they pay attention to and in how they interpret news power of the media is thus limited and has limited effects 0 Twostep Flow of Communication Theory Some people don t pay much attention to the news Others pay a lot of attention to the news and become the information goto persons in their social networks These goto persons become opinion leaders bc others trust them and rely on them for news 0 News goes from Step 1 Media to opinion leaders Step 2 Opinion leaders to others in their social networks 0 Uses amp Gratifications Theory Katz Blumler and Gurevitch 1974 spelled out the research agenda of this approach Gratificationists are concerned with 0 Social and psychological origins of 0 Needs which generate 0 Expectations of 0 Mass media or other sources which lead to 0 Differential patterns of media exposure or engagement in other activities resulting in 0 Need gratifications and 0 Other consequences mostly unintended ones Basically a person has some need they think media can fill mostly not a conscious need this person chooses media based on that need 0 Different people have different needs so they choose different media Early research on this theory 0 Paul Lazarsfeld and Herta Herzog at Columbia Office of Radio Research 0 Soap opera studies in uenced by psychology I Why do women listen to soap operas I Hypothesis to address some need 39 Conducted interviews to find out 0 Wilbur Schramm children s use of television 0 Theory of Unintended News Distortion Walter Lippman Herbert Gans and others News is biaseddistorted due to the demands of journalism 0 Bias isn t just the fault of opinionated journalists News distortions are due to the way journalists do their jobs 0 Deadlines 0 Goto sources 0 Story hooks to get readers interests 0 Beats way journalists get assigned to cover different areas Reputational concerns with colleagues journalists want their colleagues to admire them more concerned with expert opinion of fellow journalists than with readership Advertisers Space andor time limitations 0 Gatekeeping Theory Within news orgs certain stories are selected and others are eliminated from consideration 0 Space and time limitations mean filters have to be used The stories selected are told in specific ways Thus public gets a partial view of what is happening in reality 0 Agenda Setting Theory Because of gatekeeping news orgs report only some stories from all those that are possible The choice of position and length of story gives the report more or less prominence 0 Front page versus page 16 Means that news orgs set an agenda of news items reported to the public 0 Affects readers by shaping their understanding of what isis not important 0 News agenda becomes public s agenda The news media do not tell us what to think but they tell us what to think about 0 Spiral of Silence Theory People want to be popular and respected They pay attention to which opinions and ways of acting are accepted by society Thus they act accordingly to retain respect and esteem 0 Which opinions can I express The popular opinion gets louder the less popular opinion gets quieter There are different publics that we want to be esteemed by it varies from group to group for example young students want to be esteemed by their student peers Killer of free speech shows what happens when people don t feel free to say what they think 0 What has changed with new technologies 0 Budgets at major news orgs have dropped 0 Consumer expectations have changed immediacy of news 0 Information overload In order to cope people choose certain possibly narrow channels create a channel repertoire goto channels to fulfill newsentertainment needs Attention spans are shorter Stories have to be visual 0 More time plugged in means less time to think Notes Readings Gans Obiectivitv Values and IdeoloaV Journalists gain autonomy due to social contract of omitting personal values in exchange for choosing the news Strive to be objective in intent by personal detachment and in effect by disregarding implications of the story Journalism field tends to recruit those who lack strong personal values and can easily practice value exclusion in their reporting as a result Expressing personal values harms credibility and integrity as well as commercial image profitability O Journalists only question objectivity when it prevents them from reporting what they know to be lies To express their opinions journalists often turn to writing on the side for opinionbased outlets stories editorials cartoons etc Journalists not truly free from implications effects are out of their control determined by readership Importance of fairness as a buffer against undue criticism fairness determined in accordance w enduring values and regulated by FCC laws In the US journalists cannot form conscious political viewpoints bc not ideologists those who report on politics are often wholly disinterested in politics 0 Here ideological thought left to political activists and intellectuals 0 Though news constantly runs material on ideological issues journalists are reporting the issues often not aware of the ideological issues in the news Ideologists not wanted by news media bc seen as obstruction to story selection and production process would only want to report stories that advance their viewpoints O The unwritten rule is that conclusionsopinions which are deemed to be ideological can survive only if they are supported by evidence Enduring values included in the news unconsciously bc they are built into importance judgments and thus do not con ict w objectivity O Endure bc basic assumptions about news judgment barely change over time 0 Not the same as professional values do not re ect technical expertise 0 EV are ingredients in the recipe for a healthy nationsociety Consistency in terms of the stand an outlet takes is achieved through voiceattitude 0 Magazines often take explicit stands but television does not expresses opinions instead 39 Newsweek editor described its voice as a welleducated decent liberal an open minded fair person but also one who is bemused and ironic 0 Importance of choosing words carefully connotations masses vs mobs Reality or news judgments assumptions about external reality associated w the concepts which journalists use to grasp it 0 Ex when journalists decide what is new they also make assumptions about what is old and no longer newsworthy O Judgments are made keeping in mind the compound of nationsocietysocial institutions I Thus judgments are usually stereotypes accurate or not which journalists borrow bc of their availability and familiarity to both journalists and audience 0 The news depends on reinforces and invents these stereotypes they also coincide with those created independently by other people 0 Some judgments come from journalists personal experiencebackground I Thus contain lay values journalists can not be purely professional 0 History of journalism closely tied to values of 21st century Progressivism O Muckrakers citizen informants I Journalists emphasize the president bc he is a productive amp e icient source of news not bc they value his leadership 0 Must choose the sources that are most productive and efficient Schudson Media Bias 0 Distortions in news selection are socially organized and built into the structure of newsgathering O Subjectivity in news is patterned and predictable not personal 0 Result of journalists relying on shorthand in order to churn out a story every 24 hours I Bias the reportereditor knows what the real event looks like but will color it to advance a political economic or ideological aim O Intentional bias though it exists does not dominate the majority of US news institutions I Idea of bias replaced nowadays with framing frames are the principles of selection emphasis and presentation composed of little tacit theories about what exists what happens and what matters 0 Acknowledging that news stories frame reality also implies that it is impossible to avoid framing I Also accepts possibility that news might speak in more than one voice even in the same institution 0 The news picks up exceptions more often than the rules 0 Competitive pressures push news institutions not to miss a hot story 0 American press unusually aggressive in pursuing a scandal 0 Obligated to make profits and maintain credibility w both the public at large and with expert subgroups within it I Pressure for fairness 0 Critics on the left point to media as biased against their views 0 Newspapers re ect moodsvalues of white middleclass society I Coverage of domestic worker scandal by Univision vs rest of the media Univision looked at it from perspective of underpaid immigrant care providers 0 Critics on the right conservatives argue that reporterseditors have a predominantly liberal outlook 0 Market competition drives journalists toward scandal and sleaze 0 Professionalism is hallmark to modern US press disease and cure O Sociologists in the 1970 s found that media bias comes from professional achievement under constraints of organizational pressures I News is said to be 0 Eventcentered actioncentered and personcentered I Often involve con ictviolence oversimplification to emphasize melodrama O Negative I Good news isn t news Bad news is news Henry Luce I Deviant rather than norm disorder rather than order dissonance rather than harmony Tamar Liebes 0 Detached I Visible in political stories ironic and distanced viewpoint 0 Technical I Emphasis on strategy and tactics not outcome 0 Official I Dependent on legitimate sources usually highbrow officials in the government I Tends to make the news statist covering government voices rather than civil ones Problem w press is professionalism not the absence of it Franklin Lewis ampWilliams Journalism News Sources and Public Relations Public relations sector increasingly important source of news manufacturing since outside actors are what drive news whether they implicitly or explicitly know it 0 Declining newspapers sales driving use of PR to fill editorial pages 0 PR gives journalists raw material to construct national news UKpublished paper examines editorial balance bw journalism and PR impact on journalists products and professional practice Sources considered more dominant in the journalistsource relationship but journalists refute that saying they will not be degraded from a watchdog into a PR lapdog 0 Politicians employ an entire industry to present themselves as favorably as possible and I don t see it as my job to in ate the egos of little men I However the belief that public PR is in uential in shaping news is becoming more prevalent Information subsidy efforts by policy actors to increase the consumption of persuasive messages by reducing their costs 0 PR practitioners offer info subsidies to news outlets via press releases press conferences etc 0 Reduces costs of newsgathering maintains profitability by offsetting decline of circulations and ad revenues Setting the national news agenda 0 Study of 2000 domestic news reports of a sample of quality reports Guardian The Times Independent etc and midmarket newspapers confirmed journalists extensive use of info subsidies from PR sources 0 Eight key subject areas in order crime domestic issues politics business health entertainmentsport disaster and foreign policy Reliance on PR not wholly negative PR professionals generate factual and newsworthy stories 0 But sources become limited to a few powerful elite groups corporations etc 0 Ordinary citizens voices muted Setting the local news agenda 0 Vast majority of press releases issued by local authority generate stories in the local press 0 Willingness of local papers to accept