Popular in World History 1
Popular in History
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Early Islamic History 10/19 ▯ Muhammad as Man & Prophet born in Arabia; lived ca 570-632 CE For Muslims, he was the Prophet of Islam & the Messenger of God. Muslims regard him as a mortal, a special mortal, but a mortal nonetheless. They do not worship him. Muslims believe God chose him as His Messenger to lead humankind on the "Straight Path." He related to the Quran to humankind, but the Quran is word of God, not Muhammad. ▯ Byzantines vs. Sassanians ca 600 ▯ The Jahiliyya or "Time of Ignorance" jāhil means "ignorant" in Arabic; jāhilīyya refers to a time of ignorance of God's will historically, al-Jāhilīyya refers to Arabia before Islam, i.e. before 610 CE theologically, al-Jāhilīyya refers to a human state of willful ignorance of God's will some modern Islamists use the term to refer to the current state of the world ▯ Brief Biography of Muhammad 570 CE: born in Hijaz region of western Arabia; orphaned early; grew up with relatives 610 CE: began receiving revelation from God 613-622 CE: preached publicly in Mecca 622 CE: forced to flee Mecca; settled in Yathrib, which became Madinat al-Nabi or just Medina 623-630 CE: fighting between Muhammad’s followers (= the Muslims) and his Arabian enemies 630 CE: Mecca surrendered to the Muslims 632 CE: Muhammad died ▯ The Rashidun Caliphs Muhammd died without naming a successor Abu Bakr al-Sadiq (r. 632-634) Umar b. al-Khattab (r. 634-644) Uthman b. Affan (r. 644-656) Ali b. Abi Talib (r. 656-661) 661 onward: succession of different caliphal dynasties ▯ Ali b. Abi Talib (d. 661) cousin & son in law of Muhammad Ghadīr Khum always had supporters: shīat ‘Alī = Shi'ites 656: proclaimed caliph in Medina 656-61: First Fitna 656: Battle of the Camel 657: Battle of Ṣiffīn 658: ‘Adrūḥ & Nahrawān 661: assassinated @ Kufa by Kharijite ▯ The Shī‘ī–Sunnī Divide goes back to debate over who should have led umma (Muslim community) after the Prophet died; the minority wanted Ali b. Abi Talib, cousin & son-in-law of the Prophet; this minority became “the Shi’ites” divide was not always clear in early Islamic history: the group we call “Shi’ites” today didn’t really exist as a separate group until the 10th century Prior to the 10th century, we really have to talk about “proto-Shi’ite” sentiments, groups, & people. A lot of proto-Shi’ite groups appeared and then either disappeared or were absorbed by other Shi’ite groups. In some cases, the ideas of these smaller groups lived on in the larger group, e.g. the idea of the mahdi. ▯ What does "Islam" mean? “Islam” is the name of the religion. “Muslim” is the adjective describe people who adhere to that religion. Islam means "submission," specifically submission to the will of God. It does not mean "peace," although it comes from the same root (sīn-lām-mīm). "Salām" is the word for peace, and the standard Muslim greeting is al-salāmu ‘alaykum, which means "Peace be upon you." ▯ Who or what is Allah? The word Allāh comes from the Arabic ilah. The word ilah means "god" & it refers to non-Abrahamic pagan deities, e.g. Zeus, Ba'al, Lat, Manat, & Uzza. Allāh means “The God," and refers to the God worshipped by Jews, Christians,& Muslims. ▯ The Quran For Muslims, it is the word of God as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. It is part of the same scriptural tradition as the Torah and Gospels (i.e. the Bible). It is NOT Muhammad's sayings, teachings, or preaching. (Muslims have collected that in the canonical ḥadīth collections.) From a text critical point of view, it has not changed since no later than 691. (Muslims would argue it has never changed, and they have considerable evidence to support them.) ▯ The Five Pillars al-Shahāda = profession of faith al-Ṣalāh = daily prayers al-Ṣawn = fasting in Ramadan al-Zakat = alms for the poor al-Ḥajj = pilgrimage to Mecca ▯ Jihad The word jihad comes from the root jim-ha-dal, which means “to strive” or “to struggle” The Quran does talk about “striving in the path of God” and “striving against the infidels until they submit” Classical Islamic theology refers to “greater jihad” and “lesser jihad.” The “greater jihad” is a personal struggle against me ▯ Muslims and “Other People of the Book” The Quran refers to Jews & Christians as “People of the Book” (Ahl al-kitab), which is to say that it recognizes Jews & Christians ▯ Muhammad and Other Prophets Islam acknowledges the prophethood ▯ Muhammad and Jesus Acc. To Islam, both were prophets Muhammad and Jesus were both mortals, not divine Acc to Islam, humans corrupted message of Jesus and other prophets Acc. To some Muslims, Muhammad is the “paraclate” mentioned in the New Testament