Bio 106 exam 3 note collection
Bio 106 exam 3 note collection Biology 106- Organismal Biology
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This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by JustAnotherStudent on Monday November 2, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Biology 106- Organismal Biology at Washington State University taught by Dr. Cousins & Dr. Carloye in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
All Notes for Bio 106 Exam 3 Bio 106 part 2 October 14, 2015 Announcements/Hints: Syllabus correction: Homework 11/20 moved to 11/30 (the Monday after thanksgiving break) Exams: Detailed- oriented. You must know the step-by-step details to do well. Clicker q’s give you an idea of her question style Lab material is included- study guide will help you figure out what to study. Study guide provided! Consider carefully how to best take notes. o Writing out cycles and processes is helpful o Capture what she says as well as what is on the screen Try to leave each lecture knowing at least 3 new things during lecture What is an Animal? Defined as organisms who have this package of traits Eukaryote Multi-cellular Lack cell walls Heterotrophic- Todays Focus o Must consume other organisms for energy and nutrients Overview of Animal Digestive Systems Complete digestive system: o Tube with separate openings ( mouth and anus) o Food digested extracellular in cavity Not digested in the cells, but in a compartment Incomplete digestive system o Gastrovascular cavity Bag-like w/single opening (food in/waste out same hole o Digestive enzymes secreted into lumen of bag o Food digested extracellularly in cavity No digestive system (very rare, seen in sponges) o Occurs intracellularly (inside cell cytoplasm) Intracellular Digestion Proferia (sponge) is only animal group that relies on intracellular digestion Tiny particles are engulfed by individual cells Enzymes inside the cell break down food Digestion Step 1 Ingestion Digestion begins in oral cavity 1. Mechanical digestion via chewing a. Breaks particles into smaller and smaller pieces 2. Chemical digestion via salivary enzymes a. Amylase digests starch (sugar storage form in plants) and glycogen (sugar storage form in animals) Mix of chewed up food + saliva = “Bolus” Digestion Step 2 Swallowing Bolus moved from mouth, through esophagus, into stomach Digestion Step 3 Digestion in the stomach Function: storage and digest proteins Gastric juice = HCI (hydrochloric acid) and pepsin (enzyme) o HCL PH= 2 (very acidic) Breaks cells of meat/plant tissue apart (helps with digestion) Denatures proteins (breaks bonds and increases surface area of proteins) o Pepsin Inactive form = pepsinogen (cannot break down proteins) HCL converts inactive form to active form (pepsin) in stomach lumen. (HCL works on pepsinogen by clipping of a little piece which then converts to pepsin) Protease (protein breakdown enzyme) Breaks proteins down to smaller polypeptides (smaller chemical bits) Stomach lining protected by mucus, creates buffer between the acid, enzymes and stomach lining. Cells replaced every 3 days Dynamics in stomach Stomach can stretch up to 2 liters Food mixed w/ digestive juices by churning of stomach Is a closed container- sphincters are tight. o Between esophagus and stomach o Bottom of stomach, blocks small intestines Acid reflux (heart burn)= backflow of chime into esophagus Stomach releases squirts of chime into small intestines th October 16 , 2010 Announcements Final paper due in lab next week Next week’s lab will be available this afternoon o In her folder. Digestion in Small Intestine First part = duodenum Digestive juices form o Accessory glands/organs Pancreas Made there and then secreted o Bicarbonate: de-acidifies chime o Enzymes trypsin & chymotrypsin breakdown polypeptides (protein fragments) Works on polypeptides to break them down into individual amino acids o Lipases break down lipids (fats) o Other enzymes breakdown cards, nucleotides Close to beginning of small intestine Liver Makes Bile stored in the gallbladder o Breaks down fats, emulsifies fats Aids in lipid absorption o Green-yellow color because created from dead red blood cells (gives the green-yellow color) Gallbladder Under lobe of liver Step 4: Absorption in small intestine Jejunum o Chyme next enters jejunum region o Function