2nd Half of Class Notes
2nd Half of Class Notes CM160
Popular in Japanese Buddhism
Popular in Japanese
This 34 page Bundle was uploaded by Lisa K on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CM160 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by William Bodiford in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Japanese Buddhism in Japanese at University of California - Los Angeles.
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2/6 Discussion Vajrayana diamond thunderbolt spear/dagger what hes talking about why hes talking about it cultural and political reason dont talk about content what it is the author is talking about and what hes trying to convey argument x2 use; what is the author writing about? don’t be general. refine to thesis. take essence of the paper. how do they approach the subject church state relations? architecture? what are they saying? aesthetic appeal? reaching to common people? ritualistic? what are their aims? what are they trying to accomplish? social culture change how effective is this? alternate length of sentences methodologies who is more effective ? different methods. usefulness. weaknesses of each viewpoint how different authors are assessing similar subjects, not who is doing it better? don’t have quotations in the first paragraph. nothing off topic. western psychology or christianity start with body body one author at a time (focus approach effective) both at same time. a does this, b does this comparative this is more effective some paragraphs can by own analysis method of analytical writing Discussion Assertion *own ideas* shouldn’t be obvious. eXample not own writing. quotes. what the analyst is looking at. Explain *what the example is. how it relates to your argument. how is it significant? Significance *why does it matter? keep evidence altogether thesis should be demonstrated in the paragraphs. be explicit. remind the reader. revise. \ / opening paragraph / \ ending ending subject matter, broader statements. 2/10 Week 6 Maha Vairocana is Dainichi Shido Kegyo 4 fold training Mandala word refers to sphere and MAP that illustrates geography of mind, personality, cosmos, buddha. route we need to take to get there. yoga one thing that gets analogous to something else. Human, body, voice, mind is linked together with buddha, mudra, mantra, dharani, Samaya. Round or square with round. center is alway buddha, and represent nirvana and bliss. wisdom of awakening. Outside is the human, demonic, godly, and animal. inside is unity but outside is diversity (realm of suffering). Buddha is expanding outwards to project buddhaness to the worlds. Buddha communicates himself to us by this projecting. They are traces and footprints that he leaves behind. Transformations of the buddha. Dharma world = dhatu Dharma body is the buddha. Blissful aspect. Blissful is the mind of buddha. Body from the outside and Body from the inside. Movement outward is the movement of compassion. Benefitting others. We don’t find oursleves in the middle, limited in perspective. one direction. and in danger and wanting more than we can receive, dissatisfaction and isolation, alienation. Our desire for more is part of the desire to become one with the buddha. Inward direction is the movement of wisdom. itual practice is placing one inside the mandala. 我入 ganyuu self into internalise with ritual practice. performing piece of music. consciously pace finger and pres keys in mechanical fashion, but with repetition it comes naturally and becomes part of you. nyuuga 入我 creating mandala purify are. create boundaries that keep negative out. wholesome in. invoke presence of deity. send them away and dissolve. (ritualized dinner party) suspension of disbelief. you know it is just a performance. everything is emptiness and lacks reality. but precisely that that makes it possibl and come alive. Operate at a subconscious level and involve the whole body. Blindfold the student. Throw blossom. Blossom lands. where the student starts their journey. Shingon Ryobu Means 2 Mandala. Womb and Diamond. Shingon Fourfold Training (shido kegyō) a. Basic Rituals b. The Womb (Taizō) Maṇḍala compassion ri theory理 original awakening. everyone is buddha. potential to be buddha. you simply do not know it. needs to be developed. emptiness is form bell benefitting oneself Buddha represent womb. Appearance is the gods. Japanese culture becomes the expression of buddhism. womb is the simplest. 419 divinities. laid out like a palace at the center of the city. each outside layer has a function. Dainichikyo is the scripture. preached by the maha vairocana vajra sattva audience. people who hold the vajra sint their hands. type of awakened beings powerful than the bodhisattva. preaching did not occur on earth, but beyond humans. Awakening source of awakening is bodhicitta. inspiration towards wisdom. aspire for wisdom you are awakened you just do not know yet. acts of compassion. goal is to acquire techniques. with techniques you help others. Center is maha vairocana. sitting on lotus blossom. projects in four different directions of each flower petal. 5 buddhas altogether. Family of 5 wisdom buddhas. each has a quality of maha vairocana. blessing, purity, immovability. qualities are static. diagonal petals are vajra sattvas. represent activity of passion. buddha path. flower radiating outwards. those are techniques that are displayed all around the courtyards and avenues of the palace. red flower is the human heart. and the lotus. womb is the heart pumping inside of you. motions you feel inside of you. they are the bodhicitta. turning from raw passion to inspiration we can convert our hearts from suffering to bliss. 5 buddhas mirror and depict different. HOSSO We can invoke the power of demons and demonesses. hopes and fears. gives you various techniques. learning how to control and utilize. c. The Diamond Realm (Kongōkai)Maṇḍala wisdom ji 事 practice shikaku acquired awakening form is emptiness vajar benefitting others goal beyond the self. diamond mandala is the ninefold spiral. can be reversed. each is a diamond andala goes in and outward. much more dynamic. based on the scripture called kongou choukyou. vajra realm has multiple universes and multiple dimensions. are all contained inside of one anoter. not one unfolding like womb. diamond mirrors reflecting one another. series of mirrors. instant and infinite digressions. all knowing wisdom. goal is instant awakening (sokushin jobutsu) 即身成佛 single mandala inward and outward. wisdom prajna femine word. technique upaya is masculine. diamond they are united with one another, image of sexual embrace. center maha vairocana project himself into different dimensions. each dimension it projects out to the small dimensions. center maha. all link and go out to the diagonals. link to buddhas to the four directions. mandala collapses onto itself and expands to greater. number to dimension growing and infinitely complex. ultimate unity of al diversity realm of nirvana and suffering is indistinguishable. male and women, good and evil. all distinctions collapse in all unity of diversity. erasing waves of ignorance. kegon referred to as 事々無礙 jiji muge every single part encompasses the whole. each mirror reflecting all mirrors. interpenetration of all things 9 fold progression first four different version of the same thing. 