Final Unit Notes: 10-28-12/4
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Date Created: 11/05/15
9/1/15 ● most articles are from colleges in the U.S. ● how to read journal articles ○ why research questions ○ how? who? when? ■ participants ■ procedure ● IV, DV ○ what? ■ results ● Article 1. Kisilevsky et al. (2003) ○ from 30 weeks gestational age, fetuses begin to react to auditory stimulation ○ able to discriminate sounds and voices ■ vowels, consonantvowel sounds, male or female voices ○ but, is it based on genes or experience? ○ experience expectant → development that will not happen unless the experience happens at a certain time; the critical moment where this has to happen in the environment to start taking effect ○ experience dependent → building new synapses in response to something happening; learning how to read for a child ○ in utero experience: ■ fetuses are able to remember and recognize human voices that they are exposed to in utero ■ evidence? ● mixed some say yes, some say no ■ newborn’s preference for mother’s voice ● Method ○ participants ■ 60 term fetuses of Chinese women ■ 38.4 weeks gestational age ○ procedure ■ 2 voice conditions ● mother or stranger ■ each conditions consisted of three 2 minute periods ● no stimulus ● stimulus → mom/stranger ● no stimulus ■ looked at body movement and heart rate ○ measures ■ fetal heart rate ■ body movement ● Results ○ fetal heart rate ■ 90s after voice onset significant difference between the mother and stranger conditions ○ body movement: inconclusive ● conclusion: fetuses are capable of remembering and recognizing mother’s voice ● Discussion ○ in utero experiences may influence the infant's preferences even before birth ■ prenatal memory and learning preparation for learning ○ development of auditory system ■ experience independent (before 30 weeks GA) ■ experience expectant: ● between 30 weeks GA and term agerepeated exposure to mother’s voice ● are necessary for neural development ■ experience dependent (after birth) ● repeated exposure to mother tongue ● form new neural connections ○ reflexive brain stem activities? higher brain functioning? ● your thoughts? ○ are you an educated consumer? ■ Ritmo advanced sound system for you and your baby ■ volume and duration of music? could be too loud, or over stimulating ○ what may be the potential benefit(s) of fetuses/ hearing and recognition of mother's’ voice? ■ think of the future ● early attachment? 9/3/15 ● Fetal Neurobehavioral Development ○ 1. Touch Response ■ touch self ■ contact with womb and umbilical cord ■ touch other fetuses in multiple pregnancy ○ 2. Breathing and Movements ■ no air inside of the uterus ■ fetus does show breathing movement of the lungs, only emulate, not actually breathing ■ get oxygen through the veins, blood, umbilical cord, etc. ■ fetus does not float in the womb, but is subject to forces of gravity and moves (acceleration, direction) as mother moves ○ Taste and Smell ■ amniotic fluid, show preference for their own, thus they can smell and remember ■ variety of different smells and tastes, depending on what mother eats ■ sensation of taste and smell, this can occur through the nose, mouth, and bloodstream ○ Hearing ■ between 2830 weeks, around 7 months of pregnancy, fetuses can hear ■ can hear sounds pass through uterus wall; mother’s voice, heartbeat, and gastrointestinal sounds ○ Vision ■ pitch dark inside of the uterus ■ visual system is not yet fully developed, because there is nothing to be seen ■ by the end of age 1, visual development is finalizing ■ adult vision is slightly later ■ 28 weeks can open eyes for some time and blink ● Fetal Learning ○ evidence from newborn preferences: ■ listen to sounds that occurred during the prenatal period such as heartbeat and intrauterine sounds as well as mother’s voice ■ smell their own amniotic fluid ○ evidence from prenatal period ■ attention ● reduction in heart rate and motor activities in response to auditory stimulus ■ classical habituationdishabituation ● reduction in heart rate and motor activities in response to repeated auditory stimulus (e.g. electrical toothbrush at a slow speed) ● increase in heart rate and motor activities when change occurs in the stimulus (e.g. electrical toothbrush at a high speed) ● Functions of Prenatal Behavior ○ allow to adapt and survive in prenatal environment ○ assist the process of labor and birth ○ help survival after birth, e.g. ■ body building ● movements are essential for developing joints and muscle tone ● breathing movements may be for developing neural pathways and muscle coordination to ensure that breathing occurs without a problem ■ maternal recognition ● recognize and prefer maternal voice and smell ● Birth Process ○ timing of birth: ■ corticotropinreleasing hormone (about 40 weeks gestational age) ● triggers contractions, water breaking, etc. ○ preliminary signs of birth ■ “lightning” (head downward movement): 24 weeks before