New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Bio 106 exam 3 note collection

by: JustAnotherStudent

Bio 106 exam 3 note collection Biology 106- Organismal Biology

GPA 3.55

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is a collection of all the notes taken for exam 3 in biology 106
Biology 106
Dr. Cousins & Dr. Carloye
BIO 106, WSU, Biology, Exam 3
75 ?




Popular in Biology 106

Popular in Biology

This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by JustAnotherStudent on Monday November 2, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Biology 106- Organismal Biology at Washington State University taught by Dr. Cousins & Dr. Carloye in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.

Similar to Biology 106- Organismal Biology at WSU


Reviews for Bio 106 exam 3 note collection


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 11/02/15
All Notes for Bio 106 Exam 3 Bio 106 part 2 October 14, 2015 Announcements/Hints:  Syllabus correction: Homework 11/20 moved to 11/30 (the Monday after thanksgiving break)  Exams: Detailed- oriented. You must know the step-by-step details to do well.  Clicker q’s give you an idea of her question style  Lab material is included- study guide will help you figure out what to study.  Study guide provided!  Consider carefully how to best take notes. o Writing out cycles and processes is helpful o Capture what she says as well as what is on the screen  Try to leave each lecture knowing at least 3 new things during lecture What is an Animal? Defined as organisms who have this package of traits  Eukaryote  Multi-cellular  Lack cell walls  Heterotrophic- Todays Focus o Must consume other organisms for energy and nutrients Overview of Animal Digestive Systems  Complete digestive system: o Tube with separate openings ( mouth and anus) o Food digested extracellular in cavity  Not digested in the cells, but in a compartment  Incomplete digestive system o Gastrovascular cavity  Bag-like w/single opening (food in/waste out same hole o Digestive enzymes secreted into lumen of bag o Food digested extracellularly in cavity  No digestive system (very rare, seen in sponges) o Occurs intracellularly (inside cell cytoplasm) Intracellular Digestion  Proferia (sponge) is only animal group that relies on intracellular digestion  Tiny particles are engulfed by individual cells  Enzymes inside the cell break down food Digestion Step 1 Ingestion Digestion begins in oral cavity 1. Mechanical digestion via chewing a. Breaks particles into smaller and smaller pieces 2. Chemical digestion via salivary enzymes a. Amylase digests starch (sugar storage form in plants) and glycogen (sugar storage form in animals) Mix of chewed up food + saliva = “Bolus” Digestion Step 2 Swallowing Bolus moved from mouth, through esophagus, into stomach Digestion Step 3 Digestion in the stomach  Function: storage and digest proteins  Gastric juice = HCI (hydrochloric acid) and pepsin (enzyme) o HCL  PH= 2 (very acidic)  Breaks cells of meat/plant tissue apart (helps with digestion)  Denatures proteins (breaks bonds and increases surface area of proteins) o Pepsin  Inactive form = pepsinogen (cannot break down proteins)  HCL converts inactive form to active form (pepsin) in stomach lumen.  (HCL works on pepsinogen by clipping of a little piece which then converts to pepsin)  Protease (protein breakdown enzyme)  Breaks proteins down to smaller polypeptides (smaller chemical bits)  Stomach lining protected by mucus, creates buffer between the acid, enzymes and stomach lining.  Cells replaced every 3 days Dynamics in stomach  Stomach can stretch up to 2 liters  Food mixed w/ digestive juices by churning of stomach  Is a closed container- sphincters are tight. o Between esophagus and stomach o Bottom of stomach, blocks small intestines  Acid reflux (heart burn)= backflow of chime into esophagus  Stomach releases squirts of chime into small intestines th October 16 , 2010 Announcements  Final paper due in lab next week  Next week’s lab will be available this afternoon o In her folder. Digestion in Small Intestine  First part = duodenum  Digestive juices form o Accessory glands/organs  Pancreas  Made there and then secreted o Bicarbonate: de-acidifies chime o Enzymes trypsin & chymotrypsin breakdown polypeptides (protein fragments)  Works on polypeptides to break them down into individual amino acids o Lipases break down lipids (fats) o Other enzymes breakdown cards, nucleotides  