1. karma action and activity of interpenetration = great mandala as a whole 2. samaya objects. i.e. pagoda musical instruments. 3. misai subtle. sounds or vibrations. ho dharma. universe is simply vibrations. 4. offerings deities depicted as presenting different offerings. correspond to actions 5. everything together 6. maha vairocana by himself 7. 7 realm of vajrasattva. images of human perfection. ideals. cosmic buddhas. represent buddhas that appear in our world 8. bright kings myouou 明王 green skin. worst nightmares. horrific beings are us. imagine ourselves as pretty, but go around doing horrible things. protectors of buddhism. 9. abstract drawings psychological states of mind. phenomenons in the mind. spiral out from 1 to 9 is buddha reaching out to us. showing us that forms are related. shakamuni as ideal. interacting with us in horrific form and converting us. interactions on a deeper level. BUDDHA → HUMAN from fruit to seed karmic results from karmic bases 9 to 1 inwards motion is the human → buddha from seed to the fruit. buddhahood. allow people from direct experience how anything is maha variocana. process of benefiting others. different rituals. 4 learning to create the mandala, womb, diamond, rituals to benefit others complex geared towards the clergy. not everyone can achieve. relieve suffering is the point to buddhism. ordinary practices 現世利益 this worldly benefits the secular world. other worldly is the buddha and religious realm. esoteric deems both as the same thing. Yoku soku bodai. 欲即菩提 the passion is the desire themselves awakening and wisdom. d. Fire Invocation (goma) feeding wood to flames. Sticks. Weeks before there is advertised. People purchase the stick an write on it the hope and dreams, passions (worldly goals). flames of passion are transferred to the light of wisdom. Talismans that are good luck charms. Perfume in the fire. Similar to Transformation of the allayah in Hosso. Storehouse of consciousness. Mandala illustrates the operations of the world. fire makes visible what is happening subtly in the consciousness. People are passive participants. Sell food and drinks. People come and watch. Have a karmic link with the performance e. Contemplation of the Syllable “A” (ajikan) first letter of the sanskrit alphabet. Presented on top of a moon disk and rests on a lotus blossom. Symbol acquires spiritual significance. Negate i.e. historical, ahistorical emptiness. things do not exist in the way that we imagine it, and this is why it exists. expression of wisdom that cease the nonexistence and emptiness of things. AAAAA(uhhh) when you’re thinking. not right or wrong. highest form of wisdom. First letter beginning of existence and the world moon is in the sky. tengatsu heavenly moon fills the darkness with light. wisdom. often hidden with clouds of ignorance. watery moons suigetsu. reflected on every wave and ripple. moon in sky becomes moon of the world. which is the real moon? Real buddha? DONE WITH ESOTERIC BUDDHISM historical circumstances buddhism of japan = kenn mitsu = esoteric and exoteric esoteric = nara = doctrinal study. 1. Nara Kush, sanron, Hosso exoteric. esoteric rituals by kukai that established halls. 2. Mt Hiei Lotus is the exoteric Taimitsu to the tendai esoteric not two but two 3. Taji exoteric kegon To mitsu is the esoteric rituals. SHINGON all is one. all in one. the waves are provisional reality, conditional or apparent reality. Kuroda Toshio Ken Mitsu refers to political structure of the Japanese culture. Kenmitsu Taisei. center where the buddha is the temple. realms are regional states where they have lords and their own temples. get power from the venter, give taxes to the center. Very good model of political relationships. Kingly norm is the buddha norm. Political order is the buddha norm the state flourishes buddhism flourishes. Vice versa. change one, change the other. mutual dependency exoteric esoteric structure. going back and forth from human to buddha. buddha gods japanese gods. this is the focus of shinto. concern about change. impermanence mt hiei the most important. Saicho does not live to establish but his disciples sdo. Center of japanese buddhism, norm of members of nobility. produce as many male offsprings as possible. Male sons of nobility goes to Mt. Hiei. Royal family donates sons to reserve so they can keep family name and rank. Subtemple for the children so they do not have to freeze, and can live next door. Saicho eliminated the rules of the vinaya so there are no concrete rules. Monzeki 門跡 royal temples. original awakening 17 monzeki. 9 are tendai 6 are toji and 2 are kofukuji (hosso in nara) indication of political power. toju does not have any for the royal family. Insei temple rule. aristocracy all member of buddhism clergy. buddhism in economics in order to have more people need more food, agricultural techniques and development of land. all land belongs to the government. if you own land , you own the peasants living there tax exempt for a certain amount of years. buddhist temples are tax exempt. donate lands to buddhist temple, manage land for temple, and keep half of crops. tax shelter. aristocrats are developing lands on countryside, but do not want to manage. send their 8 or 9th son to. governors collect tax on countryside by hiring lieutenants. government ceize and the people protect taxes and lands. militarization of countryside. akusou 悪僧 all of buddhist establishment becomes major land owners. hired private security. heirarchy becomes dominated by aristocrats. militarized. if son does not get appointed, they send in troops to riot and protest brings temporary temples and get gods to help. one military family against another. develop into samurai. 