labor ■ Braxton Hicks (false) contractions: irregular uterus contractions ■ rupture of membranes: 24 hours before labor ● Stages of Labor ○ Stage 1 Dilation and effacement of cervix ■ contractions ● phase ○ latent → 58 mins apart, 30 sec episode, 812 hours duration ○ active → every 35 mins, 4560 sec episode, 4 hours duration, 34 cm dilation of cervix ○ transition → 80 sec episodes, 3060 minute duration, 810 cm dilation of cervix ○ Stage 2 Expulsion ■ from full opening of cervix to birth of infant ■ (20 minutes2 hours) ○ Stage 3 Placental expulsion ■ 520 minutes after infant is born ○ Stage 4 Recovery ■ 1 hour after delivery of placenta ● Fetal Head Molding ○ molding of the baby’s head bones during passage through the birth canal ○ by the 3rd day of life, bones return to their normal position ● How does a baby receive oxygen? ○ before birth ■ lungs are filled with fluid, not air ■ oxygen diffuses across the placental membrane from mother’s blood to the baby’s blood ○ at birth ■ fluid is absorbed into lung tissues and replaced by air ■ umbilical arteries are clamped to increase blood pressure ■ blood vessels in the lungs relax ● Delivery Presentations ○ normal presentation ■ head is facing downwards ■ head first facing backwards ○ abnormal presentations ■ fetus facing towards you, not away or to the side ■ face presentation; nose is coming towards, not the head ■ brow presentation; should be the back of the head ■ breech presentations → baby did not face downwards ● complete breech ● frank breech ● incomplete breech ● footling ■ causes of abnormal presentations ● premature infants; not yet have the opportunity to move into a headdown position ● infants with neuromuscular problems; lack of coordinated movements to move to a headdown position ■ consequences ● increased risk for a compressed or prolapsed umbilical cord ○ correcting presentation (after 37 weeks gestational age) ■ external vision through a medical professional, massage Chapter 3 I. Prenatal Health & Risk A. Prenatal Teratogenic Risks 1. Teratogens: toxic agents (smoking, alcohol, drugs, vitamins in large doses) a) tobacco → cigarette smoking and secondhand exposure b) alcohol (1) fetal alcohol syndrome (2) partial FAS (3) alcoholrelated birth defects (4) alcoholrelated neurodevelopmental disorders c) cocaine 2. Teratogenic risks a) detrimental effects on physical, attentional, cognitive, language, and social development b) effects of direct exposure: (1) timing/when: severity depends on this (a) risk increases and peaks during the period of embryo during which rapid differentiation of organs and limbs occurs (2) length/how long: time of exposure (3) amount/how much: doseresponse relationship (a) how much the mother drunk, smoked, etc. c) effects of environmental risks: (1) who would do this the most? (a) less knowledgeable people on prenatal development, etc. (b) people with little social support (c) mother’s low SES, single parenthood, high stress levels, low social support, poor mental health, continuous use after birth, poor parenting B. Medical Assisted Reproduction 1. fertility drugs a) pills or injectable drugs to enhance fertility 2. artificial insemination a) sperm is deposited at the cervix or in the uterus 3. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) a) eggs are surgically removed and mixed with sperms in a lab dish, if fertilization occurs, the embryos are then implanted in the uterus II. Newborn Health & Risk 9/8/15 Genetic Disorders ○ Fragile X Syndrome → when only one gene is bad ■ boys: autisticlike (e.g., hand flapping, self injuries, repetitive behavior), deficits in attention and social information processing, mild to moderate mental retardation ■ girls: only mild cognitive deficits ○ PraderWilli Syndrome → only one gene is bad ■ obesity, short stature, low muscle tone, deficits in shortterm memory, poor emotion control ● Williams Syndrome ○ short stature, heart defects, intellectual deficits, highly social ● PKU → Phenylketonuria ○ unable to metabolize protein ○ dietary treatment is effective ● Huntington’s disease ○ depression, lost of memory and motor control ○ symptoms appear at age 3540 ● Cystic Fibrosis ○ most common genetic disorder; 1/2500 births ○ Northern European ancestry ○ clogged lungs with mucus ● Taysachs disease ○ ashkenazi jews ○ enzyme deficiency ○ fast decline in mental and motor abilities ○ most die before age 5 ● sickle cell anemia ○ black infants ○ clot of red blood cells ○ heart and kidney problems ○ mild retardation ○ can be partially treated Chromosomal Disorders ● Down’s syndrome ○ an extra chromosome in pair 21 ○ mental retardation, short stature ○ mother >30 and father >40 ● Turner’s Syndrome ○ missing one chromosome in pair 23 ○ born with neither male nor female genitals, mental retardation Preventing Birth Disorders ● before pregnancy: genetic counseling ● zygote period: preimplantation genetic diagnosis after zygote duplicates to 810 cells ○ make sure that fertilized eggs are healthy ● embryo period: ○ CVS → chorionic villus sampling; 68 weeks. a thin hollow tube inserted into the uterus to remove the hairlike projection on the membrane ○ fetoscopy (518 weeks); a small tube with a light source at one end inserted into uterus to inspect the fetus for defects of the limbs and face ● fetus period: ○ blood analysis (after 8 weeks), analyze fetus/ cells that enter the maternal bloodstream ○ amniocentesis (after 14 weeks); a hollow needle inserted through the abdominal wall to sample fluid in the uterus ○ ultrasound (after 2nd trimester), more than 5 times may increase chances for low birth weight Social and Ethical Issues ● genetic counseling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis ○ should sex and other characteristics of the baby be determined by parents? ○ should abortion be a choice made by the parents? ○ should selective reduction be a responsible act of parents and doctors? ● IVF ● who is the baby’s real parent? ● mother? father? surrogate mother? biological mother (egg donor)? biological father (sperm donor)? Discussion Point → should there be an age limit for women becoming a mother? II. Newborn Health & Risk ● Newborn’s Physical Condition ○ APGAR Scale (total score=10) ○ sign; 0, 1, 2, score ■ color ● blue, pale ● body pink, extremities blue ● pink ■ muscle tone ● limp ● some flexion of extremities ● active motion ■ heart rate ● absent ● slow <100 ● rapid >100 ■ respiration ● absent ● slow, irregular ● strong cry ■ reflex irritability ● nasal tickle ○ no response ○ grimace ○ cough, sneeze ● heel prick ○ no response ○ mild response ○ cry ● 7 or above is considered healthy ○ measure 1 minute after birth, and 5 minutes after birth III. Premature Birth ● <37 weeks gestational age is considered preterm ● 1 out of 8 births in the U.S. ● 24 weeks gestational age: 50% survival rate ● Short term effects of preterm birth ○ intraventricular hemorrhage → bleeding in the brain ○ respiratory distress ○ retinopathy of prematurity → problems with eyes/vision ○ heart problems ○ jaundice ● long term effects of premature birth: ○ mild and moderate prematurity: most infants show catchup growth and selfrighting during the first years ○ extremely premature infants: ■ deficits in attention, language, learning, motor skills ■ health related problems persisting into adulthood ● NICU → Neonatal Intensive Care Unit ○ 1st year medical costs for a preterm baby over $32,000 ■ versus term infants a little over $3,000 ● Behavioral Interventions ○ vestibularproprioceptive stimulation: ■ rhythmical rocking ○ music ○ swaddling ○ strokinghandling: massage ○ nonnutritive sucking: pacifier ○ kangaroo care ■ skin to skin contact ○ parent visitation 9/10/15 ● Developing Brain and Nervous System ○ quiz: T, T, F, F, T, F, F, T ○ quiz time #2: T, ■ basic brain connections are laid down before birth → True ■ babies are born with ability to learn all the languages in the world → ture ■ a baby’s brain has the greatest density of brain cells connections (synapses) by age 2 → True ■ Because the brain is making so many connections prebirth to age 2, the first 2 years of life are the most critical for brain development. after age 2, the “window of opportunity” closes → False ■ good nutrition is one of the best ways we know to aid healthy brain development → True ■ reading to a newborn infant is to help a child learn to read in the future → False ■ living in an orphanage as a baby will likely result in a negative, longlasting irreversible effects on the brain → False (because of plasticity) ■ both negative experiences and absence of appropriate stimulations are likely to have serious and irreversible effects on the developing brain → True ● Breakthroughs in Neuroscience ○ brain development hinges on the interplay between nature and nurture ○ brain has a remarkable capacity to change, but timing is crucial ■ 90% of a child’s brain happens before age 5 ○ early care has a longlasting impact on brain development ○ negative experiences (e.g., toxic stress, poverty, neglect and maltreatment) or absence of appropriate stimulation in early development have serious and sustained effects ○ early intervention is effective in promoting brain development ○ development of new research tools on brain activity ● Measuring Brain Activity (bold ones appropriate for infants, esp. for under age 3; last two are not useful for infants) ○ EEG (electroencephalography) ■ measures brain electrical activity on surface of the scalp ○ MEG (magnetoencephalography) ■ use magnetic fields to detect changes in brain activity ■ less distorted by surrounding tissues ■ revelas learning in fetal and infant brain ○ fNIRS (functional near infrared spectroscopy) ■ useful with infants ■ use infrared lights to detect location of activation from blood flow exchanges ○ fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) ■ detects location of oxygen exchanges in brain blood ■ requires complete stillness during assessment; not useful for infants ○ PET (position emission tomography) ■ detects active brain regions by tracing neurotransmitter activity ■ requires exposure to radiation; not safe for infants ■ visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task ● Nervous System: Neurons and Glia ○ neurons → 140 billion neurons in an adult’s brain ■ cells that store and transfer informations ■ process electrical and chemical information (i.e., action potentials) ■ each neuron connects to up to 1000 other neurons ■ dynamic network responsible for thoughts and behaviors ■ basic structure ● code and transmit action potentials ○ cell body ○ axon ○ axon terminals ● receive information ○ dendrites ● synapse ○ junction between two neurons, where action potentials stimulate production of neurochemicals ○ connects axon terminal and dendrites ○ types of neurons ■ afferent neuronstranslate physical information into neurochemical information to the brain for processing ■ processor neurons:analyze afferent information and send brain’s responses to muscles ■ efferent neurons:egulation activities in gut, heart, blood vessels, lungs, and muscles ○ neurochemicals exchanged between neurons ■ inhibit or excite brain function ■ types of neurochemicals ● serotonin: regulate mood ● dopamine: control attention, thought, and feeling ○ Neuroglia (or glia) ■ myelin: ● glial cells wrap around axons forming a coating to improve the speed and integrity of the transmission of neurochemical information ■ radial glia: ● guide neurons migrate to their proper place in brain ■ other glial cells: ● provide oxygen and nutrients to neurons ● removes waste products, including dead neurons ● Brain ○ hemispheres ■ right ● controls left side of the body ● undergoes major changes in first 2 years of life ● functions: holistic and emotional ■ left ● controls right side of the body ● develops rapidly after first 2 year ● functions: analytic and rational ○ anatomical structures ■ brain stem ● contains afferent and efferent neurons ● regulates autonomic nervous systems, e.g., breathing, sucking ○ two branches ■ sympathetic nervous system → prepares body for action ■ parasympathetic nervous system → slows down the body ○ limbic system ■ hippocampus → memories ■ amygdala → emotion, specifically fear ■ hypothalamus → links brain to endocrine system, selfregulation of arousal ■ pituitary → hormone producing endocrine gland ○ cortex ■ 3 lobes ● occipital →visual information ● temporal → auditory signals, speech, and sense of smell ● parietal →sensory and motor ■ insula cortex → internal sensations, e.g., pain, hunger ■ prefrontal cortex →reasoning, judging, planning, emotion regulation, problem solving Prenatal Brain Development ● neurogenesis ○ 1st half of prenatal period ○ mitosis → cell division, generation of new neurons and glial cells ○ neuronal stem cells migrate to different regions of developing brain ○ axon lengthen and extend ○ synaptic production cell connections ○ pruning selective death of unused neurons due to overproduction ■ corrects errors in early neurogenesis ■ at birth, 50% of prenatal neurons have died ● synaptogenesis ○ 2nd half of prenatal period ○ rapid increase in cell connections ○ “wiring up” of the brain → nervous system develops from brain to periphery of the body ○ myelination → insulation of axon 9/15/15 Infant Brain Development ● 1year olds’ synapses are 150% of adults’ ● 2year olds’ synapses decline due to pruning ● Types of Neural Development ○ Experience Expectant ■ depending on experience you make connections ■ neurons and neural connections are functional and prepare infant for survival ● e.g., reflex, cry response to pain ○ Experience Dependent ■ many synapses are not connection and have no specialized functions ■ repeated sensory and motor experience strengthens the connections ■ brain development is highly dependent on experience ● Optimal and NonOptimal Brain Development ○ Neural Plasticity ■ brain and nervous system continue to alter the patterns of connections between neurons ● examples: ○ typically developing infants learn to combine gesture with word ○ abused toddlers form a new relationship with foster parents ○ Neuroception ■ a nonconscious evaluation of the situation and response decision by autonomic nervous system when facing challenges ● immobilization: e.g., freeze body ● mobilization: fight or flight; activation of SNS (sympathetic nervous system) ● social engagement: relax; supported by PNS (parasympathetic nervous systems) ■ prolonged activation of SNS and suppression of PNS in response to toxic stress can negatively affect brain development ● Promoting Healthy Brain Development ○ protection from toxins ○ proper nutrition ○ typical sensory experiences ■ intensity too loud or quiet? too fast or slow? ■ complexity overwhelming or just right? ■ timing ready or exhausted ○ warm, positive relationships ○ opportunities to learn ■ responsive interaction ■ repetition and routines Newborn Period → What Are Newborns Like? (first 2 months of life) ● Reflexes: inborn, automatic responses to stimulation ○ rooting → when you stroke an infant’s cheek they will turn in that direction ■ for survival, for infant to look for the source of food ○ sucking ○ palmer grasping reflex ○ stepping (walking) reflex ■ once the bottom of the heel is stimulated ○ moro reflex → startle ○ plantar grasp reflex ○ babinski reflex→ bottom of foot is stimulated, they will fan their toes out ○ swimming reflex ○ diving reflex ○ head lifting reflex ○ reverberatory reflex ○ babkin reflex ○ foot placing reflex ○ Significance of Reflexes: ■ have survival values: e.g., defensive reflex ■ enance parentinfant interaction: e.g., orienting reflex ■ form basis for later complex motor skills: e.g., stepping reflex ○ disappear over time: emergence of new skills as a result of maturation and experience ● States of Arousal ○ degrees of consciousness ■ Quiet Sleep ■ Active Sleep: ● light or rapideyemovement (REM) sleep ■ Drowsy ■ Quiet Alert ■ Active alert ■ Crying ○ Infant Cry ■ significance? → form of communication ■ signaling need ● maintain proximity to and elicit care from caregivers ■ signaling vigor: ● avoid the withdrawal of parental care ■ Effects on Adults ● elicit altruism/empathy versus aggression/hostility ○ Infant Colic ■ cries at least 3 hours a day, on at least 3 days, and for at least 3 consecutive weeks ■ cries are very intense in intensity ■ relatively unresponsive to soothing and feeding ■ infant is otherwise normal ■ not related to digestive problems, sympathetic nervous system arousal, or cortisol levels ○ new theory: ■ communicative function to keep the caregiver near and to encourage close physical connection ○ importance of culture: infants in some cultures have a lower rate of colic ■ close body contact: carrying, cosleeping ● Sensory Capacities ○ sensitive to temperature change ○ responsive to touch ○ taste ■ can differentiate sweet, salty, sour and bitter taste ○ smell ■ can identify the location of an odor ■ recognize own mother’s smell ○ hearing ■ turn head to the direction of sound ■ prefer ● human voice ● familiar → mother’s voice ● language spoken by mother ● infantdirected (high pitched) speech ○ vision ■ oculomotor skills: movements eyes make to bring objects into focus are not fully developed ● tracking moving objects ● visual scanning ■ visual acuity ● limited by immaturities in the nervous system ● 68 times worse than normal adults ● good enough to see faces, hands, eyes, etc. ● nearly 20/20 visual acuity by 68 months ● achieve adult acuity at 46 years ■ contrast sensitivity ● highest contrast: blackonwhite ● can distinguish two shades of gray that differ by only 5% ● improves faster than visual acuity ● close to adult levels by 89 weeks ■ color vision ● not well developed at birth ● can distinguish reds and greens of the same brightness by 2 weeks ■ pattern perception ● prefer circular patterns to straight lines ● prefer external contours of a figure ● prefer objects with clear edges and outlines ■ face processing ● prefer to look at upright face ● topheavy > upsidedown T’s ○ can newborns feel pain? ■ yes. ■ Pain and Preterm infants? ● more painful experiences babies experience in the NICU, the less response they show ● asynchrony and coordination in growth ○ asynchrony: ■ different body regions grow faster at different times because of concentrated energy for growth in areas most needed for survival ■ e..g., prenatal period: brain and perceptual systems show rapid development ○ coordination: ■ example 1: sucking; a sequence of behaviors, have to be coordinated in order ● rooting: ○ head turn ○ mouth open ○ lip adjustment ● sucking ○ negative pressure ○ milk expression ● swallowing ■ example 2: handtomouth contact ● How Do Newborns Learn? ○ Classical Conditioning ■ Unconditioned stimulus (breast milk) → unconditioned response (sucking) ■ neutral stimulus (forehead stroking) + breast milk (U.C.S.) → sucking ■ forehead stroking becomes a conditioned stimulus → sucking (C.R.) ○ Operant Conditioning ■ WHITE BOTTLE → MILK (POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT) → SUCKING ■ RED BOTTLE → MEDICINE (PUNISHMENT) → REFUSE SUCKING ■ red = bad; white= good is learned ○ HabituationDishabituation ○ Neonatal Imitation ■ will copy facial expressions ■ copying is a form of learning ■ mirror neurons? 