info subsidies related directly to the paper s size resources and of journalists employed I Pressure of time constraints lack of investment etc cause journalists to resort to convenient prepackaged sources of news PR to the rescue Greenhouse Challenging He Said She Said Journalism He said she said format was designed to avoid taking sides on controversial issues O Ongoing debate regarding whether this format inhibits rather than enhances goal of informing the reader I Specifically occurs around campaign time when the format is especially vulnerable to manipulation by candidates I News orgs now post factcheck boxes to vet the accuracy of political adsplatforms 0 Loaded words 0 Waterboarding as torture vs an enhanced interrogation technique I Controversial issues have trigger words which have huge social and political implicationsconnotations 0 Is the goal of only reporting truth achievable 0 First Amendment recognizes no idea as a false idea evokes image of Marketplace of Ideas wherein ideas compete freely for public favor 0 Truth lacks single definition I Correspondence getting the facts straight I Coherence making sense of the facts 0 Rivkin at the Times 0 Served as goto proxysurrogate to highlight the other side of controversial actions undertaken by the Bush administration I Always played strong defensive role Tocqueville Freedom of the Press in the United States I Sovereignty of the people and the freedom of the press are correlated 0 Believes periodical press has instructs and passions of its own volition Tocqueville s experiences in America proved this to him 0 American press has same destructive tastes and violence as French press but it is unwarranted O No country at the time had fewer germs of revolution than US 0 Believes American press is much less powerful than French press 0 American political life is active and varied but undisturbed by deep passions unless material interests are compromised I 75 of the paper is devoted to advertisements rest contains political newsanecdotes rare to find burning arguments 0 French press combines two types of centralization power is concentrated in fewer hands and number of newspapers is smaller I Americans have no general control of thought printers need no license newspapers need no stamps 0 Easy to start a paper thus there are numerous papers in circulation very few are newsworthy 0 Abuse of the powers of thought accuses American journalists of distorting factsknowledge to gain subscribersin uence Gans News and Democracy in the United States Problems and Possibilities 0 Believes American journalists have done less on behalf of democracy than they think 0 All societies with formal political institutions whether democratic or not have news media 0 Presence of news orgs does not automatically lead to an informed populace or a democratic society Four roles of news media 0 Messengers for the political elites I Journalists mainly report the actions of the highest government officials 0 Passive reporting stenographers for political leaders considered newsworthy gloss over lessknown officials I When con icts between leaders arise journalists report the disagreements in a twosided fashion objectively 0 Active reporting journalists enlist other sources to help news audience inform itself about the con ict I Campaign reporting almost always to judge whose electoral chances will be helpedhurt almost never about the issues or about other electoral news 0 Messengers for the citizenry I Occasionally report on the political involvements of the citizenry 0 Limited to pollsters major demonstrations trouble for the police and lobbies 0 Disaster messengers I For large losses of American life or property hurricanes terrorist attacks and upsetting events increase in gas prices 2008 economic crisis I Reported bc expected to have political consequences 0 Watchdogs I Guardians of politically relevant American values I Through highlyprized investigative reporting journalists wish to expose corruption dishonesty and scandal I Through both reporting and its very presence media act as watchdogs by enforcing altruistic democracy Shrinkage of old media print newspapers and magazines does not mean news traditions will end as well 0 Digital news supplied by the same journalists who gatherreport news for print news 0 Most of web audience will likely cluster around small of primary news sites Audiences for print and electronic news shrinking but likely due to fragmentation access to many news sources 0 Actual consumption of news remains a mystery Political effects of news media changes 0 Digital news media have added new players I Rumor mongers messengers of fake facts and creators of hateful images I Bloggers and their commenters could be average people or experts but they expand supply of columnsop eds 0 Add voices to the democratic conversation I Could some day be mobilizers for political causes I Citizenjoumalists contribute usable news photos videos and tips to media orgs and nonnews sites like YouTube I Cheap cost of these new contributors creates risk of replacement of professional journalists 0 Lower visibility of the news I Newspapers and TV create a strong presence which websites haven t yet created I Affects political in uence of news media 0 Reduction in number of journalists I Reduces professionals who are trained to inform society about itself I If fewer journalists are covering elected officials the officials may feel freer to ignore the electorate I Depends on health of US economy and on peoples needdesire for relevant news 0 Implications for democracy 0 News media are here to stay so long as they adapt to the increasingly digitized medium of reporting 0 Digital news media should be willing to compete with each other in covering important stories obtaining exclusives etc I In other words must emulate the roles of traditional news media 0 Primary task of today s news media is restoring their economic health 0 To fix this encourage outside funding sources to help pay for investigative reporting 0 Young people paying less attention to news than in the past 0 To fix this 1 make news more comprehensible and less technical make it more conversational and 2 increase people s need for news I Journalists need to rethink their professional role reconsider what is truly newsworthy 0 Should be more analytic add interpretation to description explain and evaluate stories I News media are necessary but insufficient 0 Power determines what knowledge is relevant to effective political participation Entman Framing 0 Analyzing power of framing elucidates the way in which in uence over a human consciousness is exerted by the transfer communication of info 0 Framing involves selection and salience 0 Selecting some aspects of a perceived reality and making them seem more salient so as to promote a particular point of view I Frames define problems diagnose causes make moral judgments and suggest remedies I Can enhance salience by placement repetition or association with culturally familiar symbols 0 Frames determine whether most people notice and how they understand a problem 0 Also affect how they evaluate and choose to act upon it 0 Implication the frame has a common effect on most but not all of the audience 0 Frames in political news 0 Major role in the exertion of political power registers identity of actors politicians 0 News texts often show homogeneous framing at one level of analysis yet competing frames at another I Research paradigm general theory that informs about the operation and outcomes of any particular system of thought and action 0 Audience autonomy if text frame emphasizes a situation to be positive studies suggest that few members of the audience will conclude it to be negative I People forge linkages of their own that are absent from the text 0 Journalistic objectivity despite following rules for objective reporting journalists often convey a dominant frame that in uences the audience s assessment of a situation 0 Content analysis avoid treating all negatives or positive terms as equally salient and in uential 0 Public opinion and normative democratic theory framing is a central power in the democratic process political elites control the framing of issues which determine what public opinion is NoelleNeumann The Spiral of Silence 0 For the individual not isolating himself is more important than his own judgment 0 Public opinion sanction and punishment thus closely linked 0 Two patterns of behavior 0 One may discover he agrees with the prevailing view boosting his selfconfidence and enabling him to express himself wo fear of isolation 0 One may discover his view to be losing ground causing him to be uncertain of himself and preventing him from expressing his opinion Individuals tend to adapt their views according to the opinion that is heard most frequently causing that one faction to appear dominant O Tendency of the one to speak up and the other to be silent begins to spiral establishing one opinion as the prevailing one 0 Research showed that on two topics treaties with MoscowWarsaw and support for Franz Strauss the losing factions were as willing as the majority to expose themselves 0 Suggests that a minority faction may be reduced to a hard core of persons not willing to conformbe silent in the face of public opinion 0 Research also proposes the following predictions 0 A current majority considered to be a minority will decline in the future and vice versa 0 A current majority not entirely convinced of their ability to remain a majority will decrease 0 If uncertainty about the prevailing future strength of an opinion increases this signifies a reversal of the prevailing opinion 0 If two factions differ in their willingness to expose their views the one showing more willingness is likelier to succeed in the future 0 Thus a minority convinced of their future dominance and willing to expose themselves faced by a majority doubting itself and unwilling to stand up for their views will most probably become the dominant opinion 0 Change from a factional opinion to public opinion 0 Ongoing scientific debate about whether mass media in uence public opinion or re ect it 0 Mass media should be seen as creator of public opinion bc they provide the environmental pressure to which people respond w obedience or silence Mutz Effects of CivilitV 0 Americans usually negatively view politicians bc they are perpetually involved in con ict 0 Con ict seen as distasteful and unnecessary 0 However openly expressing con icting viewpoints considered central to the democratic process 0 Political debate is thus warranted but usually conducted in a way that creates adverse reactions 0 Televised portrayals of political con ict via mass media are ever growing 0 Media coverage of congressional oor debates deliberation etc makes divisiveness seem more evident leading to an American culture of argument Journalists continue to cover con ict because it is arousing and attracts more viewers TV producers thus encourage heated exchanges of political viewpoints leading to people holding a cynical view of politicians Mediated media presentations vs realworld facetoface exchanges experiences of political con ict 0 Civility I Central tendency in media highlight emotional extremes impoliteness yelling etc I Central tendency in realworld emotional control politeness downplay intensity 0 Interpersonal distance I Central tendency in media intimate interpersonal distance is far less than in real life bc closeness elicits arousal among viewers I Central tendency in realworld about the same reaction reduced distance from a speaker with dissimilar views should promote