1180 battle occurs within nara and town is torched. todaiji burns down and buddha melts. clergy burned to death. Saichos disciples 2. Kenmitsu Buddhism and Secular Government (ōbō) a. Aristocratic Dominance of Tendai and Private Temples (monzeki) b. Land Holdings and Monastic Militias (sōhei) c. Ennin (794–864) and Enchin (814–891) great disciples. go to china and introduce new esoteric knowledge and rituals. establish the tendai establishment as center. Ennin becomes head. Enchin is also greatly celebrated, but Ennin is the head of Mt. Hiei. Enchin establishes a separate temple at the bottom which he is a head of (onjouji) two temples start fighting. which family is superior? Enchin is kicked out of Mt. Hiei. No access to the ordination platform. only way is to go to nara, which is contradictory to saicho. Onjouji gets burned down. Top of mountain called sanmon 山門 寺門 jimon at onjouji fragmented system of government. different power box controlling other regions. compete against each other. analogous to what happened in medieval europe. Buddhist temple tech esoteric buddhism. In nature it is secret. taught face to face, teacher to disciple. oral transmission kuden 口伝 secret manuals used to be unavailable. cannot verify if a cleric said things or not. many manuals have been found since then. Hearsay and oral initiation cannot date the actual teachings. cannot be exactly sure if that is what saicho said. political economic topics. use the language of mandala to discuss this. teaching of original enlightenment (awakening) hongaku Tendai and esoteric buddhism contradictory kegon emphasizes one mind, obscured by waves of ignorance. waves are apparent reality. only seem to exist. illusions. when the water is calm it ceases to exists and realize everything is buddha. passions do not exist. evil just an illusion. once you become buddha the diversity disappears. tendai teaches not two yet two. impossible to erase the waves. threefold truths both apparent reality and emptiness at the same time. awakening happens in the human realms. passions have to be real cannot be erased. evil is real. tendai = buddha is evil. precisely because the buddha is evil they know how to comfort us and reach out to human beings. two aspects of evil: evil nature 性悪and evil practice. buddah can not abandon evil or humans beings and this is what brings them together. buddha is evil nature. buddha does not create reality but reflects “as it is”. Bad things that happen are not necessarily bad. Nature of human. Assertions that instead of becoming buddha the highest teaching of buddhism is not becoming buddha. Buddhist establishment becoming secularized and aristocracy is dominating. not = emptiness and provisional. have both at the same time. original awakening from human to buddha and vice versa. secret initiation documents. represent an argument between what is more important in mandala the center buddha or outer edges human. shingon /kegon clarify world of diversity apparent reality. Tendai awakening must occur in the outer realm. grasses and trees become buddha. buddha is found in the real world complex understanding of evil. evil = illusion buddha teaches us to master the evil. one step further. buddha disappears. awakening itself is an illusion. just as you are right now is buddha. those who know this sare awakened but those who do not know are not awakened. knowing your own mind as buddha becomes goal of buddhist practice. not transforming but simply knowing your own mind. not indulgent or lazy but active and as buddha. faith in buddha. Tendai shikan. faith nara buddhist ritual practice. one becomes truly human. buddha in center and human around the realm. the entire mandala is the expression of the buddha. simultaneously buddha and human at the same time. do not have faith in buddha that you want to become buddha. once you have faith you no longer need to become buddha. grasses and trees do not become buddha. gods become the highest teaching in buddhism. SHINTO tathagata buddha.not explained in the scripture. replied as the embodiment of reality or truth= cosmos within the realm there are many worlds. every one of them has a supreme being in earth they are referred to as brahma or bonten 梵天 sakra who is the emperor of the worlds 4 heavenly kings shintenno 四天王 heavenly gods hachiman/ tensho 八幡 天照 local buddhas provide benefits. make offerings local gods provide punishments 4 kings heavenly gods local buddhas and local gods part of government locals are regional lords the hierarchy gives meaning to the local gods. they anchor all that is above them. working together. 1868 military power was overthrown and meiji. creates nonbuddhist government. separation of of gods and buddhas. the gods are original to japan and represent japanese. and buddhas are somehow foreign to japan. Meiji model start with pure shinto. ancient time turns into shinto and buddhism comes from abroad. and there is conflict in medieval times there are some overlap and cooperation modern times separate. call it a meiji restoration. they call shinto to be timeless and exist before japanese history, was corrupted but restore again to pure shinto. Scholarly model prehistory there are a lot of local things going on by archeological evidence ancient times arrival of readings and writings in buddhism. broader interpretive framework including cosmology, technology, politics, etc. medieval times buddhists will start writing about the roles of the local gods and practices. late medieval the development of alternative cosmologies. (neoconfucianism) buddhists are writing about the gods not just in buddhist terms but in the higher. meiji formal split gods are the protectors in buddhism. you have to convert the gods to buddhism when building a temple. properly ordained members for the clergy who do the rituals. develop into hereditary occupations. make their living by presenting offerings to the gods kenmitsu language comes from lotus sutra. buddha having two aspects. honbutsu fundamentals and footprints suijaku what the buddha left behind i.e. scriptures. keshin transformation bodies of maha vairocana. gods that appears in the mandala are changed bodies of the buddha. they don’t have to try to become buddha. Gongen temporal manifestation. everything and all of us is this. Standard use to talk about the gods. meiji banned this use because it is a buddhist term. typical expression for japan designation is dainipponkoku referred to as the great land of the rising sun. secret meaning is dainichi honkoku. original land of the maha vairocana. gongen is the indian buddha not the gods of japan. wakou doujin to soften the glare and blend with the dust. daoist thinking. buddha's golden being that blinds everyone. softens glare and gets dirty so that he can be accessible to people. same with gods of japan. notion of hidden layer of meaning is depicted linguistically. traditionally chinese was referred to as original writing but was emphasizing japanese writing as more than provisional. waka poetry. acquire knowledge of own mine. becomes study of buddhism. dainichi which is chinese becomes tensho amaterasu increased militraization of cuntry side. governemtn exerts less control and powersharing between royal prerogatives and the warrior military families. offerings to the gods but only the court has the power to make offering to any gods. 1184 ise 1185 yoritomo becomes shogun military governer. period of dual rule. military family and royal court. 