9/22/15 Article 2 ● newborns can tell difference between own cry and a different newborn’s cry while awake and during asleep ○ cry response ○ distress expression ● may signify early signs of empathy ● objectives ○ to determine if newborns: ■ show discrimination of other infants’ cries based on their sucking and heart rate responses ■ of depressed mothers show less attentiveness/responsiveness to other newborn’s cry sounds ● methods ○ 40 newborns ■ 20 of nondepressed mothers: 10 listened to own cry, 10 listened to another newborn’s cry ■ 20 of depressed mothers: 10 listened to own, etc. ○ maternal depression: questionnaire and clinical interview ○ baby cry procedure ■ cry recorded using heel prick ■ stimuli presentation: ● 1/5/1 min. (pretest/during/posttest) ■ measures ● sucking ● heart rate ● results ○ babies of nondepressed mothers could hear difference ■ shown in declined sucking and heart rate when trying to listen to other baby’s cry ● how might prenatal maternal depression affect newborn’s reaction to other babies’ cries? ○ drugs such as prozac can cross the membrane to the baby ○ stress can transfer to the baby during course of pregnancy ● how to help expectant depressed mothers? ○ support groups, checking in with OB’s, exercise ● how might lesser empathy affect children of depressed mothers’ interaction with others? 9/24/15 Midterm Format: 15 T/F (2pts each); 20 M.C. questions (a,b,c,d;3 pts each); 20 Matching Questions (3pts each); lecture, readings, and articles (3) ● Do newborns have a sense of self? ○ can differentiate between own cry and other babies’ cries ■ shows empathy ■ possible emotional contagion? ○ shows possibility for an emergent sense of self? ● Evidence for emergent self ○ differential crying ○ differential rooting ■ if you use infant's hand to stroke his/her own cheek they will not show the rooting response ○ newborn imitation ● Breastfeeding (CNN news (March 19, 2015) ○ exclusive breastfeeding has many benefits such as perfect nutrition, infection and disease protection, and protection against obesity ○ W.H.O. recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age, with continue breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond ○ World Breastfeeding Week; August 17 ○ breastfeeding rates in the USA ■ decline ○ in Norway ■ rates begin much higher, before declining ○ what can policy makers and employers do to encourage working mothers to breastfeed? Chapter 6 → Early Infancy (25 months) ● Physical Growth Processes ○ cephalocaudal development (top to bottom) ■ head grows faster than body ○ proximodistal development (centralperipheral) ■ growth first centered on body and later on limbs ● Motor Development ○ Involuntary movements ■ infants have no control over the movements ● sucking, and stepping reflexes, etc. ○ voluntary movements ■ infant can control the movements ● reaching ● Motor Skills depend on: ○ task difficulty ○ existing abilities ○ environmental support ○ cultural influences ■ Indian Culture ● motor skills tend to be delayed, because of less experience to move around → mothers put them in pouches to keep them with them ■ West African Culture ● believe babies need to be exercised to be healthy ● motor skills relatively more advanced than babies in other cultures, as a result ○ head and body control ■ head erect and steady ■ elevates self by arms ■ rolls from side to back ■ rolls from back to side ■ sits alone ○ hand and arm control ■ grasping ● palm grasp ● pincer grasp ■ prepointing ● extension of finger with arm flexed and without gaze indication ● Perceptual Development ○ perceive whole patterns, not simple dots or lines ○ crossmodal perception: integrate information from 2 or more different senses ○ possible (expects) versus impossible (unexpected) events ■ based on experiences ● Haptic Memory ○ mouthing: oral exploration ○ face perceptions ■ prefer faces over any other type of stimulus ■ prefer own mother’s face over unfamiliar ones ■ prefer adult human faces over baby human faces ● by 9 months, the preference is reversed ■ prefer adult human faces over adult animal faces ■ but do not show a preference for baby human faces over adult animal faces ■ prefer faces of own ethnicity ● due to familiarity ■ prefer attractive faces ● more proportioned, average face ● infants’ preference for attractive faces also applies to animals ■ prefer faces making direct eye contact ■ prefer to look at smiling faces, faces with positive emotional expressions 9/29/15 ● Social Development ○ greater social response to people than to moving objects ○ sensitivity to eye contact ■ 4 month old’s brain response to gaze change ○ sensitivity to social contingency (quick response between behavior and interaction) (usually within a second or two) ■ maternal still face experiment ○ sensitivity to touch ■ when mothers touch abdomen, fetus (2133 weeks) increases arm, head, and mouth movements ■ infants’ activity level corresponds to different quality of touch, e.g., affectionate touch, stimulating touch ■ magnitude of infants’ physiological reactivity to stress experienced during maternal still face is reduced by maternal touch ○ unique features in motherinfant interaction ● Effects of Infants on Adult behavior ○ infantdirected speech (motherese) ■ high pitches ■ slowing down ■ simplification ■ exaggeration ■ rhythm and repetition ○ infantdirected actions (motionese) ■ closer proximity ■ greater enthusiasm ■ larger range of motion ■ greater repetitiveness ■ higher interactiveness ■ greater simplification ■ → matching/mirroring ■ → attunement ● babies vocalization matches with mom’s movement ■ → turn taking (through nonverbal, smile, touch, vocalization, etc.) ● protoconversation ● Effects of Adult Behaviors on Infants ○ mental depression, stress, illness ○ maternal contingent responsiveness: ■ disruption of play ■ maternal still face ● V. Emotional Development ○ expressions are more organized and coordinated with ■ attention ■ vocalization ○ facial expressions reflect internal feelings ○ emotion regulation ■ controlling internal state and outward expression ● regulated by infant ○ gaze aversion ○ selfcomforting behavior ● regulated by adult mostly ● VI. Cognitive Development ○ habituation ■ speed ● newborn → 510 minutes ● 3 months → 1.5 to 2 minutes ● 6 months → < 1 minute ■ influential factors ● complexity and difficulty of stimulus ● infant alertness ■ individual differences ● fast versus slow habituators ● cannot predict longterm differences in cognitive development ○ memory: ■ infantile amnesia ■ infant memory: up to 2 weeks ■ reminder: up to 4 weeks ■ crying → forgetting ● if infant is crying they will not be able to remember ■ specific to the situation ○ infancy memory research ■ have to be put in almost exact same situation for an infant to remember that kicking a mobile will cause movement for example ● VII. Development of Self ○ ecological self → recognize self as separate and whole individual ■ babies prefer to look at what they usually see, so their own perspective as opposed to someone else’s point of view ■ selfagency 10/6/15 Article 3: Three Month Olds show a negativity bias in their social evaluations ● infants show social preferences based on people’s physical features; prefer to look at ○ physically attractive ○ display positive facial expressions ○ direct eye contact ○ members of familiar groups ● 6 and 12 months form impressions of people based on how they treat others ○ prefer prosocial, helping individuals to antisocial, hindering individuals ○ approach helpers and avoid hinderers ○ caressing helping individuals and hitting hindering individuals ○ associate helping actions with attractive faces and hindering actions with unattractive faces ● are 3 month olds capable of social evaluation? ● experiment 1 ○ sample 24 3 month olds (11 girls) ○ procedure ■ preferential looking method ■ habituation phase: infants were randomly assigned to: ● Social condition (circle with eyes) or, ● inanimate control condition (circle with no eyes) ○ test phase ■ infant’s looking to each actor was measured for 30 seconds while held by parents ● parents closed their eyes at this point ■ infants looked at helper longer than the hinderer ● experiment 2 ○ do 3 month olds prefer prosocial, antisocial, or neutral actors ■ helping and neutral events or, ■ hindering and neutral events ○ infants looked more at the neutral, looked less at hinderer ● conclusions ○ by 3 months infants ■ are able to identify others’ goals ■ are able to evaluate others on the basis of their social behavior towards a third party ■ show an aversion to anti social actors a negativity bias (Sensitivity to negative information ● where do you think the ability for social evaluation comes from? ● what might repeated exposure to antisocial behavior do to infants? ● what is the use of this knowledge to parents and babysitters? ● VII. Development of Self, continued . . . ○ ecological selfrecognize self as separate and whole individual ■ selfagency: The sense that one can generate actions and expect that these actions have consequences ● example → cry → mom appears ■ selfcoherent: the sense of being a whole physical entity with boundaries and limitations ● example → touching someone is different from being touched by someone ■ selfaffectivity: the sense of having inner emotional feelings that go with specific experiences ● example → mom goes away → sad ■ selfhistory: the sense of having as past and of going through changes ● example → acts and feels in similar ways with familiar people ○ before 5 months, cannot recognize themselves, for example in mirror ● VIII. Practical Issue ○ Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) ■ unexpected death of seemingly healthy babies 12 months or younger ■ cause of death cannot be determined by ● death scene investigation and autopsy ● review of baby’s medical history ■ SIDS is not caused by ● immunizations ● vomiting or choking ■ experts cannot predict SIDS babies ○ SIDS Risk factors ■ low birth weight (< 5 pounds) ■ prematurity ■ multiple births (e.g., twins, triplets) ■ mother’s age <18 years ■ less than 18 months between births ■ babies who breathe secondhand smoke (2.5 times greater risk) ■ maternal smoking during pregnancy (3 times greater risk) ■ babies who sleep on their tummies (5 times greater risk) ■ babies put on their tummies to sleep who usually sleep on their backs (18 times greater risk) ○ backtosleep campaign ■ SIDS rates have decreased since campaign ■ percent of back/side sleeping has increased ○ Triple Risk Model for SIDS ■ external stressors (e.g., secondhand smoke) ■ vulnerable infant (e.g., prematurity) ■ critical development period ● reorganization of the brain: disappearance of head turning and defensive reaction reflexes 10/28/2014 Chapter 10: School ● The Rise of Schooling ○ 1890’s only 5% were enrolled ■ 1417 year olds ○ The Age of Adolescence 18901920 age group was starting to be seen as its own stage, things were starting to change ■ also the Progressive Era ● child protection, by social services ● laws passed to protect children ● more kids began to be enrolled in school ○ Horace Mann and the Evolution of “Compulsory” or “Universal” Education ■ compulsory → compelled by law to go; universal → free, for all ■ early to mid 1800’s ■ Massachusetts became first state to offer free education ○ stayed at about 95% for the past 3040 years ● Explanations for Rise in Schooling during early 20th century ○ industrialization ○ age of adolescence/social reformers ○ urbanization ○ immigration ■ people needed to be socialized into American culture through education ● Teacher Training in U.S. ○ Pre19th Century ■ if you were literate, and had maybe an 8th grade education, you could be a teacher ○ 19th CenturyEarly 20th Century ■ Normal Schools/Industrial Education v. Colleges ■ teacher prep, which would be best for training? ● Secondary/Higher Education for African Americans during Progressive Era ○ Booker T. Washington versus W.E.B. DuBois (Talented Tenth) ■ DuBois believed that there should be a talented tenth of African American youth that should receive a classical/liberal arts education and be prepared to go to college ■ Washington believed best route was to be obedient, do what they were supposed to do, keep a good work ethic and you would eventually rise above ○ high school attendance in 1910 varied by race: ■ White children → 10% ■ Black children → 3% ● Secondary School in America: Changes (ELC slide) ○ 19th century → for the wealthy, especially males; broad liberal arts ○ 1920 → Vocational Education → training for work and citizenship; college prep ○ Mid 20th century → expanding school population; curriculum expands to include family life, arts, “Comprehensive School” Model ○ 1980’s → back to basics movement ○ 2000’s → standardsbased reform; high stakes testing movement ● Middle schools, junior high, and high schools ○ 1920s30s: Emergence of junior high schools ○ recent decades middle schools ○ transitions = difficult ○ developmentally ○ “topdog” phenomenon ○ curriculum/teaching in middle schools ● Education pays → more education → higher earnings ● High School Dropout Rates (chart on ELC) ○ SES gap ○ Gender Gap ■ males have a higher dropout rate ○ Reasons for Dropping Out ○ IHAD program/Greensboro Dreamers (Scott’s Tots) 10/30/2014 ● Educational Attainment ○ Asians ○ White ○ Black/Latino ○ this is also the order of SES ● Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity ○ differences among adolescent groups ■ asians have highest educational attainment of all racial ethnic groups ■ african americans and hispanics lag behind on measure of attainment and test outcomes ○ Explanations ■ income differences between groups ■ Asian teens ● parenting ○ high expectations among Asian parents ○ traditional parenting style ● peer group ■ African Americans ● teen peer culture (NPR story) ○ peers and academics (and for hispanics) ● beliefs about consequences of low education ● College Attendance ○ college dropout rate ■ ⅓ of people never finish college ○ military enlistment 11/4/2014 ● Adolescents, Gender, and Education Today ○ into the 80’s is when the crossover happened, more women began to be enrolled in college than men ■ 57% female, 43% male ■ some colleges are already at the projected 60/40 female/male ratio ○ other industrialized countries have the same pattern ○ gender and academic performance ■ girls tend to outperform boys in things like completing assignments on time, skip class less often in college, better grades in high school ○ gender and dating patterns on campus ■ there are fewer guys so there demands may prevail, since women are competing for this small number of guys ● Gender, Race, SES and College Enrollment ○ drops exist across racial (except for Asian Americans) and SES groups ○ Affirmative Action for Males in College Admissions? ○ have the changes: ■ reflected gains for women or difficulties for males? ■ caused equal earnings for men and women? ● guys accepted at a lower standard than women ● Decreasing proportion of males in U.S. colleges ● World Stats on School Enrollment Chart ● International Comparison → Grade 8 Achievement Tests ○ countries that perform the best ■ industrialized western countries; Japan, South Korea ○ Lowest ranking of all Industrialized Countries ■ United Sta
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