greater dislike for the speaker Psychology of humanmedia interaction 0 Mediated representations of other people who appear closer cause stronger emotions as if they were that close in real life 0 People expect media to obey a wide range of social rules Hypothesis 0 Recall of specific issue arguments should be adversely affected by violations of interpersonal discourse I Attention is directed toward emotional content rather than the political content less substance is processed rehearsed and stored in memory by viewers Study design 0 Manipulation of extent to which politicians exchanged political viewpoints by violating typical norms governing facetoface civil expression 0 Two actors hired to take part in mock informal debate as candidates running for district seat in Indiana debated issues such as NASA funding Internet privacy etc and took opposing sides I Taped two versions one civil and one uncivil uncivil version rated quarrelsome and less friendly Results 0 Arousal findings I Uncivil exchanges featuring closeups were most arousing I Highly civil exchanges featuring medium shots were least arousing 0 Effects on recall I People gave correct answers in both conditions but uncivil exchange had slightly fewer errors in locating the positions of the candidates I Those who watched civil exchange more likely to remember arguments on opposing side relative to their own whereas in uncivil exchange people likelier to remember arguments on their own side Discussion 0 Uncivil discourse is arousing which encourages the production of uncivil political exchanges O Incivility increases memory by mobilization of mental resources as a result of arousal O Discouraging to those who champion civil debate on surface I But civility allows us to see rationales for other side s views leads to better understanding of opposition 0 Classic case of market failure type of presentation that attracts audiences and increases revenues not necessarily the one that best serves democratic citizens 32414 Guest Speaker Jesse Holcomb What do people want from journalism I Contact jholcombpewresearchorg 0 Founded by Joseph N Pew Jr who gave the president some advice Tell the truth and trust the people 0 Fact tank produces data to inform debates happening in Washington 0 The public s news values 0 No spin I Straight facts w no added pointof view I 64 of public want political news without POV 0 Watchdog role I 68 believe that news organizations criticism of world leaders keep leaders from doing things that shouldn t be done a type of check 0 More coverage of certain topics I Scientific news and discoveries 44 believe not enough I Sports and athletes 87 believe enough 0 Indepth and thorough I Quality of coverage seen as a bigger impact than quantity I 13 of US adults have left a news outlet bc it seemed that the stories were incomplete 0 Local I People less interested in news happening abroad 0 What people want depends on the medium I Newspapers 0 Top source for news on community events crime local government 0 Ties with intemet as top source for news on housing jobs 0 Ties with TV as top source for local political news I TV 0 Top source for weather and breaking news I Internet 0 Top source for restaurants and local businesses I Radio 0 Ties with TV as top source for traffic news 0 The News Gap Buczowski I News agenda vs human behavior I News orgs on home page posted their hard foreign affairs stories such as international crises wars con icts etc I But public tended to click on or share softer news such as entertainment I Find that people say they want one thing from the news but often want something else entirely hence the gap 0 Rewire Zuckerman I Potential of Internet to connect us across boundaries but we still tend to be parochial people not willing to connect outside our communities I Plausible that US news audience not as highminded as they would have you think but they are in control I Metricdriven coverage US public decides what gets covered based on what s driving websales traffic 0 Numbers don t lie but people do 32614 Discussion 0 Paper Assignment 0 Your roommate believes that journalists are inherently biased in a certain way and that this bias is re ected in the attitudes and beliefs of their audience Respond to your roommates claim 0 Pick specific topics to use in argument can say that roommate is right to a degree but not always I Example bias against Hilary Clinton during campaign coverage bias against African Americans during Hurricane Katrina coverage 0 Sources required I Three academic sources discussed in class not WaPo or NYT articles I Articles or research relating to backgroundexamples I Works Cited page 0 Grammar I Media is plural media are baised I Citations in acceptable format 0 Due May 4th at 12pm I Submitted electronically I No draft readings but can meet TAs outside of class to discuss Notes We Steal Secrets 0 Argument WikiLeaks harmful to the functioning of a democratic society 0 Information vital to the inner workings of the government releasing to public compromises ability of government to work effectively 0 Peace of mind given to citizens don t want to know what exactly the government does overwhelming O Protecting citizens backlash of releasing names etc could harm lives I Need to redact names of informants 0 Need a space for confidentiality O Pointless if the data released is unprocessed average American doesn t understand bureaucratic documents 0 Argument WikiLeaks essential to the functioning of a democratic society 0 Sheds light on government wrongdoing or seedy activities 0 Keeps citizens in the loop remain informed about the goingson of their society and government 0 Right to access information Freedom of Information Act 0 Related to the Marketplace of Ideas if everyone talks about it the truth with come out Notes Media and Public Opinion A journalist someone trained to inform society about itself 0 With the info they provide people can make decisions and form opinions Public opinion PO the distribution of opinions and attitudes held by the public Social scientists study PO about issues government and politicians Relationship between media and PO 0 Media affect PO I What they choose to put into the news I What writers choose to put into fictional programs I Who they choose to speak 0 Media report PO I PO polls about issues government politicians 0 Tell you the most popular opinion etc Ideally audience forms opinions based on info facts the audience is the basic informant of society and inform of facts through 0 News programs I Is the news truth 0 Sources of bias 0 Philosophical distinction O Ontology what something is the reality of it 0 Epistemology how we know something I Example Did George Bush deliberately lie about WMD in Iraq Either he did or he didn t but can only find out through indirect means I All the problems that affect whether or not a story are true relate to epistemology Researchers don t just study what is the opinion expressed but also 0 Stability over time I President Obama s ratings go up in 2008 and don t change until 2010 O Intensity of opinion held 0 Trends in opinion I Ebb and ow of what people think Researchers use data from 0 Opinion polls 0 Research on attitudes 0 Research on campaigns I Stored on computers online James Bryce philosopher wrote about media and communication and Walter Lippmann journalist 0 Studied how public opinion is formed and how the media in uence public opinion 0 In uenced and limited by the times they lived in I Bryce late 18th century I Lippmann early 20th century I Both accustomed to newspapers feedback they received aka PO mostly limited to the voting box 0 Bryce I 1 The media report and comment on various individuallyheld opinions I 2 They circulate opinions that may con ict w each other I 3 Opinion is formed in stages 0 Individual reacts to info and forms an opinion about it 0 Opinions become widely circulated in the media and disagreementscontroversies become evident O Lippmann I The media create images in people s heads that may or may not correspond to reality epistemology people read something that may or not be true but the ideas are in their head I Identified steps in the process of news production 0 Monitoring keep track of what is happening around you I Gatekeeping deciding what is important enough to put in news 0 Selection how you are going to talk about it I The three steps affect the way people understand events 0 Pictures in their head people have a pseudorealistic understanding of what the world is about 0 Danger awed public opinion leads to awed public policy I Many contemporary scholars have built on Lippmann s ideas 0 Gans Deciding What s News I Schudson Sociology of News 0 Observations 0 Work routines lead to limited stories work on own beats have to report whether newsworthy or not 0 Journalists write for other journalists 0 Money and time are scarce I Newsmakers try to in uence public opinion by controlling journalists through 0 Staging events I Obama s administration can call a press conference and easily gather reporters to cover it 0 Cultivating an image I With pictures and rhetoric designed by professional communicators aka political speech writers 0 Granting or denying access I Clinton administration would schmooze journalists to death and Reagan administration would punish them 0 Controlling the release of information I Waiting for the weekend for example if a major event that makes White House looks bad occurs 0 PO in the modern media environment 0 What has changed I Instantaneous communication but differences in access to info I Anyone can create news 0 Two concepts to consider I Information overload need coping mechanisms such as a channelmedia repertoire and ignoring everything else I Bounded rationality even though everyone acts in own interest they are limited in what they can know so they act rationally according to what they do know 0 Paradox I More info could mean citizens are less informed now than they were when media options were fewer 4214 News amp Discussion 0 In terms of the ight coverage CNN 0 Did not succeed ethicswise I No respect for families of affected families aggressive interviewing 0 Had mixed success ratingswise I March 2014 0 2nd place in cable news behind Fox I 37 increase in total viewers compared to March 2013 0 Highest month ever online I First quarter 0 Still 3rd place 0 Averages almost 200000 viewers behind MSNBC primetime 0 16 drop in viewership 3 down in 2554 age group 0 Released environmental report says climate change is very real and poses threat to life on Earth 0 CNN devoted 1 minute 30 seconds to climate change impact report 0 Fox News devoted more time than CNN but not much 0 MSNBC devoted about 28 of airtime 0 Al J azeera America devoted about 35 of airtime corresponds to international audience caring more about climate change than the American audience 0 Fox is top cable network only news channel 5 to get into the top ten highestwatched programs on cable 0 413 million viewers 1325 million viewers for 60 Minutes 389 million viewers for Cosmos I Science show is nebulous topic with no real characters same issue as covering climate change report 0 How did Cosmos get made 0 Seth MacFarlane heard about it has sway on Fox asserted that the show would be made 0 Graphics and host make it work but these factors wouldn t have worked without Seth as a driving force behind the show Notes Fiction Politics and Policv I What questions would researchers ask 0 How do entertainment programs deal with public policy and political issues 0 Are audiences in uenced by the way entertainment programs deal with these issues I Producers don t claim to provide