3 groups of systems what are the categories Shinto Writings 1) tendai → sanno shinto totally buddhist. most widespread historically. tensho goddess of sun amaterasu.royal family claims descent. sakyamuni the highest buddha of lotus sutra and fundamental. Tensho must be sakyamuni. san ou the god who protects mt. hiei. god of tendai teachings. provisional, real emptiness, and the middle which is both. the bottom line brings all together. 3 levels of truth and 3 truths as one. 山王 3000 realms in single thought. the letters reveals the teaching. 2) watarai diamond→ ise shinto ise the location of 2 shrines. inner and outer. inner is the shrine of tensho arakita womb. outer is controversial but controlled by watarai family. they say they have secret teachings and that it is the original. inner claims that outer cannot be of royal. mi = mizu outer shrine is the royal shrine because it can put out water. all is explained in secret teaching that is handed down since prehistoric times. hae own secret initiations. inspires other people to conduct the same which are not buddhist sparks the idea of having a understanding of the world that is not buddhist. . 3) yoshida → Yui itsu shinto provide the nonbuddhist approach that leads to nonbuddhist interpretation of shinto and gives birth to meiji separation. Yoshida’s shinto 1.common folk honjaku engi basis of traces everyone 2. buddhist clergy two mandalas diamond and womb. kukai develops both gods are 3. Yoshida Family not important family. ancient unchanging thing from time 3. Medieval Tendai : The Rivalries Between a. Sanmon (i.e., Enryakuji on Mt. Hiei) and b. Jimon (i.e., Miidera , a.k.a. Onjōji) 4. Kenmitsu Buddhism and Original Enlightenment (hongaku hōmon) a. From Cause to Effect —vs.— From Effect to Cause b. The Affirmation of Evil and the Importance of Faith reading for kuroda, jackie stone discussion hongaku 本覚 towards everyone. connecting to the mandala map. middle is the buddha and awakening. common person can go to the temple and make an offering, and pray. Original awakening is for everyone, but some were not aware or did not care. Only given a bit of food. making the vow infinite rebirth, you will become a buddha. only thing you need to make a vow and true aspirations to become a buddha. Just the matter of how long it takes mandala. movement outwards= Buddha manifest in the world. passions of buddha towards people. outward inward movement towards awakening. reflects the government. imperial capital in center. government offices in the sides, monstrary. kenmitsu itself and tradition. hongaku on final exam 2/17 exoteric and esoteric becomes mesh in the daily life. politics, economics. temples involved in military and poictcal disputes GET NOTES FROM THURS. 2/19 tathargatha have the essence bonten shakra 4 heavenly kings heavenly gods local buddhas local gods contact lowest level because it is the most accessible intro and thesis yuitsu shinto texts exoteric kojiki nihon shoki shotoku taishi cultural hero esoteric yoshida wrote them. always has been. teachings were from beginning of time. softening of light. too pure for this world. buddha has to mingle with the dust so we can communicate with the buddha. original shinto teaching. lotus sutra parable buddha as a physician wealthy and famous. kids break in lab and creates horrible poison drink and will die. father sees sons, brings cure. few drink and some don’t. father fakes death to save his sons. buddha also fake death to save people. appears to be awakened. encourage people to engage. distinctions and benefits people toys and pleasurable things for a hundred you get karma from that. telling people about the lotus sutra is the best thing that you can do themes of shinto yoshira shinto mirror image of esoteric buddhism. e,hasis ont on universal gods but on the gods of japan. origin of everything else pureland buddhism leaving this world behind and travelling to the buddha land. amitabha 2/24 development of pure land as a school of buddhism teachings that are universal mandala depicts the realm of buddha and pure land itself all buddhism talks about pure land amitabha is found in esoteric buddhism institutionalized, and in modern japan the largest denomination and becomes mainstream. sees itself as separate from the rest of buddhism Ennin 794864 made pureland very well known. disciples of saicho. builds first structure dedicated to just pureland. 90 day constant walking samadhi. amitabha. mental cultivation. visualizing amitabha and chanting name walk around. mind, voice, body. whole self. buddha personally comes to you and build a one on one relationship with the buddha kuya travelling to marketplace of kyoto and sing and dance to attract attention but sing the name of amitabha. genshin tendai cleric had the most lasting influence. educated and prolific author. writes more than 80 books. o jo yoshu. anthology on deliverance transport to pure land from ours. esoteric buddhism is superior to everything else. but we live in the age for decline of buddhism. age for mappou. it is better to rely on pureland because we are ignorant. first describes buddhist cosmology. description of hell that awaits us. impossible to escape it, or avoid doing evil things. place statue in bedroom. around the hand tie a string that is braided together and when you go to sleep at night you hold the other in your hand and look at the buddha. if you die in your sleep you will be connected to the buddha. important to sick and elderly instant best seller. 100s of chapels later were built in japan. 