Acc. To Islam, Jesus was not crucified, but he did ascend into Heaven Jesus will return at the end of human time to fight & defeat the false messiah. End times will follow. ▯ The Rashidun Caliphs Muhammad died without naming a successor Abu Bakr al-Sadiq Umar b. al-Khattab Uthman b. Affan Ali b. Abi Talib 661 onward: succession of different caliphal dynasties The Conquests vs. Openings in English: “Islamic Conquests” vs. in Arabic: The Openings” ▯ Arab-Muslim Armies Highly mobile: used horses & camels for transport Fought on horseback & on foot Main weapons: lance, sword, bow & arrow Tactics: relied on high mobility: used ambush & surprise; avoided pitched battles, tried to avoid direct assaults & sieges strategy: force surrender rather than rely on battlefield victories But, of course, there were many sieges & pitched battles. These resembled Classical Roman sieges battles: left, right, center & rear vs. the same on the enemy side. ▯ Greater Syria 630-634: Intermittent raids in times of Prophet & Abu Bakr 634: Battle of Ajnadayn 645: Muslims take Damascus 636: Battle of the Yarmuk River 638: Muslims take Jerusalem 640: Muslims take Caesarea (major port) = end of effective Byzantine presence in Syria ▯ Egypt 639: Amr b. al-As led Muslim troops across Sinai into Egypt 640: Muslims & Byzantines fought in the vicinity of Babylon (later al- Fustat & Cairo) 640: Fayyum & Upper Egypt fell to Muslims 641: Muslims took Alexandria after 641: Byzantines attempted to retake Alexandria in 645 and 654 but failed; Muslims used Egypt as staging point for expansion into Nubia, the Sahara, & North Africa ▯ Mesopotamia & Persia (Iran) 632-636: initial raids into Sassanian territory 635: garrison city of Basra founded 636: Battle of Qadisiyya638: garrison city of Kufa founded 640-642: Persian campaigns 641: Battle of Nihavand643: campaign on Persian coast 649-650: continued campaigns in Persia,; fall of Perseopolis 651: Yazdagird III murdered = end of organized Sassanian resistance 652: Armenian campaign ▯ The Umayyad Caliphate (661-750) ▯ ‘Abd al-Malik & al-Hajjāj 684: Marwan and his allies defeated rebellious tribes at Marj Rahit 685: Marwan killed685-9: Um. consolidated power in Syria690-1: fought to win Iraq691-2: built Dome of the Rock692: al-Hajjaj took Mecca692: Arabic coins; Arabic diwan(?); renewed war ag. Byz. ▯ ‘Abd al-Malik & al-Hajjāj 694: al-Hajjaj transferred to Iraq 694-715: al-Hajjaj viceroy of Iraq 694-7: war ag. Kharijites 700-1: rebellion of Ibn al-Ash'ath 701-2: al-Hajjaj victorious; built Wasit; Syrian troops permanently stationed in Iraq ▯ Al-Hajjaj lives on! ▯ ‘Abd al-Malik's Contributions ended 2d Fitna and brought some measure of peace & prosperity held empire together expanded in N. Af., Central Asia built the Dome of the Rock (691-2) introduced Islamic coinage made Arabic the official language of the diwan (gov't.), which speeds Arabization and Islamization ▯ The Dome of the Rock ▯ Abd al-Malik's Coins & Arabic ▯ To Summarize ... 632-661: Rashidun Caliphate = a golden age in the eyes of many 661-750: Umayyad Caliphate = first dynasty in Islam era saw early sectarian divisions: Shi'ites, Kharijites, Sunnis ▯ The Abbasid Caliphate (749-945*) ▯ Chronology 750-945: "golden age" of the Abbasid caliphate 945-1258: Abbasid caliphs become figureheads; there were exceptions; their power sometimes went beyond Baghdad & environs 1258: Mongol invasion 1258-1517: Abbasid caliphate in Cairo; little more than figureheads ▯ The Breakup of the Caliphate al-Andalus: Umayyads (756) North Africa: Aghlabids (800), Idrisids (789), Rustamids (761), Banu Midrar (757), Fatimids (909) Egypt: Tulunids (869), Ikhshidids (935) Syria: Tulunids (869) Hamdanids (905) The East: Tahirids (821), Saffarids (860s), Samanids (819) ▯ Reasons for Decline empire too large powerful generals & governors religious & political dissent ethnic divisions weak caliphs palace intrigue Persian viziers & Turkish soldiers ▯ Harun al-Rashid (r. 786-809) biography hopelessly lost 1001 Nights image vs. the historical accounts patron of the arts and religious study the Barmakids 786-803 802: seeds of discontent: split caliphate between his sons, al-Amin & al-Mamun ▯ al-Muqtadir (r. 908-932) became caliph at 13, making him youngest caliph yet placed and kept on throne by bureaucrats & generals who wanted a weak ruler spent money on luxuries instead of building projects, infrastructure, or paying troops rebels, heretics, & the Byzantines attacked more or less at will – only Iraq was under any kind of caliphal control al-Muqtadir was killed in battle in 932; there were four different caliphs between then and 946 ▯ ▯ Barbarian Invasions From the 4th cent. CE onward, various groups of Germanic & Asiatic invaders broke through the Roman frontiers in Europe. Other groups within the empire became stronger in the absence of Roman arms. The barbarian invasions meant the end of the old Roman order & the beginning of new systems of gov.t’ & law. ▯ Clovis & The Franks Franks were one of many Germanic groups living within the Roman Empire. They lived in the Roman Province of Gaul, which became known as Francia. & which we now know as France. Frankish King Clovis adopted Roman Catholic Christianity (as opposed to Arian Christianity) ▯ The Franks & the Merovingian Kings the Merovingian dynasty ruled most of western Europe from 476- 750 CE They were Christian, but that did not stop them from violence. The pattern: Princes fought each other to expand their kingdoms. Occasionally, someone like Clovis would unite them for a short time. mayors of the palace: administrators who helped child-kings govern; eventually took power for themselves ▯ The Carolingians rose to power in mid-late 600s as mayors of the palace under Merovingians replaced Merovingians & made themselves kings in 750 CE notable Carolingians: Charles “The Hammer” Martel (d. 741), Pepin III (r. 751-768), Charlemagne (r. 768-814) continued tradition of close ties between Frankish kings & papacy brought more centralized rule to Europe than at any time since Romans ▯ Charlemagne (d. 814) successful warrior king kept kingdom together & built it into small empire fought Muslims in west & Avar pagans in east patron of scholarship & art became emperor of romans in 800 CE imperium christianum = Christian power or roughly Christian empire ▯ A Couple of Notes on the Crusades Modern historians have assigned numbers to the Crusades, but medieval people didn’t do that. There were always Crusaders coming and going from Europe to the Holy Land. The term “crusades” is a 16th century invention. People of the Crusades era talked of “taking up the cross” or “putting on the cross.” One last thing: be careful when and how you use this term. To some people, “crusade” is just as threatening as the word “jihad” is to many Americans. ▯ Fatimids Ismaili Shi'ites (NOTE: Ismaili Shi’ites were a minority sect) covert missionary work all over Islamic world mission became public in Tunisia in early 10th century 969: Fatimid forces invaded Egypt Fatimids built Cairo and moved capital to Egypt 909-973: N. African phase 973-1073: imperial phase 1073-1171: slow decline ▯ The Saljuq Empire ca 1055-1092 They were originally Turkic people from Central Asia. They adopted Islam in the 10th century, and they served in the militaries of various Muslim rulers. Eventually, they took power for themselves. The leader of the Saljuqs took the title of sulṭān, which had been around before, but which now acquired status as an official position. They were not caliphs, but they did maintain the Abbasid caliphs. (There was tension between the two families, but the Abbasids had no military power.) The center of Saljuq power was Iran. They acquired control over Iraq and parts of Syria and Anatolia, but Iran was their focus. The most historically significant Saljuq Sultans were Tughril Beg (r. 1040-1063), Alp Arslan (. 1063-1073), Malikshah (1073-1092). ▯ Events Leading up to the Crusade 1009: Fatimid Imam/Caliph al-Hakam destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre 1071: Saljuqs smashed Byzantines at Manzikert – 1071: Saljuqs took Jerusalem from Fatimids 1081: Alexius Comnenus began ascent to Byzantine throne 1092: Saljuq power fragmented when vizier Nizam al- Mulk & sultan Malikshah died in the same year; 1095: Pope Urban II preached crusade at Clermont – 1096: Fatimids took Jerusalem back from Saljuqs ▯ The First Crusade 1095: Pope Urban II issued call to take up cross at Clermont 1096: Crusaders gathered and moved eastward 1097: est. County of Edessa 1097: est. County of Antioch 1099: Jerusalem fell to Crusaders; est. Kingdom of Jerusalem ▯ The Crusader States of the Latin East 1097-1291 Edessa 1097-1144 – Antioch 1098-1268 Jerusalem 1099-1189 & 1221-1244 Tripoli 1109-1289 There were also many smaller vassal states & fiefs e.g. Kerak, Tiberius, & Acre. ▯ The Second Crusade 1147-1149 Edessa fell to Muslim forces prompting new massive crusade Bernard of Clairvaux was the main propagandist ended in failure high-point and beginning of end of Europeans in Mid East ▯ The Second Crusade 1144-1148 1144: Imad al-Din Zangi captured Edessa– Bernard of Clairvaux & others called for new Crusade Louis VII of France & Conrad III of Holy Roman Empire (Germany) took the cross relations between Eastern & Western Christian powers complicated by truces with Muslims Oct. 25 1147: Germans were wiped out at Dorylaeum – July 28 1148: failed