Absorption of nutrients into bloodstream o Lots of surface area Arranged in such a way that the surface area increase dramatically Size of tennis court if spread out Intestine wall = lots of folds Folds have folds (villi) Individual cells have folds (microvilli) o Also called the brush boarder Step 5: Large Intestine At junction between small intestine and colon of large intestine o Cecum (the part where the small and large intestine join) Ferments plant material (microbiome that has the ability ferment plant based materials (cellulose) Large in herbivores to get the most out of their plant based diet Appendix (part of cecum) Function is unclear (may have immune function or may be vestigial) Role of Colon o Absorb water back into body from intestine o Recovers about 90% of the water that goes through the digestive tract Can vary: absorbs less = diarrhea absorbs more= constipation Regions of the large intestine o Cecum o Ascending Colon o Transverse colon o Descending colon o Sigmoid colon o Rectum Storage of feces Undigested material ~1/3 of dry weight = bacteria o Anus Feeding Adaptations Length of intestine correlated to diet o Shorter= carnivores No cell walls in meat, easier to break down o Longer= herbivores In general plant eaters (herbivores & omnivores) = longer intestines o Cell walls hard to digest (found in plants) o Cecum is large in herbivores Serves as a fermentation center o Mutualistic microorganisms: (we both benefit) Animals can’t digest cellulose some bacteria can and if you have those bacteria in your microbiome they’ll work on it Bacteria and protists can Termites cant digest cellulose, the protists break down the cellulose in the wood Housed in fermentation chambers in animal intestine Ex: cecum, crop, large intestine Teeth o Herbivores Molars flat w/board rigged surface Grinding surface, mechanical breakdown food source Incisors (front teeth) for snipping vegetation o Carnivores Large, sharp incisors and canines (front pointy ones) Kill prey and tear flesh Jagged molars Crush and shred flesh (think a cats molars) o Omnivores Not great at either one, but can do both Teeth for all actions Molars- ridged but flat Incisors- multi purpose Canines- sharp but not as sharp or large Regulation of Appetite Hormones o Multiple hormones respond to digestion “Satiety Center” in brain center= master controller o Before meal Appetite stimulated (+) by Ghrelin (secreted from stomach) o After meal Hormones of suppression Small intestine releases PYY o Antagonist (opposite) of Ghrelin Adipose (fat) tissue secretes Leptin o Also makes you feel full Pancreas secretes insulin Stretch receptors o Located in the stomach Overdue it and the stomach sends signals to the brain to get this excess food out Fun fact: extremely difficult to burst a stomach, almost impossible to do o Too much Alka-Seltzer or baking soda too quickly is the number one way people die from overfilling their stomach October 19, 2015 Bio 106 Circulatory Systems In most animals, cell exchange materials with the environment via a fluid-filled circulatory system Two types of circulatory systems o Open In arthropods and most mollusks: Circulation fluid = hemolymph Acts as both blood and interstitial fluid Dorsal heart (describes location, but it tubular in shape) + body movement circulate hemolymph around. Squeeze and relax, pumps hemolymph around Trachea Gas exchange not tied to hemolymph or blood Structures: o Spiracles: let air into tube system (opening to the outside) o Trachea- tubes leading from the spiracle to tissue Branching from the trachea leads to single cell (tracheoles) Direct delivery system Blood not involved o Closed Interstitial fluid is separate (bathes tissues directly) Blood confined to vessels: Arteries lead away from the heart toward capillaries o Capillaries branch into a network ( the capillary bed) o Capillaries are thin-walled O2 and CO2 move into & out of circulatory system through these walls. o Capillary Beds converge into veins which return blood to the heart Single circulation system Found in fish Two chambered heart o Atrium: receiving part of the heart o Ventricle: larger chamber of the heart, more muscular. Gives the big push to make the blood leave the heart and then come back Ventricle main artery capillary beds located in the gills oxygenated and added to blood, and