1st book printed in japan by a japanese author. anthology because he writes preface but selection of passages from scriptures. all in chinese. period where aristocracy is dominating the monasteries. temples are involved in military conflicts with one another and politics. common for many to leave temples behind. clergies go to countryside. koya is early example. genshin stays but after his time more people spend five six years training in the monasteries but leave. i.e. hijiri. buddhist not directly affiliated with the monasteries. hijiri collective designation. scholars use this term for after genshin. combine practices. chant amitabhas name namu amidabutsu leads to pureland. dhant lotus sutra lead to nichiren. when you have more time. perform visualization exercises type of zen practice. perform esoteric rituals. go out to countryside to get followers. emerge from outside of central japan. pureland honen shinran both begins at mt.hiei and lead. devoted exclusively to chant names and found major pureland movements. modern japan the joudou shuu looks to honen as founder. joudou shinshu looks to shinran as their founder. both groups represent 48% of all buddhist temples of japan. honen not of aristocratic background. father warrior killed in battle and becomes orphan. taken in by a temple and becomes ordained. he has not future in ecclesiastical. bright. buddhist for hire. clergy does not hold jobs and take donations for their religious services. practical minded services to bring comfort and blessings to people. shandao link together the scripture of limitless life and. chanting of the name is key tha allows evil people to be saved. he says day or night, you should wholeheartedly chant the name. enable you to be saved. honen convinced by shandao and advocates exclusive nenbutsu. mental cultivation senshuu nenbutsu chanting name and contemplating collapsed together. anthology on selection senchakushuu practical work. honen tells people that they should take matters to own hands and decide for themselves. creates arguments based on choice. sets up three fold series of choices and alternatives. 1. noble path vs. pure land path. buddhism as it is traditionally conceived. middle way in which you avoid extreme and unwholesome. wholesome matures you and makes you a better person and karma. on the road to become a buddha. path of human transformation. problem is that we live in an age of decline in buddhism mappo. human transformation os no longer available. have to travel to pure land where we have potential. he is saying abandon power structure of japan and traditional buddhism. 2. all practices or proper practices shougyou don’t focus on any mention of amitabha. some that are solely concerned onamitabha and those are the proper practices. 5 fold. 1. worshipping images of amitabha 2. visualizing. 3.chanting names. 4. making a vow of deliverance. “my goal is to be delivered to pureland.” 5. reading pureland scriptures. 3. proper karmic act is chanting the name key karmic act because only chaitng the name is other power. honen. everything else is self power. 5 fold. to better yourself. but when you call the name you say that you cannot help yourself and need help by the buddha. human power is on the decline, and cannot rely on ourselves but the buddha. how do we know it works? honen is not complete in simplicity. importance in faith, sincerity, and profound understanding. approach has to be saving yourself and others. aspect is complex in honen’s teachings. made pureland a personal matter. does not involve clergy or political power. given up traditional buddhism and decide for yourself. most important is karma. focus on doing good, and essential to human transformation. cut off from ethics. antinomianism who is this towards? idea that you can do evil without getting punished. 増悪 無礙 you can have last minute conversion and still be saved. would have been considered a threat if published as genshins did. asked to pledge that he will not attempt to convert people or criticize the buddhist clergy. religious teaching that says you can do evil deeds and be saved anyways. charges against pureland is that it provides people with the excuse that they can do evil. you can rely on the other power. 9 charges against honen. he is a nobody and he is teaching shandao’s teachings. creating a new kind of mandala, false mandala. suggested that honen created a image of amitabha in center and infinite light shining out. rays of light strike women, warriors, farmers, etc. rays miss the clergy in the monasteries. reaches the oppressed. ignores shakyamuni buddha that preaches pureland. honen turns his back on tradition. does not preach good. ignores gods. refuse to bow to gods of shrines and donate. aristocrats claim descent of gods and honen says they are useless. petition against honen’s version of pureland. honen does not teach mental cultivation. honen throws county in confusion. invitation to chaos. followers are arrested and beheaded. teachings were banned by government. called heresy. honen and followers are exiled from the capital and into the countryside. countryside has become civilized. honen comes back into the capital but his followers do not see him again. his followers developed many flavors of honen’s teachings. key issues call the name once? how are you saved? how do you know that you are saved? role for clergy? honen’s demise when his teachings are suppresed means there are no agreements in his teachings key elements honen is first to single out other power. and to say that buddhism has to change and traditional buddhism no longer works. shinran devoted, but practicing 90 day and has breakdown. he leaves mountain and goes to kyoto rokuharamitsuji. he has a dream and says honen is your teacher. makes way into honen’s inner circle. if i am being lead to hell by honen, i will gladly go to hell because without him i would have gone to hell anyways. 2/26 honen individual choice. radical notion that goes against their usual position in the world traditional buddhism refrain from evil. Honen says that does not work. Pureland Schools 1. jodoshu honen 2. jodoshinshu shinran develops own apporach to teachings. self consistent and unified. develop into large organization as distinctive and separate as jodoshu. joins honen’s community and leading disciples. 