realistic depictions of the world 0 Thus absolved of responsibility if people take it for factface value I Within fictional narratives coverage of any given controversy may not be balanced by other voices I No responsibility to show opposing view I Dramatized fictional portrayals of social controversies can affect public opinion I Viewers essentially transported into the story 0 Temporarily lose sight of fictional nature of the narrative I Unlike most news content fictional drama can produce tremendous emotionempathy due to involvement in the storyline I Viewers are watching to relax and be entertained 0 Less resistant to subtle persuasion 0 Discussion Journeys with George 0 O 0 4914 Narrated by Nancy Pelosi s daughter Different portrayals of his personality Showed the negatives as well as the positive but in a clever way I Racial issue in New Hampshire no black people in NH Perception of Bush seems more knowledgeable likeable Reception to Alexandra Pelosi I Press board shunned her and stopped answering her questions I Upset she was leaking information I Candidate Bush sat her down and told her these people are not your friends they re here for their own benefit 0 Kind he didn t have to do that but he did Phalen I would love to have information like this about candidates in advance of the election I Better glimpse of a person than the constant news reportsmedia coverage Your Brain Your Media and a Problem of Truths How Algorithms Change Your Truth 0 System One 0 00000 0 Fast patternmatching Always matching new phenomenon against what it already knows Reaction Instinct Primary link to memory Effortless Gathers all data 0 System Two 0 O O O O 0 Deep thoughts slow steady Problem solving Highorder decision making Requires time effort Lazy Often thought of as the self 0 S1 will take complex problems it can t solve and kick it to S2 0 0 But S2 is lazy and doesn t want to handle it So kicks it back to S 1 which does the best it can with knowledge it already has I We are essentially defined by S1 makes good decisions given that it doesn t have deep thought capacities 0 1 governs our thoughtmaking processes because we are less likely to give in to deeper thought 0 Three modern issues of Truths replacement of S 1 O O O The truth you choose social curation and The Daily Me The truth that s convenient search dependency The truth as helpfully presented augmented reality I New media technology changing how mind works by altering 81 0 The truth you choose 0 O O Outsourcing 81 to outside source News sites track what you read linger on etc this extends to social media sites I Stored in database and affects what you are exposed to later on I What you like becomes all you are shown 0 Algorithms take it from the initial choice you make Violates the Marketplace of Ideas bc a lot of ideas won t be shown to you I If all you saw were people saying the same thing as you why would you believe anything else I No challenge to thought process no growth How to break through I Money buy ad space I Sponsor hightraffic sites 0 Sponsored posts on social media sites show up higher and more frequently on Facebook feed esp if you express interest in it Not a tenable situation for democracy I Voices aren t being heard Facebook a platform for collecting massive amounts of personal information to sell you the right ads not a platform for sharing information with your friends 0 The truth that s convenient O O O O Integral part of society how we find out about the world I Almost instinctual Google is great for factchecking but only if you know how to use it Search has become a core feature of smartphones and desktops highly integrated I Personal digital assistants pull from it consistently Siri and Cortana pull from Bing Trend is accelerating 35 in 2004 to 59 in 2012 Nicholas Carr on the Internet The conduit for most of the information that ows through my eyes and ears and into my mind I Sparrow s experiments if external memory is present you will likely remember the path to the information rather than the information itself I Carr s research w the Internet we don t carefully consider the data we d rather continue seeking the next data point I British research students dependent on search to complete assignments No trust in own knowledge I Most used briefer as opposed to own knowledge but those who had computer available used that instead In general do you think Internet search engines are a fair and unbiased source of info I 66 said yes fair and unbiased I 20 said no 0 The Bemanke Problem I If you Google federal reserve chair it looks like Bernanke is still serving 0 26 who used search answered Bernanke because links aren t being clicked but rather search hits were being skimmed for keywords 0 Are we too reliant on Google I 2004 26 used Yahoo and 47 used Google I 2012 6 used Yahoo and 83 used Google I Google is becoming a media enterprise not simply a search engine anymore I The truth as helpfully presented 0 Google Glass the literal inyourface replacement of 81 I Will likely become culturally normative 0 IFF Identify a Friend or Foe I Foes determined by unknown data sources you trust it simple because Google told you you assume that Google s criteria and judgment are correct cutting out your own thought processing you are no longer in control Google is Notes Readings Mutz Does Fictional Television In uence RealWorld Policv Preferences 0 People store info about the world that is implied by fictional programming in a way that compartmentalizes it from info about the world that comes from nonfiction sources 0 People often search for the real world point of fictional programs and draw on TV imagerycharacters in conversations about current events I Cultivation theory body of research on cultivation effects which argues that when primetime TV is viewed daily over time for decades it cultivates symbolic representations of power that promote deference to state authority 0 Heavy viewers can access reality on TV better than reality around them examples drawn from TV content more vivid than realworld examples 0 On other hand research indicates that nonfiction genres apart from hard news also have politically relevant effects I Mock news The Daily Show documentaries Fahrenheit 911 Talk shows Oprah 0 Increase salience of campaign issues and in uence voter preference I Fictional programs can and likely do exert political in uence that goes beyond just re ecting the predominant culturalpolitical attitudes O Amountnature of nonfiction content consumed by Americans 0 Type of people who view fictional TV content 0 Expectations about how people process fictional content 0 Content 0 Because fictional programming is fictional there is I A minimal range of positions on issues producers absolved of responsibility for potential impact of their shows I A tendency to mimic realworld events 0 People 0 Heavy fiction viewers are I Less likely to resist political messages I More likely to weakly hold political views politically uninformed 0 Process 0 O Fictional drama induces high level of emotional involvement in storyline Viewers transported into story shown to facilitate persuasion toward political lessons of storyline I Results of experiment contrasting positive and negative fictional portrayals of criminal justice systems and empathy O O 0 Positive storyline made people more positive about the criminal justice system higher levels of perceived fairness and vice versa Those who saw negative storyline suggesting that criminal system doesn t always get the right bad guy were less supportive of death penalty a deepseated issue Main effect of storyline was evident only with those with high levels of empathy 0 Discussion 0 O O Fictional dramas do have implications for Americans political views and at least part of the explanation relates to the emotional involvement that viewers have with TV drama If empathy is a necessary condition for TV narratives to in uence viewers then TV fiction may have a unique advantage over news Longterm exposure to TV programs should result in profound longterm effects Engelstad Watching Politics 0 Main question is whether the dramatic focus relates to the political sphere or to the private sphere 0 Is it possible to credibly present political processes and issues in a TV series wo compromising the need for actionplot in drama 0 The West Wing 0 President Bartlet a Clinton wo vices a Washington outsider in the sense that Washington is seen as dominated by politicians out of touch w the public I Father figure patriarchic leader Staff depicted as hardworking people who aim to restore confidence in Washington I Personal stories add depth to the characters making them persons with real histories Events were purely fictional but mirrored real political issues I Politically educational television combined dramatic narrative techniques with political issues Brilliant portrayal of White House operations but somewhat unrealistic depiction of WH work environment I Viewers learn about impact of polls basic principles of census meaning of political jargon filibusters I At the King s Table Norwegian O 0 Young Tove Steen appointed Minister of Health in a fictional rightcenter coalition government Political ideals disappear all together 0 The Crown Princess Swedish 0 0 Charlotte Ekblad is shortlisted for post as Minister of Environment in face of internal changes in the government Resigns after government nulls her proposal that politicians should be held accountable for their promises The two Nordic dramas show two young women with professional expertise juggling family life with their massive workload 0 Leading female politicians consistently faced with discourse relating to role as motherwife both dramas take this perspective into account 0 Deal w demands on family life faced by people in a leading political position 0 Striking contrast to West Wing All three dramas share desire for idealistic political action 0 The West Wing uses pathosheavy melodrama that doesn t overpower the political subject matter making it the most successful of the three Phalen Imagined Presidencies Presidency most symbolically meaningful represents America to the world through news programming and fictional representations Researchers acknowledge in uence of popular culture on public opinion 0 Exposure to political issues on TV can affect audience opinion Popular culture both sustains and challenges existing conceptions of US nationalism In a study after viewers of The West Wing valued the traits called engaging their evaluations of real presidents improved 0 The roles portrayed by the president re chief executive political candidate and private citizen these roles are equated with frames which construct presidentiality in entertainment pro gramming I Frames built through repetition on two levels externally observable traits and virtues aws identifiable through character s choicesinteractions The West Wing 0 President Bartlet possesses keen political instincts as well as a once in a generation mind 0 His intellect political acumen religious conviction and devotion to family make him a heroic figure I Has aws though physical weakness MS and willingness to lie to US public 24 0 President Palmer begins as senator and becomes first AfricanAmerican president 0 Trusts his instinct and relies on Jack despite pressure from his administration 0 Complicated relationship with family Commander in Chief 0 President Allen is quintessential underdog first woman and first Independent president I Unelected which comes with its own pressures 0 Republican daughter believes she should step down I Husband feels con icted with role of First Gentleman Analyses