Close to beginning of small intestine  Liver  Makes Bile  stored in the gallbladder o Breaks down fats, emulsifies fats  Aids in lipid absorption o Green-yellow color because created from dead red blood cells (gives the green-yellow color)  Gallbladder  Under lobe of liver Step 4: Absorption in small intestine  Jejunum o Chyme next enters jejunum region o Function  Absorption of nutrients into bloodstream o Lots of surface area  Arranged in such a way that the surface area increase dramatically  Size of tennis court if spread out  Intestine wall = lots of folds  Folds have folds (villi)  Individual cells have folds (microvilli) o Also called the brush boarder Step 5: Large Intestine  At junction between small intestine and colon of large intestine o Cecum (the part where the small and large intestine join)  Ferments plant material (microbiome that has the ability ferment plant based materials (cellulose)  Large in herbivores to get the most out of their plant based diet  Appendix (part of cecum)  Function is unclear (may have immune function or may be vestigial)  Role of Colon o Absorb water back into body from intestine o Recovers about 90% of the water that goes through the digestive tract  Can vary: absorbs less = diarrhea absorbs more= constipation  Regions of the large intestine o Cecum o Ascending Colon o Transverse colon o Descending colon o Sigmoid colon o Rectum  Storage of feces  Undigested material  ~1/3 of dry weight = bacteria o Anus Feeding Adaptations  Length of intestine correlated to diet o Shorter= carnivores  No cell walls in meat, easier to break down o Longer= herbivores  In general plant eaters (herbivores & omnivores) = longer intestines o Cell walls hard to digest (found in plants) o Cecum is large in herbivores  Serves as a fermentation center o Mutualistic microorganisms: (we both benefit)  Animals can’t digest cellulose  some bacteria can and if you have those bacteria in your microbiome they’ll work on it  Bacteria and protists can  Termites cant digest cellulose, the protists break down the cellulose in the wood  Housed in fermentation chambers in animal intestine  Ex: cecum, crop, large intestine  Teeth o Herbivores  Molars flat w/board rigged surface  Grinding surface, mechanical breakdown food source  Incisors (front teeth) for snipping vegetation o Carnivores  Large, sharp incisors and canines (front pointy ones)  Kill prey and tear flesh  Jagged molars  Crush and shred flesh (think a cats molars) o Omnivores  Not great at either one, but can do both  Teeth for all actions  Molars- ridged but flat  Incisors- multi purpose  Canines- sharp but not as sharp or large Regulation of Appetite  Hormones o Multiple hormones respond to digestion  “Satiety Center” in brain center= master controller o Before meal  Appetite stimulated (+) by Ghrelin (secreted from stomach) o After meal  Hormones of suppression  Small intestine releases PYY o Antagonist (opposite) of Ghrelin  Adipose (fat) tissue secretes Leptin o Also makes you feel full  Pancreas secretes insulin  Stretch receptors o Located in the stomach  Overdue it and the stomach sends signals to the brain to get this excess food out  Fun fact: extremely difficult to burst a stomach, almost impossible to do o Too much Alka-Seltzer or baking soda too quickly is the number one way people die from overfilling their stomach October 19, 2015 Bio 106 Circulatory Systems  In most animals, cell exchange materials with the environment via a fluid-filled circulatory system  Two types of circulatory systems o Open  In arthropods and most mollusks:  Circulation fluid = hemolymph  Acts as both blood and interstitial fluid  Dorsal heart (describes location, but it tubular in shape) + body movement circulate hemolymph around.  Squeeze and relax, pumps hemolymph around  Trachea  Gas exchange not tied to hemolymph or blood  Structures: o Spiracles: let air into tube system (opening to the outside) o Trachea- tubes leading from the spiracle to tissue  Branching from the trachea leads to single cell (tracheoles)  Direct delivery system  Blood not involved o Closed  Interstitial fluid is separate (bathes tissues directly)  Blood confined to vessels:  Arteries lead away from the heart toward capillaries o Capillaries branch into a network ( the capillary bed) o Capillaries are thin-walled  O2 and CO2 move into & out of circulatory system through these walls. o Capillary Beds converge into veins which return blood to the heart  Single circulation