Crusader siege of Damascus They started to think the warring against the Crusaders was what God wanted ▯ The Muslins Resurgence: Jihād fī sabīl Allāh ‘Imād al-Dīn Zangi (d. 1046) o first one to take on the Crusaders Nur al-Din (d. 1174) Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi (d. 1193) o worked for Nur al-Din Ayyubid Dynasty ca 1171-1250 Mamluk Sultanate ca 1250-1517 ▯ Salaḥ al-Din al-Ayyūbī (Saladin) Thanks to Sir Walter Scott & Ridley Scott, he is probably best known medieval Muslim in Western lit, legend, and lore. ended up in control of Egypt kind of by accident used his position there to build coalition of Muslim forces to fight Crusaders 1074-1086: took control of most of Syria & NW Iraq. – 1087: opened offensive against Crusaders opponent of the Crusaders moving kingdom of heaven, 3 crusaderd set out to be great holy warrior, survived plague, senior officer, governor of Egypt ▯ The Battle of Hattin & the Muslim Re- Conquest of Jerusalem 1187 Fall of Jerusalem prompted another Crusade ▯ The Third Crusade 1187-1193 Fall of Jerusalem promoted new crusade This one included major European kings: Philip II of France, Richard Lionheart of England, Frederick I Barbarossa of Germany They failed to regain Jerusalem but they saved the Crusader States ... for a time. They were able to hang on for another century ▯ Richard the Lionheart King of England 1189-99 BUT also kind of parts of France Fought ag. Father & brothers Went on Crusade right after claiming English throne (left Europe 1190) Fought other Christians in Sicily & Cyprus on the way Took Acre in July 1191 & defeated Saladin at Arsurf in Sept. 1191 Came close to Jerusalem but never attacked Made 3-year truce w/ Saladin (let a lot of Christian pilgrims go to Jerusalem if they wanted) ▯ 1199 returned to Europe in 1192 captured in Vienna & handed over German King Henry IV (had to surrender) forced to give kingdom & 150,000 gold marks to Henry IV finally got back to England in 1194 BUT he spent most of the rest of his life fighting in France killed in battle in 6 April 1199 ▯ The Fourth Crusade 1202-1204 3rd Crusades failed to retake Jerusalem = new call to Crusade many promised, few showed up, & fewer paid to offset the debt, the Crusaders served as mercenaries for Venice Crusaders sacked Constantinople & est. Latin Kingdom there & in Greece most of these Crusaders never reached the Holy Land & never fought against Muslims ▯ Frederick II & 6 Crusade 1225-1229 Frederick II was Holy Roman Emperor wars in Europe kept him from Crusade finally went to Holy Land in 1225 brokered surrender of Jerusalem to Christians Christian fundamentalists & local elites undid his work ▯ Louis IX (St. Louis) 1248-1250 king of France apparently man of genuine religious convictions took up Richard III’s idea of invading Egypt to take Jerusalem almost successful in reaching Cairo & taking Egypt but lost after Battle of al-Mansurah (1250) was ransomed & stayed in Holy Land until 1254 launched Tunisian Crusade in 1270 & died there ▯ The Rise of the Mamluks “mamluk” means “owned” slave soldiers first deployed in 1200s Mamluks spent lives in military training survival of the fittest political environment violent & chaotic but evicted Cruasders from Holy Land & stayed in power for 250 years Useful vocab sultan: a Muslim ruler, usually more powerful than a king (malik) o military economic sultanate: realm that a sultan rules (kingdom/empire); admin. khan: title used among Central Asian and Middle Eastern peoples; means leader; can be anything from a local lord to an emperor khanate: realm that a khan rules Things You Must Know (NOT THE MIDDLE EAST) Islam and Hinduism are two different religions. Islam is a monotheistic religion, whereas Hinduism is polytheistic. Islam is part of the Abrahamic tradition and began in Arabia. Hinduism is part of the Vedic religious tradition and began in India. Buddhism is different from Hinduism. Both came from India. They have influenced each other over the centuries & they do have some things in common. Neither is monotheistic in the Abrahamic sense. – Hinduism has many gods & a caste system. Buddhism has saints (bodhisattvas) & no caste system. Buddhism kind of faded away in India, but Hinduism remained strong to the present. Harsha (d. 647 CE) warrior king who united northern India under one king o when the neighboring kind assassinated his brother rule was decentralized & local leaders had power encouraged good relations w/ Tang China o counted him as an ideal king supporter of arts/ buddhists kingdom fell apart; Rajputs took over (penny kings) o local ruler, small kingdoms dominated India for >1000 yrs. o Mythical history tracing back to hinduism Regional Kingdoms of the South: Chola fl. ca. 850-1279 CE Tanjore (Thanjavur) was capital strongest in S. E. India along the coast sometimes extended power to Malay Peninsula Rajaraja I (r. 985-1014) Rajendrcola Deva I (r. 1014-1044) Early Muslim Invasions of India Things began to change conquered at the end of the short-lived Mayan dynasty Muslims influence is still felt today Entered then traveled east Led to strengthening of Hinduism Mahmud of Ghazni (d. 1030) invaded N. India fought in name of Islam = ghazi warrior spread Islam but did so at the expense of Buddhist temples; Buddhism became much less influential in N. India after Mahmud Mahmud was common enemy of Hindus, & ironically, united them to fight against Muslim invaders. Muslim historiography has fond memories of him but Hindu historiography sees him as a villain. Sultanate of Delhi (1181-1526) based in northern city of Delhi first large Muslim Indian empire several dynasties (royal families) ruled from Delhi established Islam as major religion throughout India defended India against Mongol invasions golden age in Muslim eyes, but not always so in Hindu eyes most of the time, Muslims & Hindus cooperated & worked together at least among the political & military elite Iltutmish (d. 1236) slave who became sultan o ruler guy married him to his daughter est. capital at Delhi paragon of religious toleration tolerant (by 13th-century standards) of other religions defended India ag. Mongols daughter, Raziya, became 1st "sultana” o male king passing power onto daughter Alauddin Khalji (d. 1316) he introduced wage & price controls to help common man expanded influence of Delhi farther than anyone before Dr. M. says he waged nonstop war and that Hindu history does not have good impression of him Wonderful age to be a poet Muhammad b. Tugh-Lug (d. 1351) man of great ideas, but bad luck & timing promoted rationalist Islam but was opposed by the religious scholars of court believed it would convince the Hindus to switch to Islam attempted to spread Islam to S. India, but planned city of Dawlatabad had tough start agricultural reform but then drought & famine hit o brought land under his royal control, ex: crop rotation o experimented w/ advanced irrigation & hydraulic engineering o India was experiencing drought lots of rebellions, but he survived them all & left Delhi strong Ghengis Khan (d.1227) & The Mongols Mongols were nomadic people of northeast central Asia always a threat to China Ghengis Khan united them in the 13th century from the 13th to the 15th century, they ruled much of Asia kinda almost invaded all of Europe Mongol Hordes/Khanates/Dynasties Nomads, herds of sheep & goats Mongols spent all life in south & on horse back Relied on small fast sturdy horses (good for cavalry warfare) Composite bow, wood & sinew & animal bone Constant threat to China, too busy fighting among themselves Ghengis Khan united Mongols Mongols were always a threat to India Tamerlane (d. 1405) and the Timurid Dynasty Muslim world conqueror defeated Chagatai Khanate, Ilkhanids, & Golden Horde o Tamerlane allied himself with them and then he turned back on them conquered Central Asia, Russia, & Iran also invaded India & dealt serious blow to Sultanate of Delhi was planning on invaded China when he died founder of short-lived Timurid Dynasty successfully invaded and occupied Moscow destroyed Delhi Hinduisum: Vedanta & Bhakti Vedic religionHinduism Jainism 2 movements w/in Hinduism, reactions to increased Islam Shankara (d. 820) & Vedanta Vedanta: classical Indian school of thought that offered Hindus mystical experience and a belief in the underlying unity of all reality Shankara wrote commentary on and analysis of the Upanishads stressed contemplative efforts to get to know Brahman instead of endless and pointless rituals o Brahman - universal soul; underlying reality of all things o specific manifestation of Brahman his message reached and appealed to intellectuals and to other Hindu ascetics (practiced religion through self abnegation) founded Hindu monasteries based on the Buddhist model o took everything out of Buddhism and practiced Hinduism Ramanuja (d. 1137) & Bhakti Bhakti emphasizes a follower’s love of god and the god’s love of the followers Bhakti practices included pilgrimage, recitation of the names of the god, hymns, festivals & sacrifices The goal was to est. a personal relationship w/ god o More emotional and physical devotion to the gods, revitalize Shankara’s rituals and gave them meaninT Ramanuja taught that worship of a personal god and the souls union w/ that god were essential for salvation. Ramnauja was not opposed to Vedanta. He just basically shifted the emphasis of worship from meditation to ritual ▯ The Sui Dynasty (589-618 CE) Unified China after 400 years of fragmentation Really only 2 emperors: Wen Di and Yang Di Re-established Confucianism Also encouraged Buddhism Great Canal built (connected N. & S. China) o Pre-modern interstate system Set stage for Tang Dynasty Military leaders got fed up with Yang Di ▯ Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) Equal land distribution Est. mints and copper coins State exams = competent gov’t officials Greater exposure to outside world through trade contacts Great age for art and culture Example: Empress Wu (d. 705) ▯ Some Early Tang Emperors Li Yuan = Gaozou (r. 618-627) o Legal reform, very forward looking, recognized things change Li Shimin = Tang Taizong (627-49) o History remembers him as a great emperor o Confusion style bureaucracy o Realized historians make history; strong, powerful, decisive o Ruthless, counterpoint to Empress Wu Empress Wu (r. 655-705, as empress 690-705) o Woman! No more ruthless than Tang Taizong had been o China grew in terms of land, wealth, etc. o Found it hard to talk good about her o Historians looked at her and focused on her sex life o Was no more sexually active than others o Seen as cause of fall Civil Service in Tang China Revived from Han tradition In Tang era, based on Confucian, Daoist, and Buddhist texts Open to most males and allowed for some social mobility Furthered pattern of education and government that continued into 20 century Only about 15,000 civil servants 80% of the population were famers ▯ Tang Summary Population centered and shifted to the center and south New strains of rice = 2 harvests per year = population growth, urban growth, and increased trade Islamic incursions into Central Asia 750s onward reversed trend of westward expansion Large empire = large centralized government= expensive government = high taxes = poverty = famine and unhappy people = rebellion Song Dynasty Drift away from Tang Buddhism and toward Neo-Confucianism Introduced paper money o It took a while for people to start trusting paper money Introduced moveable type China saw massive population growth = 5 cities with over 1 million people The Yuan Dynasty Religiously tolerant, much more materialistic Mongol conquering of China Need to adapt if they want to rule successfully Tension b/w “old school: Mongols and Sinicized Mongols resettled in civil war Welcomed foreigners Nationalities policy divided people based on ethnicity Mongols were on top, bottom were Tang and Song ▯ Yamato Era Japan 250-710 CE Yamato kings unified Japan under one ruler King had both kingly & priestly duties Relations w/ both China & Korea Buddhism & Confthianism enter Japan & blend w/ native Shinto religion (see 7 cent. Horyu Buddhist temple) ▯ Prince Shotoku (d. 622) Member of Soga family Promoted Buddhism & Confucianism in Japan Improved relations w/ Sui China & increased borrowing of Chinese ideas & technology Assigned ranks to civil servants = greater hierarchy & standardization in gov’t 17 Article Constitution = outlined responsibilities & rights of rulers & ruled; based on Confucianism & Buddhism inspired other reforms ▯ Taika Reform (645) & Taiho Code (702) Together they set patterns of gov’t in Japan that lasted 1200 years Taika Reform: 1.) abolished private land ownership & made emperor owner of all land (former landowners kept their land but now served at pleasure of emperor); 2.) est. provinces & officials 7 took responsibility for infrastructure; 3.) conducted census & redistributed land acc. to need; 4.) rewrote tax codes Taiho Code: est. imperial advisory council as well as eight ministries & outlined responsibilities of each one ▯ Nara Japan (710-94) City of Nara was 1 permanent capital Buddhism became more popular in Japan, so popular that there were reactions against it Last era of empresses (w/ a couple exceptions); after that time all emperors were male Continued Sinicization (land reform, gov’t structure, lit.) Early Japanese written literature as well as lots of copying of Buddhist tests ▯ Heian Japan (794-1185) Court moved to Kyoto Shogun: “barbarian subduing general”; originally title given to military Leader who fought ag. Ainu Fujiwara family was power behind the throne; Fujiwara daughters married emperors while Fujiwara men became shogun Tale of Genji=world’s first novel; one of Japan’s literary classics Image: the angry ghost of Michizane (d. 903) the exiled scholar brings destruction to his enemies ▯ Kamakura Japan (1185-1333) Samurai= armored cavalry Bakufu= tent govt (military govt) Shogun was center of real power: emperor was revered figurehead Kamikaze typhoons (“divine wind”) defeats Mongol invasion twice (1274 and 1281) Pure Land, Zen, & Nichiren Buddhism developed in