of characters 0 Showing that president is strongdecisive builds audience s trust in the character I Allen nominates the VP she wants despite challenges I Bartlet nominates unconventional jurist to Supreme Court I Palmer stands behind Bauer regardless of advice not to do so 0 Willing to take calculated risks I Palmer demonstrates convictions by often racing against the clock I Allen demonstrates convictions by defense of the voiceless I Bartlet demonstrates convictions by helping other in defense of American values of freedomdemocracy 0 All presidents depicted as intelligent inexhaustible and compassionate I Proportional decisionmaking skills I Care about the people who work for them I Extensive knowledge of history see themselves as part of a tradition I Loyal to their country even if it means swallowing their pride and admitting their mistakes 0 Role of protector I Palmer constantly in role of protector cast in the shadow of national security I Allen protective in her personal life I Bartlet extends fatherly role to his staffers 0 Interaction with news media I Allen and Palmer deal directly with the press particularly during crises I Allen is straightforward whereas Palmer deliberately lies I Bartlet has little interaction with press due to prominence of Press Secretary CJ Craig 0 But gives eloquent passionate speeches 0 Conclusions 0 The presidential characters serve as models who epitomize popular views of an effective personable and honorable leader I Effective deal swiftly and firmly with anyone who deceives them and come to their own understanding of a situation and act decisively I Personable consider the human factor of every decision sensitive I Honorable deal with their mistakes in honorable ways apologize forgive etc 0 Audience empathizes with them bc they see complexity of every major decision 0 TV fiction offers audience a consistent and detailed picture of American president Phalen Rooms with a Point of View 0 Average American watches 356 hours of TV a week with highest viewing shares going to entertainment programs 0 Central to TV production are writers who are led by a showrunner and together they create an original script which goes to studio for approval 0 Process 0 The creative process of writers is a closed secret society begins before actual production of show 0 Staff writers are hired by showrunners who begin by focusing on direction of series and character arcs 0 Beat sheet fully developed sequence of events in an episode 0 Goes through multiple edits before final draft is written lucky if anything you ve written remains 0 Time in room spent coming up with episodes or rewriting scripts 0 Writing as collective action 0 Collaboration facilitates exchange of ideas that improves the final script 0 Major advantages variety of ideasperspectives speed continuity with storylinescharacters O The creator of the series has a vision for the show and in order to communicate this vision to the writers need to build a family 0 In a good room important to choose the right personalities with the right skills 0 Writers should feel free to fail bc environment is safe 0 Culture and politics 0 Power relations affect way writers behave in room hierarchical structure 0 Know your place such as when to talk and when to be quiet 0 Members of room as in any family share personal info w each other writing naked 0 Sexual harassment and sexism is apparent bc of nature of industry women say they accept these realities bc they value the free ow of ideas Showrunner is responsible for tone of the writers room and the script that comes from it 0 Hostility in the room is a relatively recent development rooms harsher today than they were 30 years ago 0 Need to be thick skinned to be a team player 0 0 Discussion 0 Writers form their own subculture but feel underappreciated 0 Hollywood institution not generally open to outsiders exclusive and private 0 In the political space of the room writers play out their agendas 39 Competitivecooperative dynamic between writers who rely on each other for input but compete with each other for assignments 0 Work environment heavily in uenced by showrunner but also depends on quality of interaction among writers 0 All writers expressed some degree of frustration w current process I Lack of racial and gender diversity ageism prefer younger writers causticness of jokes Sunstein The Dailv We 0 Emergence of consumers power to filter what they see on the Internet 0 Mixed blessing 0 We all seek to reduce exposure to uninvited noise 0 But unanticipated encounters w unfamiliar and irritating topics and POVs are central to democracy and most citizens should have a range of common experiences 0 A number of newspapers websites allow readers to choose what they want to read 0 Internet intended to broaden horizons but people using it to produce narrowness 0 Emergence of the Daily Me communications package personally designed w components fully chosen in advance 0 Increase in individual control over content and a corresponding decrease in the power of newspapersbroadcastersetc I Can reduce the importance of the public sphere which exists to ensure that people will encounter material on important issues 0 Public forum serves three functions 0 Ensures that speakers can have access to a wide array of people 0 Allows speakers have access to specific people and specific institutions with whom they have a complaint 0 Increases the likelihood that people will be exposed to a wide variety of people and views 0 These principles apply to news intermediaries 0 Lead story likely to have a great deal of public salience defines central issues and creates a shared focus of attention 0 An increase in options amp a greater power to customize will increase the range of choices 0 Choices likely mean that people will try to find material that I Makes them feel comfortable I Is created by and for people like themselves 0 Difficulty in creating a mutual understanding in society harder to solve problems that society faces together I Group polarization after deliberating with one another people are likely to move toward a more extreme point in the direction to which they were previously inclined I Occurs because of O Persuasive arguments a group whose members are already inclined in a certain direction will offer a disproportionately large number of arguments supporting that same direction 0 Social comparison people want to be perceived favorably by other group members so once they hear what others believe they adjust their positions accordingly 0 Internet a breeding ground for GP and extremism exposure to different views essential in protecting against harmful effects of GP 0 GP related to social cascades which are driven by the dramatic spread of info and can become entrenched beliefs even if they are entirely wrong 0 The Internet increases the likelihood of rapid cascades based on false information 0 Common experiences enable diversity of people to share certain memories and attitudes news intermediaries play an important role in this 0 The Internet creates a fragmented communications universe reducing the level of shared salient experiences to a diverse group of Americans 0 Changing filters 0 Consumer sovereignty in a world of limitless options could undermine a system of free expression 0 A wellfunctioning system highlights the public sphere such that it a fosters common experiences b presents people with messages that challenge their prior conviction c allows citizens to present their views to a broad audience Entmen The Portraval of Blacks 0 Network news appears to stereotype blacks implicitly over time news messages construct comparisons of whites and blacks 0 Specific realities depicted in single stories accumulate into a summary message that distorts social reality 0 The way that local TV news usually covers crime depicts blacks as a more dangerous than whites accused of similar crimes and b more demanding of political favoritism than whites I Report based on foreigndomestic politics and policy rather than local news 0 Focuses on what prominent black leaders say on the ABC news program to see if as in local news African Americans appear highly demandingcritical of government I Data based on 138 stories in which blacks were the sources or victims of troublemisfortune 0 Human interest where racial identity is irrelevant or linked to positive conditions O Expertise where they appear as knowledgeable persons having positive social utility 0 Crime majority of black crime stories concerned violencedrugs while these forms of crime comprised minority of stories about white criminals I But black crime has decreased in past 40 years and blacks likelier to be arrested also doesn t focus on the class of criminal blacks poor black males suffer unemployment ineffective schooling etc 0 Local news study shows that a blacks twice as likely as whites to be shown in the physical grasp of an officer and b stories about blacks less likely to offer prodefense sound bites 0 Consequently there is a dearth of blacks in stories that show blacks as positive contributors to American society or blacks as humans whose race is incidental 0 Stories often featured black leaders complaining of racismcriticizing policy but not once was a black leader quoted praising the government 0 Conclusions 0 Network news does produce images of blacks that may in more subtle ways than in local news reinforce whites39 antagonism toward blacks O Blacks in the news may represent all blacks in a way singular whites do not stand for all whites O Journalists should consider reshaping news practices to make images of blacks more complicated and varied would over time make TV news more positive toward blacks Villumsen Latino Portravals I Research question how are Latinos portrayed on primetime TV and how does this in uence viewers attitudes towards the Latino population 0 Two important factors in the negative categorization of a group aka stereotyping is ethnocentrism and prejudice O Ethnocentrism is the view of things in which one s own group is the center of everything others are scaled with reference to it I Us and them ingroup and outgroup I Prejudice is judging the outgroup as inherently inferior I Stereotypes provide a scapegoat to place blame and used to justify action towards Latinos for example Midwestern states anger towards Mexican workers who took over cheap labor industry 0 Othering 0 Updated version of stereotyping where people who look different than the in group become the other based on appearance maintaining and protecting the position and culture of the in group I Done by casting as opposites to the white hero of showfilm 0 Latinos appear in secondary roles and Latino heroes end up at status quo instead of climbing social ladder I Classic example of Latino stereotype is the illegal immigrant which causes Latinos to lose a sense of belonging 0 Social identity 0 How people communicateact with each other as defined against an other having an other in common can form the basis of unity alone 0 Groups compare themselves to others to boost selfesteem and differentiate themselves I Cultivation theory O 0 Used to determine longterm effect of the media on how viewers perceive images they are exposed to on TV Media creates images that are perceived as real and through repetition and reinforcement they becoming normalized I Parasocial interaction positive relations between ingroup members and outgroup members 0 Helps to combat negative depiction of minorities on TV 0 People rely on judgment of their peers their groups 0 Latino stereotypes 0 El bandido sombrerowearing villain to Columbian drug lords unkempt