1207 Refers to himself as neither monastic or lay. Hisou hizoku Live a secular lifestyle. Buddhist clergy should be celibate. Niigata and hitachi major center for shinshu I shinran insists he lacks power and should not rely on him for powers. Writes many treatises. Kyougyoushinshou Teachings practices verification Decline of Buddhism is because of these three. They know that practices work. (Awakening) No practice is no verification. In this, there is faith. Shinrans faith is different than honens faith. Very open. Honens was a secret because he operated in the capital. shinran is in the countryside. One of shinrans sons in hitachi zen ran has informed people that there are secret esoteric teachings. Shinran disowns son. Tells people to follow daughter kakunnin Jodo shinshu emerges as a institution. Military government regards it as a threat. Nishi and higashi honganji east and west Government claps down on religious, and have to be registered with head temples. Didn't want it to be too big. Consistent and straightforward. Profound. Teaching that people can elaborate endlessly. Most impressive rituals are esoteric Followers of shinshu are most educated about Buddhism and shinshu teachings. Shinshu understanding is very important Shinran distinguish true and false religion True Dharma teachings practices verification Imitation Dharma teachings practices no verification Declining Dharma teachings no practices no verification Honen say the name with faith. other power. to be saved to be rebirth in P.L. rebirth in P.L. Shinran nothing chant out of gratitude faith from amitabha 3 categories 1. Non Buddhist false doctrines 2. Buddhist techniques 3. True teachings Shinshu true teachings of pure land Worshipping of God are wrong doctrine Concern of secular life, self concern that is noon Buddhist false doctrine. Predicting the future and astronomy has nothing to do with it. Notion of pollution Such as death and birth is unclean is a false notion as well. Buddhist doctrines houben Useful for reaching out to people but will not ultimately work. 1. Noble path shoudou 聖道 traditional Buddhism Honen also says it does not work. Age of Decline of buddhism. People cannot achieve results or verification 2. Pure land path is ineffective alternative to noble path. Transform themselves. Joudodou Turn to pure land path they imagine leaving this world. Delivered to pure land. Hear the teaching from Buddha and attain result. Escape world from decline. But shinran says this is false/ how do you know? Assurance? You still suffer. Shinran says both emphasize self power. Honen says noble power is self power and pure land is other Shinran says chanting name is still self power. Namu amida butsu True teachings or true other power Power of Amitabha Buddha Who is Amitabha ? Buddha in general 3 Bodhis refers to aspect of Buddha and functions. 1. Dharma body hosshin kaya embodiment or reality and truth. Infinite. Without beginning or end. Dharma is truth. it will always be there. Does not pertain to human beings but rather the metaphysics of the Buddha I.e. Mahavairocana 2. Reward body samboga kaya houjin 報身 Bliss. Subjective world of Buddha. World that Buddhas experience as a Buddha. Have a beginning but no end. Begin with awakening and generate a pure land. Once you're a Buddha it is everlasting. Pure land of bliss. Example is Amitabha 3. Response body nirmana kaya oujin Buddha who appears and we encounter in real world. Buddha as an objective reality. Both beginning and end. Buddha appears and goes away. Can teach and guide us. Example is sakyamuni. Reveals the existence of higher Buddha and nature of reality and truth. Gain access to reward or dharma. Bodhisattva are the ones who went the same path. Buddhas born as baby and ends when it enters nirvana. All Buddhas have all three. Amitabha is not central to this scheme. Shinran sees differently. Explains the biography of Amitabha. Scripture of infinite life. Preached By sakyamuni. Dharma body assumes a form and appears as bodhisattva and makes 48 vows (conditions that if I do not fulfill I will not become a Buddha) declaring that Amitabha will become Amitabha. promising that everyone is saved. Radiance of pure land through their life. Amitabha responds to human beings to preach the scripture of infinite life. Amitabha is the dharma response and reward body. All ways Amitabha communities with us. Nothing left for us to do. Shinran’s point of view we have too many kind of Buddhas, but it should be only Amitabha. Eliminate bodhisattva. Keeping away from Amitabha. No benefits or pray, because Amitabha has already provided you. Deliverance leaving this world is false. You are already in pure land. Oujou soku joibitsu My whole life i have been drowning in a sea of lust. Nothing I can accomplish Shinran says that is a self power idea of faith to achieve faith. Strengthening own ego that is self centerness that is furthering from Buddha and true self Other power faith is a gift monju to hear and accept or reject giving up the sense of self. Opening up to the Buddha. Accomplishments are Buddhas power working through you. Same with faith is working through you Buddha has already saved you. Expression of thankfulness you can chant the name namu amida butsu Self power jiriki 自力 People recognize when they ar ending harmed. Avoid doing to others. First step towards doing good. Change the world around you. Good people are still seeking gain. They will realize how self centered and evil they are. Shinran says he is the most evil. Precisely why Amitabha made the vow. The religion is not for good people but for the evil. Akunin shouki evil people have the potential. Of good people can go to pure land so can the evil. Trying to do good through own power is evil thing to do. Turning your back on the Buddha Shinran openly marries because he is not trying to be a role model. He says you should surrender to the Buddha Let Amitabha. Realistic appraisal of the real world. Shinran is doctrine because you cannot practice Buddhism Hunna transformation accepting the Buddha Traditional centered around clergy and monastic who are role models teachers but no roles deal Shinran better than a painting is the name. Instead of the image of the Buddha just the name Everything traditional goes out the window **Shinran surrender to buddha not engaging with own actions. not having clergy. focuses on name not images. ** how is pureland different? nara. things are shifting to countryside. wealthier. growth in agriculture. increase in temples. teachings are spreading and coming in and encroaching the center. discussion 2/27 fragments and runons are what will be docked off. use  instead of () (name year, #). works cited vs. bibliography cite every work. bibliography is ones that reflect your paper. argument should be about what both authors are arguing and what you think. they explain the importance of societal issues 3/3 week 9 What is other power? Shinran says it is what the buddha has already accomplished. it is up to us that we accept or not. This worldly benefits no role in buddhism. peace of mind acquired by accepting the buddha. praying for blessing is not part of buddhism anymore. Parallels between shinran and martin luther shift away from monastic centered institution where clergy play a larger role. people donate to temple to get karmic merit. married clergy or teacher. break away from celibacy. emphasis on faith jodoshinshu does not want to say faith because they don't want to be associated with christian faith amitabha does not create the world. karma still controls us. no soul in buddhism. surrendering oneself to the other power is achieving nonself. emptiness kuu very much in buddhist framework that is transformed. Decline of Buddhism mappou 1. pureland honen and shinran 2. lotus buddhism nichiren referred to as hokkeshu but now referred to as nichirenshu. focus on lotus sutra. Tiantai → Tendai Lotus sutra consists of 28 chapters. 