Japan Image: “Taima Mandala” showing Amida Buddha (=Savior Buddha) & other Pure Land themes Japanese denominations of Buddhism began to appear ▯ Ashikaga Japan (1337-1467) Dates not universally agreed upon; some push Ashikaga all the way to 1573 1467-1477: Onin War = civil war that resulted in decline of Ashikaga power & increase in regional power daimyo = “great name;” feudal lords who dominated this era bushido = warrior code followed by samurai ▯ image: samurai armor allegedly belonging to Ashikaga allegedly belonging to Ashikaga Takauji, founder of Ashikaga shogunate ▯ Christian Nubia ca 450-1450 CE 500s Nubia was a spiritual battleground for competing interpretations of Christianity Nubia successfully defended itself ag. Early Muslin invasions in mid 600s Political unification resulted in theological unity, & Nubia adopted Miasphysite Coptic Christianity Muslim incursions chopped away at Christian Nubia, until the independent kingdoms disappeared in the 15 century th ▯ Ethiopia Under the Zagwe Claimed to have married into Aksumite royal family Fl. 12 -13 cent CE Capital at Adafa Stone-cut churches of Emperpe Lalibela (r. ca. 1185-1225) Succumbed to rebellion ca 1270 ▯ Ethiopa under Solomonid Kings Overthrew Zagwe around 1270 CE Kebra Negast: history explaining Solomonid descent from Queen Sheba & King Solomon Ethiopia as “ the New Zion” Spread Christianity via missionaries & monasteries Survived until 1974 CE ▯ Swahili City-States The Swahili coast of East Africa was a land of city-states They were the eastern terminus of trade across the Indian Ocean They traded goods from the interior of Africa for good from India, Arabia, & the Mediterranean world City-state of Kilwa was best known of the Swahili states ▯ Kilwa Medieval Kilwa not same as modern Kilwa International city of African, Arabian, Persian, & Indian influence Perfect location for monsoon system trading ▯ Ancient Ghana (750-1240 CE) Not exactly the same as modern Ghana Also named Wagadu; “Ghana” means “king” Extensive trade relations w/ Islamic North Africa Ghana traded gold for salt & ivory War w/ Berber Almoravids in 1050s weakened Ghana Kings eventually adopted Islam, as did many of their subjects ▯ Mali Replaced Ghana as major regional power in 1200s Controlled western end of Saharan trade Controlled gold trade Leaders were Muslim & encouraged Islamic education Counted as one of the great world kingdoms ca. 1200-1400 ▯ Sundiata (d. 1255) Founder of Empire of Mali 1230 or 1235: defeated rival king, Sumanguru (also spelled “Soumaoro”) 1240: destroyed Kumbi (Ghana) 1240-1255: made Mali great merchant empire biography became subject of oral history/epic poem sung by griots ▯ Yuan Dynasty (1280) Religiously tolerant, much more materialistic Mongol conquering of China Need to adapt if they want to rule successfully Tension b/w “old school: Mongols and Sinicized Mongols resettled in civil war Welcomed foreigners Nationalities policy divided people based on ethnicity Mongols were on top, bottom were Tang and Song ▯ Nationalities Policy Military Elite – Mongols Foreigners – everyone not Mongol or Chinese (Marco Polo) o Many people (Euro) traveled here to work, benefit from trade, took over as civil servants o Marco Polo Han Chinese – Northern Chinese Song Chinese – Southern Chinese o Hard for both Chinese classes to get into civil service exams, military, or advance in society ▯ Marco Polo (foreigners) Rich from 4 Crusade and established business contacts in many areas When in jail, told a friend of his travels in China The Travels of Marco Polo (FICTICIOUS) o European view of the far east became solely based on this fictional book and influenced many political and economic decisions ▯ Ming Dynasty The war against the Mongol Yuan Dynasty chased them back north and the Ming was established Perfected civil service, restored civil service and heavy punishments Highly centralized, increase in spies Rebuilt Grand Canal and Forbidden City o Forbidden City is where the emperor lived w/ family, guard, educators; decreased his exposure, era of mystery towards it Yang He ▯ Yang He Chinese navy showed off power and ability, but ended abruptly o In theory could have reached Americas b/4 Europeans Admiral in Navy Unic – castrated male, worked delicate tasks in government o No dynasty, no family to pass secrets onto ▯ Lect. 22 – Korea & Japan Korea in 500 CE 3 Korean kingdoms o Korguryo, Paekche, & Silla 1 Japanese kingdom o Kaya Sinicization was greatest in North States fought each other and China Silla emerged most powerful in 735 CE ▯ Koryo Dynasty First to unite Korea under one government Continued to borrow from Chinese Centralized government and bureaucracy on Confucian model Usually good