and contrast to hero 0 The harlot female equivalent of el bandido hypersexual and vengeful 0 Male buffoon lack of English proficiencies and simplemindedness 0 Female clown female equivalent of buffoon erotic and unsuitable as love interest of hero 0 Latin lover sexual seductive exotic lures women 0 Dark lady reserved and aloof lures men 0 Four sitcoms starring Latinos O I Love Lucy I Starred Desi Arnaz as Lucy s husband I Wildly successful character but did not pave way for other Latinos to appear as leads in sitcoms I Accepted despite his otherness probably by virtue of being Lucy s husband I Although he was obviously foreign his otherness accent pronunciations was toned done and used as a humorous element 0 Chico and the Man I Starred Freddie Prinze who is half Puerto Rican and not MexicanAmerican like Chicano implies I Only Latino as a lead character in a successful sitcom during 1970 s his authenticity to character was his own doing 0 The George Lopez Show I First successful sitcom where storyline revolved around a Latino family 0 Modern Family I Sofia Vergara plays the Colombian wife of Jay along with son Manny and ex husband Javier I Gloria speaks with a heavy accent and has problems pronouncing words which is used as an element of comedy 0 Analysis 0 Power of television is such that people tend to believe that what they see on TV is a re ection of the real world can create misinformed opinions O Underrepresentation has been cultivated throughout time I TV is able to portray outgroup members as others who do not share same values as ingroup reinforcing differences between the two and maintaining a feeling of dissimilarity amongst viewers power relationship 0 Minority groups often withdraw from the ingroup rejecting its values and creating distance I Example most Latinos watch Spanishlanguage TV in the US instead of national networks O In 3 of 4 sitcoms nature of interaction between Latinos and other races is positive only on George Lopez are all characters Latinos thus social modeling cannot be applied 0 Latino representation 0 As Latino population grows so does the percentage of Latino viewers not seeing their group represented on TV or seeing them represented in a negative way may disturb their image of themselves and cultivate feelings of alienation O Latino population growth not adequately re ected on primetime TV I Children not used to seeing ethnic diversity on TV 0 Sitcoms least diverse genre on primetime TV even in the case of George Lopez bc the storyline revolves around one ethnic group Latinos so Anglo viewers less likely to identify with the characters Appearance and behavior I Appear to be younger therefore less likely to be taken seriously I Males more hottempered and females more sexuallyverbally aggressive I More ridiculed than other groups 0 Heaviest accent and least articulate of all groups I Foreigners others who are not real Americans Likely to be portrayed in service jobs lower income and social status if recurring job is higher status usually I Also often depicted as criminals Q Q 0 Typical roles fulfilled in the sitcoms 0 The criminallazy Latino 0 The loud Latino a extreme body language hypersexual andor mouthy 0 The absent Latino father untrustworthy 0 Examples of counterstereotypical and positive portrayals 0 George is promoted working his way up the company ladder despite his lack of a degree 0 Gloria is likeable and considerate fights the typical gold digger image 0 Addressing of Latino issues and stereotypes directly in the show ex immigration discrimination etc and how they feel about it 0 Both quantity representation and quality portrayal matter The Audience Measurement Business 0 Began in the early 1920 s when radio broadcasters wanted to know who was listening so they could sell advertisers airtime accordingly 0 In 1927 NBC commissioned a study to determine audience size the hours and days spent listening and economic status 0 Advertiser support instrumental in emergence of audience measurement 0 Telephone Interviews 0 1930 establishment of the Cooperative Analysis of Broadcasting the Crossley ratings which used the telephone to survey radio listeners telephone recall I Issues with this method led to use of telephone coincidental asked what they were listening to at the time of the call 0 CAB s first competitor ClarkHooper the latter of whom split to run his own businesses I Hooperatings showed that people better remembered longer and more popular programs likelier to forget listening to the news Hooper pursued broadcast media advertisers ocked there and provided them with the exact audience research they needed Hooper also released highest rated evening programs each month instituting pocketpiece format for ratings reports used by Nielsen today I Didn t account for the change that TV would bring to the audience research industry and Nielsen stepped in and became dominant supplier of TV Aud Measurement TAM 0 Personal Interviews 0 O 0 Meters O O O O O 1928 David Starch commissioned to use personal interviews by NBC and CBS Dr Roslow adapted personal interviews to radio listening roster recall method given a roster of programs to aid listeners in recalling what they had listened to in last few hours I Local service developed rapidly called Pulse of New York Contributed to rise of Top 40 format stations No longer heavily used as a method of data collection Garnet Garrison in 1937 solidified research on diaries with listening table method asked respondents to list station program and of listeners Used to track audience composition leadin or leadout programs and audience turnover ow Not until late 1940 s that diaries became principal method of syndicated research service I James Seiler set up the American Research Bureau ARB in 1949 sent out reports based on weeklong diaries from DC grew to Chicago New York Philly and more ARB eventually became Arbitron and was a strong competitor to Nielsen eventually due to tight budgets it ended TV measurement business in 1993 I Still the primary radio ratings supplier First device of the sort created by Claude Robinson in 1929 patented by RCA improved by Robert Elder in 1930 s audimeter Nielsen heard about the device and immediately sought rights to buy it I Redesigned device and launched Nielsen Radio Index in 1942 data collection was slow but provided them with info on product purchases In 1950 acquired Hooper s national ratings service and initiated Nielsen Station Index to provide local radio and TV ratings using cartridge that could be mailed directly to sample households and back to Nielsen speeding the rate of data collection Shortcoming in Nielsen s meter was that you couldn t know who was watching I Solution perfecting the peoplemeter developed in Europe and launching it in 1987 PM now the preferred method of data collection 0 Challenges of new media environment 0 O Everincreasing number of media outlets has fragmented audiences into smaller groups I Established outlets audiences have shrunk considerably Nonlinear systems like DVR and Net ix has given users greater control over when media are delivered I Exacerbates fragmentation New platforms like smartphones have given people more control over where they use media 0 Measurement strategies like meters and diaries are usercentric which provides info about individual characteristics about a demographic I Drawbacks include a producing a biased sample and b not have a big enough sample size to compensate for fragmentation 0 Problem b is solved using servercentric strategies using computers to track everything so there are millions of users to create a large sample size I Drawbacks include not knowing who is being served 0 Need to combine both measurement methods for best results 0 Institutional factors 0 Syndicated reports have high first copy costs metering technology etc means that one dominant firm provide ratings 0 In a joint industry committee J IC the principle ratings users create a committee that specifies what aud measurement services are needed and put a contract tender out for bids I Once a company is chosen the J IC funds the research for the time period I A single firm providing a single currency Audience Research in Advertising 0 Need of advertisers to buy audiences eagerness of broadcasters to sell them ratings services I National markets 0 Broadcast networks I Legacy networks still draw largest audiences I Primetime 0 8pm 11pm EST from MF and 7pm 11pm on Sunday 0 Most important of all dayparts bc largest audience highest ad revenue I Daytime 0 Second most lucrative time slot 7am 430pm MF I Smaller femalemajority audience I Sports 0 Defined by content attracts mostly men I News I More defined by content than by time period attracts older audience I Late night 0 From 1130pm onwards MF small mostlyadult audience I Radio still a contender for reaching national audiences 0 Cable networksalternate delivery systems I Most obvious competitive strategy is to target a particular kind of viewer MTV for teens BET for blacks I CN more willing to work w advertisers to develop special programming to enhance commercials I Sell access to aud for less than BN who command a premium in the marketplace O Buyingselling audiences in the national market I Upfront market 0 Begins in the spring when networks host advertisers to showcase newreturning programs 0 Access to the best network programs longterm commitment means more favorable rates I Scatter market I Shorter time frame bought a few months in advance of each quarter 0 Higher prices than in upfront market I Opportunistic market I Occurs as the television season progresses as airtime opens up closer to an airdate 0 Create opportunities for the lastminute purchase of airtime I Barter syndication 0 Advertisers found they could use a station s constant need for programming to get their message across could produce a program place ads in it and offer it to stations wo a license fee 0 Local markets 0 Local audiences create a market for local sales regionalnational marketers who want to advertise in specific markets take part in the national spot market 0 Broadcast stations I Nielsen uses geographically determined audience behavior to define boundaries of a local media market area designated market areas DMAs I Vast differences in audience size affect rates for commercial spots 400 in Des Moines and 4000 in Detroit I Radio markets usually measured twice a year I Largest buyers of local ads department stores fast food chains car dealers I Employ ad agency to represent them ad agency sends out avails request available spots on sale on local stations specifies target audience etc stations respond with available timeslots after negotiations buyers place order and spots air 0 Afterward next available ratings data is analyzed to determine whether expected audience was delivered postbuy analysis Spot buys are largest single source of revenue for TV stations who hire rep rms to serve as link between local stations and national advertisers 0 Local cable systems I Involves inserting local ad in a cable network or sponsorship of locallyproduced programs I Audience is too small to measure economically Nielsen trying to facilitate this w peoplemeters in large TV markets 0 Evolving communication technologies 0 Nielsen accommodates for DVR timeshifting by counting ratings as live plus playback same day 3 days or 7 days 0 Product placement advertisements inserted directly into program itself 0 Ad placement in the short feature before a film is screened in theaters and in videogames 0 Internet 0 Internet users are sent content directly from a server can keep track of everyone who accesses a website 0 Two