1st half is shakumon. traces. buddhas that appear in our world. referred to as the recent buddha. proclaims universal salvation. notion of one vehicle. ichijou 一乗 access to this one vehicle by relying on the lotus sutra second half is the honmon fundamental or basis. everlasting buddha. describes sakyamuni as one that merely appears as a human being. undergoes appearing to leaving home and perfecting virtues and becoming a buddha. buddha does again and again in the universe throughout time. goal of the buddha is to reveal the lotus sutra. self conscious scriptures. what happens when the lotus is preached. includes miracles. i.e. setting oneself on fire to give oneself to the lotus. fanaticism in the lotus. making supreme sacrifice. commonly quoted. Term sutra kyou appears by itself with no identification but refers to the lotus sutra. 1044 hokke genki. 128 biographies. people who are saved. why varieties of miracles. conversion of wild beasts and ghosts. lotus is a protector by chanting the lotus. jikyousha memorize the scirputre devotee of the lotus 持経者 chanting the name of amitabha namu amidabutsu nenbutsu technique for recalling the buddha. identified as the shorter lotus. alternative is the chanting of the title of the lotus. “namu myou houren gekyou” popularized as taking refuge. 3 jewels. buddha dharma samgha take refuge of the buddha by chanting by chanting namu amidabutsu refuge of the dharma by chanting nammyou horengekyou sangha is the bodhisattva kannon. operating on a universal buddhism. honen splits this apart he says you should have exclusive pure land. solely on the power of amitabha nichiren is the flipside. focus on the lotus sutra on its own power of the lotus. frequently contain references to nichiren in own life orphan. refers to ancestors as nonbuddhists. raised in buddhist temple in eastern japan. 1 year after jokyu war. warrior government become stronger. oubou soku buppou the kings dharma is the same as the buddha dharma. why is it then that the king is not ruling? nichiren thinks there is something wrong with the buddhism now. nichiren vows to reform buddhism in the age of decline as a young boy has to be apolitical and social problem and everyone has to work together by government rounding them up this worldly benefits government promoting buddhism brings peace and prosperity nirvana sutra we should not rely on the interpretations of the people and rely on the worlds of the buddha “All people appear in the world to learn sutra and learn the supreme teaching” lotus works when every other is in decline, the sutra of the decline of buddhism nichiren 日蓮 the lotus of the sun the lotus of japan. biggest obstacle in honen. honen popular in warriors. sinners can be saved, salvation in pureland. even warriors who kill. shakubuku forceful. denounce those who you regard as being incorrect. nichiren denounces honen and pure land. kamakura nichiren stands in middle of town preaching tsuji seppou 辻説法 rare for buddhists at this time. gather a crown and preach. forceful and revolving reaction. sparks riots. nichiren arrested. kicked out of kamakura,but sign of success for nichiren. shaking their complacency striking reaction. 1256 series of natural disasters. 1258 crop failure 1259 widespread famine and disease nichiren weaves doctrinal treatises. king promoting buddhism brings peace and prosperity, 1259 treatise protecting the realm. rulers should maintain righteousness but are failing by preaching honen. lotus is the answer. 1260 Risshou ankokuron establish the true or correct bring peace to the land provides doctrinal support to the previous one addressed. government deviate from the real buddhism causes natural disasters predicted internal rebellion external invasion from abroad sent writings to the government. he cannot be ignored and charged with slander. 1261 sent into exile in izu. almost as if he was imprisoned. deems that as an accomplishments. high government officials are reading his words. starts to sign his name as hokke gyouja practitioner 行者 nichiren is no longer who chants the lotus. he is putting it into practice. sacrifice himself for lotus. does not mind that he is arrested because of this Houjou Shigetoki dies in his sleep. screaming in pain and agony. pureland notions bad way to die. did not find peace and serenity. he must be seeing the hells that awaits. what happens when followers of pureland dies. importance of lotus sutra scripture of japan time of decline of buddhism japanese people special affinity towards lotus becomes itinerant preacher of lotus in japan 1268 mongol empire japanese issue order to temples to pray it will protect them from mongol threats. only the lotus sutra can help and nichiren can be the only one who can explain. attacks other forms of buddhism nichiren’s 4 fold denunciation 1. zen= devils 2. shingon= destroys the kingdom = esoteric 3. pureland= hell 4. vinaya= thieves Ninshou perform esoteric ritual to bring rain. master of vinaya. erected series of hospitals that treats lepurs. food drives to feed hungry. social welfare. saintly figure. nichiren denounces ninsho. challenges to rain making contest. result is that 1271 nichiren is arrested by government in kyoto intolerance, vandalism, promoting violence nichiren rejects charges. but sentenced to exile again to sado island. desolate. he says no one has listened to nichiren and now his predictions will come true. revolt. hojo tokiyori suicide chanting namuamidabutsu. nichiren strengthened pureland is the bad. warrior government sign that nichiren is on to something. mongolians fail to invade twice. some say this is prayers answered. nichiren says this is merely chance. followers of nichiren cites as evidence how those attack the lotus will suffer. nichiren’s interpretation of lotus develops system of interpretation nichiren carefully studied honen flipside of honens approach to pureland 3/5 scripture that powers do not fade away lotus sutra encouragement towards gungho approach and fanaticism nichiren confrontational. go on the attack to denounce other forms of buddhism. proof of power of lotus is that people who do not believe has setbacks Lotus = this worldly benefits plus the other worldly benefits or salvation in future lives nichiren had many disciples. proper approach