Chinese relations, but usually had wars w/ Manchus & other northerners o Led to the creation of their own “Great Wall” ▯ Yi (Choson) Dynasty Korean General Yi Song-gye allied w/ Ming China to overthrow Koryo Yi ruled Korea for 500 years Capital city – Choson Used Confucian ideals to create stratified hierarchical society Scholarship and print making increased o Extensive libraries and book making ▯ Mythical Origins of Japanese Empire Mythological origins claim to go back to 7 century BCE First mythical emperor: Jimmu, son of sun goddess, Ameratsu Jimu married daughter of storm god, Susanoo Made province of Yamato center of power ▯ Yamato Era Japan Yamato kings unified Japan under one ruler Kingly and priestly duties Relations w/ both China and Korea Buddhism and Confucianism enter Japan and blend w/ Shinto religion 552-710 : Asuka Era of reform Soga family dominated political life from 587 onward T e n n- œmeror, “Son of Heaven: came into use ▯ Prince Shōtoku Member of Soga family Promoted Buddhism and Confucianism in Japan Improved relations w/ Sui China and increased borrowing of Chinese ideas and technology Assigned ranks to civil servants – greater hierarchy and standardization in gov 17 Article Constitution – outlined responsibilities and rights of rulers and ruled o based on Confucianism and Buddhism ▯ Taika Reform & Taiho Code Together set patterns of gov in Japan that lasted 1200 years Taika Reform Taiho Code – established imperial advisory council as well as eight ministries outlined responsibilities ▯ Taika Reform Abolished private land ownership & made emperor owner of all land (former landowners kept their land but now served at pleasure of emperor) Est. provinces & officials 7 took responsibility for infrastructure Conducted census & redistributed land acc. to need Rewrote tax codes ▯ Nara Japan st City of Nara was 1 permanent capital Buddhism became more popular in Japan, enough that there were reactions against it (anti-Buddhist movement) Last era of empresses after that time were male Continued Sinicization (land reform, gov structure, literatures) Early Japanese written literature as well as lots of copying of Buddhist texts ▯ Heian Japan Court moved to Kyoto Shogun – “barbarian subduing general” o Originally title given to military leader who fought against Ainu Fujiwara family was power behind the throne; daughters married emperors while men became shogun Tale of Genji – worlds first novel and one of Japan’s literary classics Image: the angry ghost of Michizane the exiled scholar brings destruction to his enemies ▯ Kamakura Japan Samurai – armored cavalry Bakufu – tent government (military gov) Shogun was center of real power; emperor was revered figurehead Kamikaze typhoons (“divine wind”) defeats Mongol invasion twice Pure land, Zen and Nichiren Buddhism developed in japan Image- “Taima Mandala” showing Amida Buddha (“Savior Buddha”) and other pure land themes ▯ Ashikaga Japan 1467-1477: Onin War o civil war that resulted in decline of Ashikaga power and increase in regional power Daimo – “great name” feudal lords who dominated this era Bushido – warrior code followed by samsurai Image – samurai armor allegedly belonging to Ashikaga Takauji, founder of Ashikaga shogunate ▯ Africa ▯ Nubia Spiritual battle ground for Christianity Defended themselves against early Muslim invasions Eventually destroyed them Politically unified = Miasphysite Coptic Christianity ▯ Zagwe (Ethiopia) Adafa – capital Married into Aksumite fam Stone-cut churches Emperpe Labribela ▯ Solomonid Kings Overthrew Zagwe Kebra Negast – Q. Sheba & K. Solomon “The New Zion” spread Christianity through missionaries & monasteries survived until 1974 CE ▯ Swahili City-States Competed w/ each other Trade center into Indian Ocean ▯ Kilwa Formed by Bantu people & Muslim traders Monsoon system trading, stocking up & leaving on ships Gold trading city ▯ Ghana (“king”) Kumbi Saleh – capital Extensive trade w/ Islamic people of North Africa Gold being exchanged for ivory & salt King adopted Islam Wars w/ Berber Almoravids – weakened Ghana ▯ Mali Replaced Ghana in 1200’s Controlled western end of Saharan trade Muslim lead and encouraged Islam Controlled gold trade Greatest world kingdom of the time ▯ Founder = Sundiata Defeated rival king, Sumanguru & destroyed Kumbi (Ghana) Made Mali into great merchant empire Biography was lost & retold in epic poems by griots ▯ Mansa Musa Ruled Mali at its height Became famous for internationally impressed w/ hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca Destablished local economy for years Collected scholars for Sankore Mosque & University o Major learning influence of Islam
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