system  Found in fish  Two chambered heart o Atrium: receiving part of the heart o Ventricle: larger chamber of the heart, more muscular. Gives the big push to make the blood leave the heart and then come back Ventricle  main artery  capillary beds located in the gills  oxygenated and added to blood, and CO2 released into the water  artery  capillary beds in body tissues (delivers load of O2) main vein back to the heart with deoxygenated blood  ventricle  Remember that the blood goes directly to the tissues before returning to heart o Double Circulation System  Four chambered heart  Definite wall between the two sides  Receiving chamber is the left and right atrium  Left and right ventricle Atrium  valve  right ventricle artery  first capillaries bed in the lungs pick up load of O2, releases load of CO2 waste  pulmonary vein back to heart left atrium  left ventricle  artery to body tissues delivers load of O2, picks up CO2 waste  vein back to the right side of the heart  atrium  ventricle In-Class Worksheet Anchor your learning, apply what you are learning today. Extend your learning- what is transposition of the great vessels? October 21, 2015 Announcements: Animal Physiology: Gas Exchange  Respiration & Circulation Overview o Need O2 to fuel cellular metabolism o Must get rid of CO2- waste product of cellular metabolism o Continual need to get O2 and get rid of CO2 o Exchange happens across moist membrane o Molecules dissolve in water o And diffuse across the cell surface  Into or out of the cell  Gas exchange via Diffusion only o Diffusion of gas through tissue is SLOW o Surface area must be large enough to allow O2/CO2 exchange for entire body  Works if surface area to volume ratio is large (clicker 1: answer A 1/1)  Flat shape= adaptation to increases surface area relative to volume  Gas Exchange via Special Respiratory Surfaces o Gills  Very feathery, flat, very high surface area  Fish Gills o Gills divided into flattened filaments (“fingers”)  Increases SA:Vol ratio  Countercurrent flow between water and blood vessels in each filament o Delivery of O2 to the tissues more efficient (clicker 2: answer C 1/1) o Gases flow down concentration gradient  From higher partial pressure to lower  Water has higher Po2 than blood as it approaches gill.  Will move until it achieves equilibrium o Countercurrent flow between water and blood vessels increases ability to extract maximum O2 from water into blood Important Sidebar/Explanation Here’s how countercurrent exchange works compared to co-current exchange  IF flow is co-current (parallel): water only loses 50% of O2, blood can only receive 50% of O2 o Blood reaches equilibrium w/water o 50% is the best you can do o  But, IF the flow is counter-current o Transfer more O2 into blood o That’s why it is more efficient  Gas Exchange (video) (clicker #3 answer: c 1/1) o Lungs  Respiratory Pigment: Hemoglobin  Solubility of O2 in water is low  Hemoglobin helps transport it  Hemoglobin packaged into red blood cells o Red blood cell: no nucleus, formed from stem cells o Hemoglobin has high affinity for O2 at high O2 concentration  Affinity: think magnet o Releases O2 at lower O2 concentrations  The lower the surrounding O2, the more O2 is released  Hemoglobin Saturation Curve o o How hemoglobin responds, save O2 to help supply dire situations  Bohr Shift o CO2 affects dissociation from O2 from hemoglobin o CO2 converted to carbonic acids in water of blood October 23, 2015  Cell Structure o Cell body = nucleus and organelles o Dendrites = cytoplasmic extension for input  Receives info from the cell o Axon = long cytoplasmic extension for output  Passes along signal to receiving cell or tissue o Axon Hillock = cone-shaped base integration input  Integrate all of the incoming info  How Nerves Work o 2 types of signals: Electrical and Chemical  Electrical = Action potentials  Resting potential = inside of cell more negative than the outside  Voltage differences created by ions (atoms w/ charge) o Unequal distribution of ions with different charges  Chemical = neurotransmitters (we will talk about these on Monday)  Chems used to carry message from one cell to another o Ions are not distributed evenly inside vs. outside of the cell  More negative on the inside Na+ Sodium Concentrated on the outside of the cell (Still on inside but in smaller amounts) Cl - Chloride Higher concentration outside, lower concentration on the inside K + Potassium Higher concentration inside, lower