Lectures on the Republic Book I - II
Lectures on the Republic Book I - II PHIL 2132W
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Chioma Iheoma on Friday January 23, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PHIL 2132W at George Washington University taught by Sigrist in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Political and Social Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/23/15
Bundlel Friday January 23 2015 756 PM Lecture 1 What is authority within the state 0 Power vs authority What is the authority of the state Plato You re better off in a state 0 Politeia plato s republic 0 Greeks respublica common good 0 Bio 0 Born in 427 o Died 347 o Is about4 during the Peloponnesian wars I Grows up during it and understands it as a failure of politics Plato was also probably in uenced by his high class status since the ruling class did not want war because they had more to lose Athens loses the war and does not dominate again He concludes Athens was not a good state and tries to define what a good state is o Callipolis was what Plato named the perfect state It looks good on the outside because it is structured the best Lecture 2 What is the authority of the state What is a state 0 A state has a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within a given territory Descriptive V normative definitions 0 Descriptive what things are actually like 0 Normative what the ideal is Value v moral right 0 Moral value deals with the nature of a good 0 Moral right implies a necessity independent of one39s will 0 With questions of value you can39t override a will Drnl lnm nFDanI39nc 1 There is no natural authority i Plato and Aristotle would disagree with this Plato believes the wise people should have the authority ii Liberals Locke Hobbes Rousseau will agree with this 2 Reasonable people will disagree about what is right wrong good etc Even with the same information and good will i Plato disagrees because if a person is wise and good and there should be agreement ii The Liberals will try to lessen the degree of this point 3 Social rules are necessary for the benefits of social cooperation i Liberals will try and agree with this ii This point becomes a problem when it39s vested with political authority 1 Libertarians and Anarchists will disagree with this because they don39t think there needs to be a political authority enforcing social rules Plato Plato believes the most wise people should have authority He advocates for rigorous education which weeds out the strongest potential rulers He believes the failure of Athens in terms was politics was because those who were ruling did not deserve to rule Three sources of motivation between us Plato ranks them and believes Reason should rule 0 Appetite the hunger for something they drive the person Associated with pleasure and pain 39 Cephalus represents appetite in Book 1 He39s old he just wants to do what makes him happy 0 Spirit honor encompasses positive attitudes like patriotism I Polemarchus represents spirit in Book 1 He believes spirit unites a polity 0 Reason 39 Socrates represents reason in Book 1 Book 0 Polemarchus associates justice with two ideals I Retributive justice based on what is owed to the victim and the interests of the perpetrator are of no issue 39 Loyalty o Polemarchus does not think that you owe things to people you39re not familiar with or loyal to Probably depends greatly on his high standing in Athens since unity especially against enemies is important to the maintenance of Athens 0 Socrates argues you have to know who your true enemies are and who your true friends are 0 Plato says a just person cannot harm someone because to do so would be an injustice and a just person cannot do that o Socrates says that justice is not only concerned with the victim but the perpetrator He believes that doing some things like imprisonment of the perpetrator are to help them quotIt39s for their own goodquot type of thing despite it might still be doing harm o Plato39stheory is that when Spirit overcomes Reason then you get problems He wants those with the most power to have spirit and appetite that are checked strongly be reason Lecture 3 TypesofGoods o Intrinsic goods We want these for them not necessarily their consequences 39 ustice happiness pleasure 0 Instrumental goods if we didn39t benefit from this thing then we wouldn39t care for it 39 Refrigerator some say justice is an instrumental good and we wouldn39t care about it without its benefits Socrates Why Private Property is Prohibited Among the Guardians Plato is saying that being a guardian is an obligation not something to get pleasure from Ademantus Four Qualities that Guardians have to have 0 Temperance justice courage and wisdom Guardians have to be trained the same way and they have to be precise Guardians don39t need to be overly satisfied so that they can focus on doing their job well 0 Eg Would a wealthy potter continue making pots Plato says that Guardians are people who will place the interest of the city above their own interest so they will be okay with giving up monetary possessions and emotionally possessions for the city Private property encourages greed and greedy guardians can39t rule justly
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