CO2 released into the water artery capillary beds in body tissues (delivers load of O2) main vein back to the heart with deoxygenated blood ventricle Remember that the blood goes directly to the tissues before returning to heart o Double Circulation System Four chambered heart Definite wall between the two sides Receiving chamber is the left and right atrium Left and right ventricle Atrium valve right ventricle artery first capillaries bed in the lungs pick up load of O2, releases load of CO2 waste pulmonary vein back to heart left atrium left ventricle artery to body tissues delivers load of O2, picks up CO2 waste vein back to the right side of the heart atrium ventricle In-Class Worksheet Anchor your learning, apply what you are learning today. Extend your learning- what is transposition of the great vessels? October 21, 2015 Announcements: Animal Physiology: Gas Exchange Respiration & Circulation Overview o Need O2 to fuel cellular metabolism o Must get rid of CO2- waste product of cellular metabolism o Continual need to get O2 and get rid of CO2 o Exchange happens across moist membrane o Molecules dissolve in water o And diffuse across the cell surface Into or out of the cell Gas exchange via Diffusion only o Diffusion of gas through tissue is SLOW o Surface area must be large enough to allow O2/CO2 exchange for entire body Works if surface area to volume ratio is large (clicker 1: answer A 1/1) Flat shape= adaptation to increases surface area relative to volume Gas Exchange via Special Respiratory Surfaces o Gills Very feathery, flat, very high surface area Fish Gills o Gills divided into flattened filaments (“fingers”) Increases SA:Vol ratio Countercurrent flow between water and blood vessels in each filament o Delivery of O2 to the tissues more efficient (clicker 2: answer C 1/1) o Gases flow down concentration gradient From higher partial pressure to lower Water has higher Po2 than blood as it approaches gill. Will move until it achieves equilibrium o Countercurrent flow between water and blood vessels increases ability to extract maximum O2 from water into blood Important Sidebar/Explanation Here’s how countercurrent exchange works compared to co-current exchange IF flow is co-current (parallel): water only loses 50% of O2, blood can only receive 50% of O2 o Blood reaches equilibrium w/water o 50% is the best you can do o But, IF the flow is counter-current o Transfer more O2 into blood o That’s why it is more efficient Gas Exchange (video) (clicker #3 answer: c 1/1) o Lungs Respiratory Pigment: Hemoglobin Solubility of O2 in water is low Hemoglobin helps transport it Hemoglobin packaged into red blood cells o Red blood cell: no nucleus, formed from stem cells o Hemoglobin has high affinity for O2 at high O2 concentration Affinity: think magnet o Releases O2 at lower O2 concentrations The lower the surrounding O2, the more O2 is released Hemoglobin Saturation Curve o o How hemoglobin responds, save O2 to help supply dire situations Bohr Shift o CO2 affects dissociation from O2 from hemoglobin o CO2 converted to carbonic acids in water of blood October 23, 2015 Cell Structure o Cell body = nucleus and organelles o Dendrites = cytoplasmic extension for input Receives info from the cell o Axon = long cytoplasmic extension for output Passes along signal to receiving cell or tissue o Axon Hillock = cone-shaped base integration input Integrate all of the incoming info How Nerves Work o 2 types of signals: Electrical and Chemical Electrical = Action potentials Resting potential = inside of cell more negative than the outside Voltage differences created by ions (atoms w/ charge) o Unequal distribution of ions with different charges Chemical = neurotransmitters (we will talk about these on Monday) Chems used to carry message from one cell to another o Ions are not distributed evenly inside vs. outside of the cell More negative on the inside Na+ Sodium Concentrated on the outside of the cell (Still on inside but in smaller amounts) Cl - Chloride Higher concentration outside, lower concentration on the inside K + Potassium Higher concentration inside, lower concentration on the outside * Each ion has its own concentration gradient Movements across membranes are controlled by gated channels A change in voltage across the cell membrane will open the gate o ions will passively