big names in Internet aud research Nielsen Online and comScore Media Metrix 0 Ad placement no longer about single distribution technology now that phonestablets are connected to Internet I How to capture content consumption Addressable advertising or ads targeted specifically at individual users Research questions 0 How many people are in the audience I In national market ratings estimates can be directly compared within each channel 0 How often do the same people show up in the audience I Primetime broadcast TV produces a significant reach for a commercial message and it is typically the same type of people each time I Frequency of exposure 0 Who are the audience members I Market segmentation presenting commercial message to specific subsets of mass audience 0 Demographic variables race gender age etc I Geographic variables country and zip code I Behavioral variables beer drinkers laundry doers etc I Psychographics values attitudes etc measured by loyalty engagement etc 0 Cost of reaching audience I Advertisers pay premium to have message placed in first set of ads I Rates on rate card subject to negotiation Graber Looking at the US through Distorted Lens Images of US has plummeted in Middle East following 911 State Department increased public diplomacy staffprogram funding in select Muslimmajority countries since 911 to stem antiAmericanism and improve image of US 0 Goal has been to stress the values that US and ME countries have in common I Difficult bc although both value familyjobsreligion these values have different implications in each culture 0 Shared Values campaign launched 2002 directed toward Muslim audiences and narrated by Muslim Americans living in US which was favorably received 0 Worked with CAMU to create website called Open Dialogue to report about US policies including war on terrorism How successful is ME diplomacy O 48 of foreign service officers thought the efforts in the country where they were serving increased the population s understanding of the American public to a great extent 0 Sounds encouraging but image of US remains unfavorable and continues to decline due to ME disapproval of American policies Entertainment shows as proxies for real life 0 Entertainment shows often accepted as reality aud forms emotional bonds and impact is greater than that of news media 0 Sitcom stories are constructed such that people can readily identify w the characters and plots lessons in contemporary affairs more meaningful Research design 0 That 70 s Show I Smalltown life I Young audiences 0 Friends I Bigcity life 0 The West Wing I Emphasis on politics 0 Tried to capture meanings that Muslim audiences were likely to assign to the shows based on questionnaire 0 Findings 0 Social life I Impression that life is comfortable in US people may lose jobs but life is not disrupted because other opportunities exist 0 Political affairs I Emphasis on press secretary and com director implies that president s image is most important goal is to avoid bad publicity I Large team of people involved in WH business president doesn t make all decisions shown to be an overwhelming responsibility 0 Value priorities I Seems like relations with extended families are not central to life in ME they are 0 Recreation involves friends not family Friends 0 Teens disobey parents rules smoking pot but aren t punished talking back to elders That 70 s Show 0 Job duties take precedence over family matters WW I Most admired qualities in the shows are honesty trustworthiness and loyalty 0 Doing one s job education and respectability social mobility I Least admired qualities drugalcohol use by children premarital sex growing old 0 But nothing done to punish kids who engage in these behaviors O Preoccupations I Sex 0 Identity of sexual partners etc discussed in all episodes of That 70 s Show and Friends I Seems casual women are risque and outspoken about it I Drug use 0 Pervasive and casual I Absent is any mention of religion 0 Teenage lifestyles I Undisciplined unproductive oversexed and unserious I Have ample spending money and own cars 0 Adult lifestyles I Women portraying having more freedom than women would in ME I But do not lead lives of ease overworked with family and career I Coarse language and PDA I Materialism divorce living together before marriage 0 Discrimination against women and blacks often mentioned as morally wrong 0 Not explicitly mentioned in shows but it appears that average people believe US is invincible and in control ethnocentric and idealistic perspective 0 Superpower complex US depicted as world s policeman who helps other countries with problems they are incapable of solving on their own I Conclusions 0 Images presented by shows are distorted and unrealistic I Most Americans are not primarily oriented toward leisurepleasure with emphasis on sexdrugsalcohol but it appears to be this way I Family life not as central in ME but it s more than shows suggest 0 However notion of shared values not entirely dismissed I Shows suggest that average Americans lead comfortable life nice homes and ample food I Government depicted as generally positive and diligent 0 Difficult to judge how persuasive shows are but the picture is likely to be mixed I Shows support favorable views of public life but contradict images of Americans private lives 0 Audience reactions likely to be ambivalent admire economic security but dislike immoral lifestyles I ME attitudes more in tune with TV than with public diplomacy Stacks Hard Times for Hard News 0 According to 2002 survey very few Americans paid attention to cablebroadcast news 0 Interest in news from abroad heaviest among older and bettereducated citizens 21 I CNN relatively straightforward the more sophisticated version of it is CNN International 0 Huge disparity between foreign and domestic news content 0 Even War on Terrorism didn t pique that much interest in Americans in terms of reading the news 0 News from places where American soldiers are not in danger very small bc Americans are not interested 0 Networks in 1990 s basically abandoned real coverage of foreign news and relied on video supplied from independent sources 0 American newspapers losing readers steadily each year 0 Elite newspapers invest in foreign coverage because their markets require it have to maintain their reputationsreadership 0 Local newspapers lack foreign news because of editorial decisions not short funding editors believe their readers would rather read anything else I What advertisers want 0 Appetite for hard news limited and interest in politics and world affairs nearly nonexistent 0 Practice of bringing in political correspondents is vanishing 0 Need for costcutting meant staff posted abroad was cut foreign bureaus were abandoned I Quality but not quantity of readership was adversely affected I Serious news readers have migrated to foreign sources of news The Economist and Financial Times both based in UK 0 Use online sources of news CNN World cost of gathering and disseminating the news online is negligible which is what makes the web rich in news I News media used to feel a sense of public obligation to provide foreign news coverage seen as journalistic duty 0 Now survival is more important than public responsibility limited circulation due to shrinking revenues and readership 0 Always the case that an elite group of Americans paid attention to the rest of the world 0 The general public is less informed than it was 20 years ago 0 Frequent and open conversations w the press produced a more sophisticated press report and illuminated what was on the public s mind I Now presidents hardly offer private interviews and truncate press conferences Moore The White Correspondent s Burden 0 The savage nature of Africa is still on display in American headlines O Journalists in Africa talk often about misrepresentations of the continent I Journalists blame editors who cut out context oversimplify story and set it in a wartorn background 0 Editors blame their readers whom they assume won t follow nuanced narratives with moral ambiguities Ultimately problem lies with both readers and writers 0 Continue to tell a story of suffering and even positive news stories are framed by Africa s reputation for savagery 0 White savior industrial complex monothematic obsession with Africa s plight framed by a desire to help sentimental narrative O Superficially seems humane but in reality it s a way to atter ourselves by objectifying the sufferers I Being an object of compassion is not the same thing as being the subject of a story Vanity has consequences 0 Media attention in uences donor attention toward certain interests and away from others 0 Repels American businessmen from investing in allegedly wartorn places like Congo 0 Might cause reporters as much as readers to fall prey to narrow thinking With faith in readers journalists can write about both extraordinary violence and ordinary life in the same story 0 Best option is for African voices to tell their own stories the problem is the narrow American imagination I African and American authors working together in the conversation would shift the paradigm Osnos The Good News about Foreign Media Coverage 0 Given that coverage of foreign news has recently diminished as newspapers networks etc have reducedeliminated their bureaus abroad the range and quality of stories being honored at the Overseas Press Club of America was impressive 0 Winners include N YT for reporting on Libya and Afghanistan Associated Press for photography series on North Korea 0 General Excellence Online Award to ForeignPolicycom 0 Best Use of Online Multimedia to Council on Foreign Relations 0 While we need to concede that foreignnews gathering has been cut back sharply readers and viewers with an interest in the world have an enormous amount of news and background information available 41614 News amp Discussion 0 Edward Snowden s leaks have awarded the Pulitzer Prize to The Guardian and to WaPo 0 Was it legal for the news outlets to publish this info I Ethically it was the right thing to do legally they are allowed to report the truth to the public and businesswise it was a smart move extremely lucrative story 0 WaP0 given prize for authoritative reports that helped readers understand how the leaks related to the broader topic of national security I Is helping the public understand the leaks considered a public service I Watchdog role fulfilled O Curation a huge part of journalism makes it better when someone else CNN iReport is curating the story Audience Research Part 1 0 Importance of audience research 0 Economic measurement gives value to time 0 Socialcultural measurement indicates the tastes and contentconsumption patterns of audiences 0 Political measurement can tell us something about the health of the Marketplace of Ideas I Are people voting based on knowledge or emotion 0 Categories of audience research not exclusive can and do overlap 0 Applied vs theoretical I Cannot be identified by research method alone same methods can be used for both 0 Quantitative vs qualitative I Can be distinguished by method usually I Exception can code qualitative data to do statistical analyses I In industry qualitative refers to the type of characteristic being measured psychological states preferences etc 0 Know what person means by each term I In academia quantitative applies to any sort of statistical data 0 Micro vs macro O Syndicated vs custom 0 Applied 0 Practical 0 Answers a specific question or problem 0 Examples effectiveness of an ad campaign likeability of a celebrity ratings answers questions about who is in the audience 0 Theoretical 0 General