concentration on the outside * Each ion has its own concentration gradient  Movements across membranes are controlled by gated channels  A change in voltage across the cell membrane will open the gate o ions will passively move down the concentration gradient  Anions(-) stuck on the inside of the cell and cannot get out o Large negatively charged molecules Resting Potential of an Ion  Measure voltage change on inside of cell relative to the outside cell membrane  Inside = -70mv resting potential o Voltage sensitive gated channels are:  Mostly closed at resting potential  Open in response to electrical signal  Na(+)-channels are double gated o (activation gate- typically closed) o (inactivation gate- typically open) o Sodium (Na+)double gated Incoming Signal Arrives 1. Resting state  Electrical stimulus triggers Na(+) channels to open activation gate  K(+)-channels are slower to respond and do not open yet 2. Positive feed-back triggers action potential  When Na(+)-channels open activation gate: o Na(+) ions flow IN o Inside becomes less negative  Positive Feed back o Initial depolarization causes more gates to open o Must be strong enough to reach “threshold” o Once the threshold is hit the incoming Na(+) enough to sustain positive feedback 3. Repolarization begins  Na(+) channels stay open for 1 millisecond o Closes very quickly  At peak inactive gates close o Stops influx of positive charge  Halfway through K(+) gates spontaneously open, (+) charges moving out of the inside of the cell o Repolarization begins  Inside becomes more positively charged 4. Repolarization  Passive flow of ions, restores charge difference  Na(+)/K(-) pump restores ion gradient (active flow) o Pumps ions against concentration gradient o Resets concentration gradient  Overshoot membrane potential o Creates refractory period  Extra negative = hyperpolarization o Must depolarize further to generate new action potential October 26, 28, 30 Bio 106 Announcements: - Details are chosen carefully for exams/lectures - Depth in lecture = depth you need to know and understand Nerves and Signal Transmission  Propagation of action potential o Change in charge along one membrane patch stimulates on equal # of Na-channels to open next door  Refractory period prevents signal from moving backwards Synapses (junctions between neurons) - Action potential does not leave the cell o The message transmits to the joining cell at the junction  Synapse - Single transmits to new cell via neurotransmitters at synapse - Most neurons transmit 1 type of neurotransmitter o Acetylcholine- muscles  only one you need to know for this class o Dopamine- emotions o Serotonin- sleep, sensory perception, temp control - Receiving cell may receive many kinds of neurotransmitters o Via many dendrites Pre-Synaptic Cell 2+ 2+ - When voltage-sensitive Ca gates on cell membrane open, Ca rushes in and binds to vesicles o Found only at synaptic cleft  New type of gate for us - Vesicles fuse w/ cell membrane- contents release into synaptic cleft o Calcium binds to receivers, neurotransmitters only released when this occurs Neurotransmitter Released into Synaptic Cleft - Post synaptic cell o Has receptors for the neurotransmitters to bond to o Receptors are part of ion channels (Na , K , Cl , etc.)  Receptors are chemically sensitive on dendrites - Can exhibit or inhibit membrane- depends on the gate that is open o Excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP) o Inhibitory post-synaptic potential (IPSP) Summation of Signals in Post-Synaptic Neuron - A single neuron might get many signals - It can only do 1 thing in response o Action potential or not - Axon Hillock sums incoming signals o Temporal  Timing is important because of opening and closing gates  Builds from where it left off, until it reaches threshold and sends action potential o Spatial  Excitatory axon 1 & 2 at the same time  Opens more gates at once  Reaches action potential quick o Spatial Summation of EPSP & IPSP  Excitatory fires, gates open and start to close  Inhibitory fires, cause gates to close  Both fire together and cancel each other out  Never reaches action potential ***This is the end of nerves*** Muscles - Functions: o Move body when attached to skeleton  Skeletal muscle o Move fluid through ducts  Smooth muscle o Support body o Heart beat  Cardiac muscle Contraction: Basic Set-up - Actin - Myosin 2+ - Ca stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cell) - In a resting