move down the concentration gradient Anions(-) stuck on the inside of the cell and cannot get out o Large negatively charged molecules Resting Potential of an Ion Measure voltage change on inside of cell relative to the outside cell membrane Inside = -70mv resting potential o Voltage sensitive gated channels are: Mostly closed at resting potential Open in response to electrical signal Na(+)-channels are double gated o (activation gate- typically closed) o (inactivation gate- typically open) o Sodium (Na+)double gated Incoming Signal Arrives 1. Resting state Electrical stimulus triggers Na(+) channels to open activation gate K(+)-channels are slower to respond and do not open yet 2. Positive feed-back triggers action potential When Na(+)-channels open activation gate: o Na(+) ions flow IN o Inside becomes less negative Positive Feed back o Initial depolarization causes more gates to open o Must be strong enough to reach “threshold” o Once the threshold is hit the incoming Na(+) enough to sustain positive feedback 3. Repolarization begins Na(+) channels stay open for 1 millisecond o Closes very quickly At peak inactive gates close o Stops influx of positive charge Halfway through K(+) gates spontaneously open, (+) charges moving out of the inside of the cell o Repolarization begins Inside becomes more positively charged 4. Repolarization Passive flow of ions, restores charge difference Na(+)/K(-) pump restores ion gradient (active flow) o Pumps ions against concentration gradient o Resets concentration gradient Overshoot membrane potential o Creates refractory period Extra negative = hyperpolarization o Must depolarize further to generate new action potential October 26, 28, 30 Bio 106 Announcements: - Details are chosen carefully for exams/lectures - Depth in lecture = depth you need to know and understand Nerves and Signal Transmission Propagation of action potential o Change in charge along one membrane patch stimulates on equal # of Na-channels to open next door Refractory period prevents signal from moving backwards Synapses (junctions between neurons) - Action potential does not leave the cell o The message transmits to the joining cell at the junction Synapse - Single transmits to new cell via neurotransmitters at synapse - Most neurons transmit 1 type of neurotransmitter o Acetylcholine- muscles only one you need to know for this class o Dopamine- emotions o Serotonin- sleep, sensory perception, temp control - Receiving cell may receive many kinds of neurotransmitters o Via many dendrites Pre-Synaptic Cell 2+ 2+ - When voltage-sensitive Ca gates on cell membrane open, Ca rushes in and binds to vesicles o Found only at synaptic cleft New type of gate for us - Vesicles fuse w/ cell membrane- contents release into synaptic cleft o Calcium binds to receivers, neurotransmitters only released when this occurs Neurotransmitter Released into Synaptic Cleft - Post synaptic cell o Has receptors for the neurotransmitters to bond to o Receptors are part of ion channels (Na , K , Cl , etc.) Receptors are chemically sensitive on dendrites - Can exhibit or inhibit membrane- depends on the gate that is open o Excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP) o Inhibitory post-synaptic potential (IPSP) Summation of Signals in Post-Synaptic Neuron - A single neuron might get many signals - It can only do 1 thing in response o Action potential or not - Axon Hillock sums incoming signals o Temporal Timing is important because of opening and closing gates Builds from where it left off, until it reaches threshold and sends action potential o Spatial Excitatory axon 1 & 2 at the same time Opens more gates at once Reaches action potential quick o Spatial Summation of EPSP & IPSP Excitatory fires, gates open and start to close Inhibitory fires, cause gates to close Both fire together and cancel each other out Never reaches action potential ***This is the end of nerves*** Muscles - Functions: o Move body when attached to skeleton Skeletal muscle o Move fluid through ducts Smooth muscle o Support body o Heart beat Cardiac muscle Contraction: Basic Set-up - Actin - Myosin 2+ - Ca stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cell) - In a resting muscle, the myosin head is in the high energy cocked position o Recall ATP= Adenosine Tri-phosphate (adenosine w/ 3 P’s) ADP= Adenosine