to the lotus many did not agree with each other which version was the real or revised? lotus= teaching or scripture for mappo time of decline of buddhism society people and buddhism that worked previously no longer works and needs a different approach nichiren thinks tendai approach is worn out. draws distinction b/w saicho and himself ,lotus sutra danger of slandering buddhism. houbou 謗法 do not preach the highest truth to the audience that is not ready to receive it. doctrines lead up to the lotus. if people were to reject it, people would have very negative karmic results lotus has unique connection to japan. japan is the land of the rising sun. japan gets the sun first. japan is the buddhist land. nichiren says japan only has buddhism. he does not see shinto as different from buddhism. nichiren says japan is the land of the greater vehicle. mahayana vs. lesser vehicle. hinayana. japan is the only place where women can become buddhist special relation between lotus sutra and japan he adopts approach that is similar to honen. set forth alternatives. nichiren says we lack choices. it is a societal issue and everyone has to get on board nirvana sutra tiantai is a supplement to the lotus. buddhists should rely on 4 approaches to the dharma 1. rely on the dharma hou 法 truth and preaching of that truth. not the words of humans. don’t rely upon the commentary, look at the scripture directly 2. rely upon the meaning not the words 語 3. rely upon wisdom not on intellect or reason 4. complete doctrine. 了義 not incomplete Honen and Nichiren buddha directing us to rely upon the lotus directly by wisdom, not by what it is saying lotus sutra will always work all buddhist teachings speaks to everyone. honen everyone can chant nichiren make sure they are ready to accept it. some people are never ready. Nichiren’s choices 1. nonbuddhism vs. buddhism 2. lesser vehicle vs. great vehicle 3. provisional teaching teachings are techniques that tell us what is happening right there and then. vs. genuine teachings never change. all times all places all people. complete doctrine. 4. 1st half shakumontraces. buddha that appears in the world. historical buddha that appears in a certain time. vs. 2nd half honmon buddha as buddha. beyond our conception and cannot fully imagine. religious buddha. buddha of faith and offers salvation. only buddha that we can have a direct connection to. honmon 本門 1. icon/B → sakyamuni (dharma body/eternal) 2. title 南無妙法蓮華経 3. ordination platform sakyamuni present → purify the world saicho esoteric, tiantai, zen, bodhisattva precepts (about the rituals) nichiren about the chanting. the words invoke the presence of the buddha. 5. teaching (doctrine) kyou 教vs. direct experience of the lotus = realization and practice. kan= mental cultivation. do not have to be literate philosophical to be saved by the buddha. just have to practice. approach as text or religious experience? zhiyi lotus is the dharma body of the buddha. each word is buddha. dharma is the truth and reality. also it means teaching and preaching or words. every letter sits on top of a lotus blossom. 南無妙法蓮華経 honmon insight into it 1. honzon 本尊 main icon zon means object of reverence. main buddha. bodies of the buddha. nichiren discusses lotus. sakyamuni trace= response body pureland=reward body honmon=dharma body of sakyamuni. all buddhas are sakyamuni. all buddhas are art of lotus. honen’s teachings are dangerous because it takes away from belief of sakyamuni 2. daimoku 題目 title 妙法蓮華経 marvelous dharma lotus sutra. instead of worshipping the picture chant name. not the whole but just the title. one faces the lotus mandala by chanting. title not just the dharma body. this world and all of its inhabitants i.e. buddha bodhisattva and gods. namu is the human being and subject of self. myouhourngekyou is the buddha, reality, lotus sutra, object truth. both are combined and you transcend the world and become a buddha. generate this worldly benefits. transform the world around. great appeal to the warriors. they can kill and go to pureland. 3. honmon ordination platform. kaidan. most controversial. chanting we are transforming the world. the world is where the power of the buddha is manifested. buddha conducts the ordination. person ordained has to invoke the presence of the buddha. power of the buddha becomes present. creating the world of the kaidan. encompasses everyone. japan should encompass the rest of the world through the power of the lotus. followers of th nichiren were protestors and military. followers are not afraid to speak up and express their beliefs. parallelism of nichiren and honen sense that the world has changed and we need a different approach. does not rely on the traditional buddhist establishment. powers individuals. simply chanting a formula. amitabhas name and lotus. exclusive approach. excludes the traditional buddhism. not following chinese role model. unique direction. paradoxically the key academic scholars come from pure land or nichiren tradition. easy approach, but also inspires people to study buddhism in great depth. zen * zen and shinto difficult that we have already a popular image that we associate with zen and shinto. in both cases the images that are popular in japan and out are different. in both cases these popular images are product of the 20th century, japanese response to the rest of the world crafting an image of japan and reinventing and industrialisation of japan. japanese national identity. intrinsic link to japanese culture. what is zen? 1. popular culture. be cool. phil jackson referred as zen master. 2. term= japanese pronunciation of chinese word used to translate dhyona. 禅 zen 3. mental cultivation= standard buddhist practice. 4. historical context “authentic buddhism” attempt to link together chinese cultural norms and authentic buddhism. indirectly implies that other chinese approaches to buddhism are ineffective. what makes it effective? shoubou. authentic buddhism. 1. blood lineagekechimyaku 血脈 2. ancestral teachers soushi 3. transmit burning flame. dentou 4. recorded in books “flame records” process of transmission is documented. 5. mind to mind 6. does not rely on words. teacher received it from teacher. over and over. lineage is transmitted through time. the content of the transmission is formless. to evaluate what has transpired, it is formless. points directly to mind. sees nature and becomes buddha. direct awakening. can be one or multitudes. the assertion that we are authentic are not just zen. all believe so. no one says we practice nonauthentic buddhism. only when there are oppositions?
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