explanations of how the world works I Useful simplifications of reality 0 Can be very practical I Academic research is often theoretical but can have very applicable effects 0 Often done in academic settings 0 Examples effects of violence factors predicting music preferences Quantitative O Reduces objects of study to numbers 0 Use statistics for analysis 0 Advantage of generalizability I Can make inferences about population based on analysis of sample 0 Examples surveys experiments content analyses looking for patterns Qualitative O Nonnumeric data such as field notes for ethnographic research 0 Difficult to generalize from the findings I Not as specific as quantitative research 0 Great for details and insights interviews observation etc 0 Examples interviews participant observation focus groups ethnography immersing oneself in the culture for a length of time and being a part of it Micro 0 Looks at audience from inside out individual viewerlisteneruser I Ethnography and interviews Macro 0 Looks at audience from outside in how audiences behave as a complex system I Ratings and collective behavior Syndicated 0 Available to everyone who subscribes 0 Everybody gets the same information Custom 0 Only available to the organization that contracts for it 0 Info is specific to a problem or question 0 Not shared with others outside the organization Primary research going to the source measuring the audience collecting the data and analyzing it Secondary research using data that has already been collected to discover new insights Ratings research 0 Syndicated although custom research projects are often purchased by clients 0 Quantitative 0 Multiple methodologies 0 Currency of exchange in electronic media advertising Audience research firms 0 Nielsen Media Research TV 0 Arbitron Radio soon to be bought by Nielsen O NielsenNetratings Internet 0 Comscore Media Metrix Internet Methods 0 Passive household meter connected to the television set and measures when the set is on and what channel it is tuned to I Strengths Nonintrusive accurately measures when set is on or off I Weaknesses Doesn t tell you whether someone is in the room offers no persons data 42114 Peoplemeter placed on and connected to TV set and each person gets own button to press when they are present or absent I Strengths Persons data combined with set usage data I Weaknesses Respondent fatigue get tired of pressing button every time some age groups just won t use it correctly men 1824 particularly bad at it Diary gets mailed to you and you fill in what you watched one per household I Strengths Lots of persons data cost efficient I Weaknesses Accuracy of data questionable respondent fatigue deliberate lying writing down Meet The Press when actually watching Housewives Software for Internet measurement I Strengths Relatively nonintrusive collects a lot of data almost too much data accuracy can t lie I Weaknesses Can t measure work usage not everyone will participate privacy Personal peoplemeter tiny device that is carried with you at all time that measures every signal you come in contact with all day long I Strengths Relatively nonintrusive crossplatform measurement I Weaknesses Respondent fatigue respondents may not always keep it with them may pick up signals that respondent doesn t hear Telephone calls I Strengths Accurate phone coincidental coincidental with what you re watching I Weaknesses Telemarketing fatigue intrusive can t reach all homes Facial recognitioneye movement monitoring I Strengths Nonintrusive I Weaknesses Privacy concerns technology not accurate Audience Research Part 2 0 Remember 0 We talked about different definitions of market 0 Broadcast ratings data are collected for different geographic markets I The national market networks I The local markets individual stations 0 Sampling 0 Can t monitor every TV viewer and every radio listener O The audience measurement companies take a sample of the population in each market monitor that sample and use the data to estimate ratings for the entire market 0 People say sampling doesn t work but it s akin to what the doctor does when she takes a blood sample a sample of blood vs taking all of it 0 Only works if the sample has these characteristics I Respondents are chosen randomly everyone has an equal chance of being chosen I The sample is representative of the population same proportion of each demographicsocioeconomic group I The sample is large enough to get an accurate read on the population 0 Television ratings 0 National market I One sample for the entire US which means 0 Approximately 1156 million TV homes 20132014 broadcast year 0 Approximately 294 million people 2 20132014 broadcast year 0 Two years of age or older 0 Measurement method peoplemeter 0 Collecting data 247365 0 Local markets I 210 local markets corresponds to who watches which station not by state Nielson I May have 2 20 television stations I Different sample in each market I Measurement methods diaries diaries plus passive HH meters or peoplemeters 0 First question you should ask when you see a number What is it based onwhat is the population I Households I Persons 2 of age I A narrow demographic 0 Second question Where is it coming from I Is it a national rating or a local market rating 0 Ratings 0 Ratings audience size estimates are defined in the same way for national and local markets I Diaries for the smaller markets peoplemeters for the larger markets 0 A rating is a percent I The percent of a population watching your program 0 Television households men 1854 etc small print I Based on any population you choose 0 The number of peoplehouseholds watching your program divided by the total number of peoplehouseholds in the market 0 Who are Nielson s customers who may pay more for custom ratings research I Television stations national networks advertising agencies rep firms I Anyone who is invested in buying and selling ad time 0 Example of ratings calculation I If 55 million people watch my show and there are 294 million people aged 2 in US rating is 55294 19 is implied 0 What is a good national rating I Based on April 7 2014 live and same day HH 0 NCAA Championship 124 0 Big Bang Theory 43 0 Dancing with the Stars 93 I Ratings for different population for example A1849 0 NCAA 62 0 Big Bang Theory 16 O Households aged 1849 most likely watching NCAA over other programs 0 Dancing w Stars 21 0 Can infer that the population was likely female and 50 0 Shares 0 A share is a percent of your population actually watching TV at the time I Used to predict program and to predict ratings 0 Shares always higher than ratings I But will never have 100 of HH watching TV at the same time 0 Example of shares calculation I Let s say the 19 rating was earned on a November evening and that there were 172 million people watching something on TV I 55172 32 32 share I Implication program had almost a third of all people who were watching TV that night if you are a programmer this is fantastic news means the programs on other networks in that time period did not compete well with yours 0 For programmer share is more important for those involved in buying selling ad time rating is more important 0 Info is available to TV channels 0 Ratings and shares for programs are usually written like this I Celebrity Apprentice 1932 0 Indicates that program received a 19 rating and a 32 share 0 PUTHUT 0 People using television PUT Households using television HUT I The percent of your population watching something on television during a given time period I Example of HUT calculation 172 mil294 mil 60 60 PUT O Vary a lot I By day of week Highest on Sunday lowest on FridaySaturday I By time of day highest at 9pm EST I By season weather higher in winter than summer 0 Rating SharePUT I Share RatingPUT I PUT RatingShare 0 Numbers 0 If you knew you had a rating of 20 an you wanted to know how many people that represented 20population I A 1 rating on HH 116 million 0 To convert from a rating percent to the absolute number just multiply 0 Highest rated TV programs ever HH 0 MASH Finale 1983 60277 I Different years a lower rating could mean more households 0 Changes in the TV market 0 3network HH share in primetime I 1965 94 I 2013 lt30 I Why 0 Access to DVD player 0 Internet at home 0 Satellite 0 Trends and challenges for media measurement 0 Growth in Spanishspeaking populations I Hispanic HH don t trust Nielsen for ex 0 Time shifting via TiVoDVR I Bingewatching a whole series at end of season 0 Viewing on computersmobile devices 0 Demand for individual commercial ratings ICR I Easier and more effective to get average rating than it is to go in and get just one rating 0 Mobile measurement 0 Single source audience measurement integrated with purchase behavior 0 Local peoplemeters I Nielsen wants to combine local and national markets 0 Ingame advertising I How to monetize putting ads in videogames O Staggered series start dates I Hard to compare apples and oranges 0 How to account for bingewatching on Net ix Hulu etc 42814 News amp Discussion 0 Clippers owner exhibiting racism 0 Infotainment why it s more 0 However basketball is a touchstone sport 0 Reminder that America has an ugly past especially with racism 0 Why is it getting so much coverage now as opposed to in the past similar allegations I This incident connects back to his actual voice not speculation 0 South Korean PM resigns 0 Malaysian airline now searching ocean oor cell phone data I Aereo individual antennas which you can get from anywhere I Marijuana Harvard finds negative effects on the brain Grayber Looking at United States Through Specific Lenses 0 3 pop culture shows to see how it effected American attitudes about cultural norms I Studied content of show to see if it changed perspective of people in the Middle East I Found that these shows didn t really represent American social and political life well 0 People in Middle East will take these shows more realistically than a pamphlet from the State Department 0 British Diplomats applied to Washington because of West Wing Stack Hard Times for Hard News 0 People are much less interested in foreign news after Cold War threat of being bombed any day is gone 0 Don t feel like it relates to them 0 Elitism 0 Major news outlets don t do as good of a job covering the ENTIRE story 0 Lost most of the newspapers in the country 0 Is Washington Times a legitimate news source 0 Alj azeera 0 Cable systems wouldn t pick them up I Arabic name I Third person effect I m not going to become a terrorist watching this but what if my neighbor does 0 AGM laid off half of their staff White Correspondent s Burden 0 When news is covering stories of Africa almost always talking about suffering in region 0 Foreign businesses don t think they should invest there 0 Hyper polarization an accepted viewpoint in the subj ect gatekeepers don t want to bring up the other point in the subject 0 People keep moving towards one end of the story 0 Media distorts world to make it more scary 0 Some good press about Africa but not in the mainstream media 0 Patemalistic view white savior industrial complex Good News about Foreign Coverage 0 If we covered more foreign news people would be more open to worrying about other issues 0 American plane vs Malaysian airline O Tragic nature of the plane not an American story doesn t need to be the driver of the daily news Exam 0 Audience Research 0 Chapters get general idea about how the business developed ratings are used in advertising 0 Movies Journeys with George Misrepresentation 0 Big names Nielsen Hooper Seiler 0 Know authors associated with articles
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