Di-phosphate (one P removed) - Troponin-tropomyosin blocking myosin binding sites on the actin o Troponin complex= 3 molecules that hold the tropomyosin in place; covering up the binding site 2+ When Ca present it binds to troponin, and allows it to slide over; uncovering the myosin binding sites Contraction- signal to contract - Action potential triggers acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) to be released into synapse between nerve and muscle cell. October 28, 2015 Announcements: - Exam #3 on Monday - Practice/study using white board - Questions rea;;y target at if you know the material Contracting Muscles & Filtering Blood Muscle Contraction Begins when nerve cell that is synapsing with muscle cell Double strand= actin Grey strand= tropomyosin Purple beads= troponin complex Ca 2+ released from endoplasmic reticulum Ca binds to troponin o Causes tropomyosin to move off binding sites o Signal to contract Myosin can now bind to actin Contraction- Sliding filaments Myosin head attaches to binding site on actin (cross-bridge). Power stroke- myosin pulls actin toward center of sarcomere o Energy comes from release of ADP & P (energy molecules) Bridge is broken- energy for this comes from attaching ATP Myosin head re-cocked- energy for this comes from r of 1 P (ATP ADP) Ready to attach again Movement has ratchet-like movement Muscle Relaxation ATP binds to myosin- breaks cross bridge ATP pumps Ca2+ back into sarc. Reticulum Troponin regains shape and binds tropomyosin NOTE: if not ATP available muscle remains contracted o Rigor mortis….dead Water Balance and Excretion Challenges to terrestrial life Problem: Water loss Solutions: 1. Waterproofing: a. Wax coating, shells, think layer of keratinized skin 2. Drinking water / eating moist food 3. Behavioral adaptations a. Being nocturnal or seeking shade 4. Physiological adaptations a. Hormonal and nervous controls on thirst b. Kidneys to conserve water Compounding problem Conserving water makes it hard to remove nitrogenous wastes Nitrogenous waster: - Breakdown of proteins ammonia (NH ) 3 - Very toxic! o Have to flush it out of the body Types of nitrogenous waste in animals Ammonia- very toxic - Very little energy to produce - Can dilute with lots of water to reduce toxicity Urea- less toxic - Takes energy to convert ammonia to urea - Need water to dissolve and excrete Uric Acid- not toxic - Takes lots of energy to produce - Precipitates out of water as solid - Requires little/no water Trends: type of N-waste and habitat Ammonia - Produced by those who live in water - Fresh water fish, marine and freshwater invertebrates, amphibian larvae. Urea - Produced by those who live on land and where water is abundant and who don’t develop in shelled eggs. - Adult amphibians, marine fish, land mammals Uric Acid - Produced by those who need to conserve water - And those who develop in shelled eggs - Reptiles, birds, insects, land snails October 30 th Announcements: - Exam on Monday o Bring pencils and erasers - Lab next week 3 of 3 in Animal lab module Filtering Blood: the nephron N-waste removal: Nephrons Basic process: - Filtrate enters tubule from blood. - Water reclaimed as filtrate moves through system creating urine - Urine excreted Other types of excretory systems in Animals Protonephridia (closed system) - Flat worms - Body fluid enters via flame cells - Water and metabolites reabsorbed into body from tubule - Excreted through pores Metanephridia (open system) - Annelids & Mollusks - Tubule surrounded by network of blood vessels - Water, sugar, salts reabsorbed - Wastes excreted through excretory pores Malpighian tubules (closed system) - Insects and spiders - Closed tubes extend into hemolymph - Connected to gut - Hemolymph flows down tube toward gut Garage demo: How does it work? Distal tubule - Salts pump out, water passively follows - Leads to collection duct Collecting duct - Collects filtrate from multiply nephrons - Permeable to water o Little bit of salt - Last leg of the journey - Last chance to reclaim water - Permeable to water and urea at the deepest part (inner medulla) o Helps maintain the osmotic gradient in the interstitial fluid around the loop of Henley In class worksheet Regulation by ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
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