muscle, the myosin head is in the high energy cocked position o Recall  ATP= Adenosine Tri-phosphate (adenosine w/ 3 P’s)  ADP= Adenosine Di-phosphate (one P removed) - Troponin-tropomyosin blocking myosin binding sites on the actin o Troponin complex= 3 molecules that hold the tropomyosin in place; covering up the binding site 2+  When Ca present it binds to troponin, and allows it to slide over; uncovering the myosin binding sites Contraction- signal to contract - Action potential triggers acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) to be released into synapse between nerve and muscle cell. October 28, 2015 Announcements: - Exam #3 on Monday - Practice/study using white board - Questions rea;;y target at if you know the material Contracting Muscles & Filtering Blood Muscle Contraction  Begins when nerve cell that is synapsing with muscle cell  Double strand= actin  Grey strand= tropomyosin  Purple beads= troponin complex  Ca 2+ released from endoplasmic reticulum  Ca binds to troponin o Causes tropomyosin to move off binding sites o Signal to contract  Myosin can now bind to actin Contraction- Sliding filaments  Myosin head attaches to binding site on actin (cross-bridge).  Power stroke- myosin pulls actin toward center of sarcomere o Energy comes from release of ADP & P (energy molecules)  Bridge is broken- energy for this comes from attaching ATP  Myosin head re-cocked- energy for this comes from r of 1 P (ATP  ADP)  Ready to attach again  Movement has ratchet-like movement Muscle Relaxation  ATP binds to myosin- breaks cross bridge  ATP pumps Ca2+ back into sarc. Reticulum  Troponin regains shape and binds tropomyosin  NOTE: if not ATP available muscle remains contracted o Rigor mortis….dead Water Balance and Excretion Challenges to terrestrial life Problem: Water loss Solutions: 1. Waterproofing: a. Wax coating, shells, think layer of keratinized skin 2. Drinking water / eating moist food 3. Behavioral adaptations a. Being nocturnal or seeking shade 4. Physiological adaptations a. Hormonal and nervous controls on thirst b. Kidneys to conserve water Compounding problem Conserving water makes it hard to remove nitrogenous wastes Nitrogenous waster: - Breakdown of proteins  ammonia (NH ) 3 - Very toxic! o Have to flush it out of the body Types of nitrogenous waste in animals Ammonia- very toxic - Very little energy to produce - Can dilute with lots of water to reduce toxicity Urea- less toxic - Takes energy to convert ammonia to urea - Need water to dissolve and excrete Uric Acid- not toxic - Takes lots of energy to produce - Precipitates out of water as solid - Requires little/no water Trends: type of N-waste and habitat Ammonia - Produced by those who live in water - Fresh water fish, marine and freshwater invertebrates, amphibian larvae. Urea - Produced by those who live on land and where water is abundant and who don’t develop in shelled eggs. - Adult amphibians, marine fish, land mammals Uric Acid - Produced by those who need to conserve water - And those who develop in shelled eggs - Reptiles, birds, insects, land snails October 30 th Announcements: - Exam on Monday o Bring pencils and erasers - Lab next week 3 of 3 in Animal lab module Filtering Blood: the nephron N-waste removal: Nephrons Basic process: - Filtrate enters tubule from blood. - Water reclaimed as filtrate moves through system creating urine - Urine excreted Other types of excretory systems in Animals Protonephridia (closed system) - Flat worms - Body fluid enters via flame cells - Water and metabolites reabsorbed into body from tubule - Excreted through pores Metanephridia (open system) - Annelids & Mollusks - Tubule surrounded by network of blood vessels - Water, sugar, salts reabsorbed - Wastes excreted through excretory pores Malpighian tubules (closed system) - Insects and spiders - Closed tubes extend into hemolymph - Connected to gut - Hemolymph flows down tube toward gut Garage demo: How does it work? Distal tubule - Salts pump out, water passively follows - Leads to collection duct Collecting duct - Collects filtrate from multiply nephrons - Permeable to water o Little bit of salt - Last leg of the journey - Last chance to reclaim water - Permeable to water and urea at the deepest part (inner medulla) o Helps maintain the osmotic gradient in the interstitial fluid around the loop of Henley In class worksheet Regulation by ADH (antidiuretic hormone)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.