Hist 3460 Notes up to 3/23
Hist 3460 Notes up to 3/23 History 3460
Popular in Medieval and Renaissance Italy
Popular in History
This 21 page Bundle was uploaded by Elaina Rampolla on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Bundle belongs to History 3460 at University of Connecticut taught by Professor Gouwens in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Medieval and Renaissance Italy in History at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
February 10 th Florence and the Medici Cosimo The Medici were in charge of Florence from 1434-1494 Cosimo is known as the Pater Patriae o Father of the Fatherland Cosimo is the unofficial ruler of Florence o Doesn’t dress like a ruler o Doesn’t openly serve in high government positions Florence is still an oligarchy Medici run the oligarchy and pretend that it is run by the people The medici were huge commissioners of art projects Used the commission of large art projects to showcase their own authority in Florence Lorenzo Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent Gains a reputation of diplomatic arbiter of Italy Creates 1479 missions to Naples Lorenzo increases trade in huge ways o Allows for more culture to come through o Florence known as a cultural center In 1478 a conspiracy comes against the Medici family Run by the Pazzi family (literally means crazies) Known as the Pazzi Conspiracy Lorenzo’s brother, Giuliano is murdered Piero Piero “the Unfortunate” Is not as good as his father in ruling Florence He has to face problems even larger than his father had to face o Banking issues Medici family has huge ties with banks and banking because investing was how they were able to acquire so much wealth and rise to power o French invasion of Italy Florentines take him out of power in the end. Professor tells the class the exam is pushed back to February 25 2016th which is later in the month then officially stated in the syllabus, the exam will be discussed further next Monday in class February 1 2016 By the time of Lorenzo Medici (14 Century) Florence is a powerhouse in Italy Florentine Politics and Society 1293-1494 Putnam argued modern civil society source was found in renaissance city states o Bruker argues that absolutism has a greater lasting effect than renaissance politics Really wants to emphasize that Florentine governments are not the root of modern civil society o Who really has the authority? Papacy? Dukes? Centralized power was weak Typically most powerful person in an area exerting power in their area (Magnets “Magnates”) o Magnets enemies of those in power 1293 Powerful group takes power reduced magnets power by destroying towers (tower allows safety and defensive attacks, dumping oil or human waste on attackers) Assertion of private power over the whole Rubble of tower used to build town hall. Ordinance of Justice 21 guilds divided into 3 blocks Florence was imperialist (which often failed) o Poured in huge amounts of money which lead to a fiscal crisis 1313 Robert of Naples brought in to clean things up, temporary reforms 1322 Wars with Lucca Charles of Calabria, wants unlimited despritism, but in 1328 he dies In 14 century Florence there wasn’t any direct taxing on the rich 80% of government funds went to military government tries forced loans but couldn’t pay them back Walter of Brienne, Duke of Athens (1342) Monte Public funded debt to resolve the fiscal crisis (long term, and super important, common interest) Thrown out just after a year, however, aristocrats that threw them out were also thrown out Reform more than 3,000 people became eligible for positions of power Black Death Maybe killed 50% of Florence population o Less strain on resources, things got significantly better for the survivors o Monte still bond people together Shares were super low during plague Medici family made a huge profit in investing in the monte 1375-78: Eight saints war Florence wages war on the papacy 1378-82: Guilds are back in power oligarchy from back over lower guildsman will never gain power again, controlled Accopiatori chose who would be in power Government by merchants, for merchants, however its rigged still an oligarchy, politically Clear oligarchy in Florence, identified as a Florentine then identified by guild Governed by the elite, the old powers never go away Balìa(e) people picked by the government outside the realm of elections MASSIVE tension among powerful families Albizzi implement first property tax o Incredibly unpopular War weakens Albizzi family so they exile medici family in 1433 o Invited back to Florence a year to the day Salutati Active in bringing other humanists to Florence (ex: Bruni) Chancellor of Florence at one point, praises Petrarch for civic engagement. Writes about when things rise and when things fall Bruni theory of why things rise and fall at this time he is chancellor of Florence 1401-1402: Florence has been at war with Milan, the Visconti Gianigaleazzo wants to take over Italy and unite it Bologna Falls Culture rises and falls based on rulers All down hill under the emperors Writes about the fall of Rome In general the state was seen as a negative check keeps down violence Making humanism politically useful Florentines thought they were divinely favorable (Christianity has not gone away) January 27 2016 Petrarch “Opens the Way” Growth in trade, exchange of currency, revival of larger steel trade, Italian cities on major trade routes doing very well (During the high middle ages) In the high middle ages a lot of new Latin words are created (not part of the classic language) o Doesn’t read well, functional language, doesn’t spur creativity or ambition Petrarch had a collection of letters of Cicero Humanism: Talk about a purely secular movement Renaissance Humanism: An intellectual movement, primarily literary, which was rooted in the love of and desire fro the rebirth of antiquity Effort to bring back styles, values, and creation of antiquity and bring it back to their own time Petrarch was very interested in people (interested in Cicero the person, not the historical figure) Why is this happening in Italy? It didn’t have strong enough government traditions in the middle ages go back to antiquity, not a strong tradition of poetry looking for elements of antiquity that help their modern lives Location of Italy towering above them is antiquity Renaissance ruined many ancient buildings broken down for materials for new buildings Reminder of Antiquity, easier to pull into present 1309-1378, Pope in France Rival popes from different councils denounce the others Petrarch was sent to law school at 12, when his father died he stopped going to school and lived on his fathers money o Became for his poetry in Italian Africa, an epic poem, about Skippio Africanus he thought this would make him famous which is wrong Poets Lauriette recreates ancient tradition and given position, King Robert of Napals crowns him Colthdi Rienzo Revolution to re-store the roman republic In the 15 century, recreating ancient Rome sets out through all of Italy Petrarch has a great dissatisfaction with his own time o Writes letters to posterity “Our own time has always repelled me” Critique of scholasticism (organizing thought of faith) o Not because Petrarch thinks its wrong, but because he hates the way they write (Doesn’t inspire) and thinks that it doesn’t do the reader any moral good irrelevant o Petrarch cares about the interaction on the human level Cicero’s letters to his friend Atticus 1345 Private letters, not as eloquent, informal conversation with a friend. Petty complaints, gossip o Petrarch writes to Cicero, a personal letter o A new genre of writing o Reasoning with him as he would a friend o In Petrarch’s first letter he criticizes Cicero, in the second letter he apologizes “if you were to see the way Rome is now, you would be upset” “My Secret Book” Dialogue between Francisco and Augustine (talking with himself) Human level, intimate spiritual level “Ascent of Mount Fontue” Brother goes straight up the mountain Narrator tries to take detours but each one takes longer than the straight way up Opens Augustine, lets the book fall open and reads a random passage that goes along with what hes doing February 3 2016 Discussion: Palter Patriae vs. Padrino Father of the fatherland vs. Boss (political patron) Father figure vs. helping primary friends Seems to have widespread support Clientelismo: the political kind of patronage Mercentismo: Patronage of the arts Giovanni di Bicci Cosimo “il Vecchio” Piero (the gouty) (the Medici Family) Lorenzo Piero the unfortunate Giovanni de Bicci very successful business man, banked to the popes, by the time of his death in 1429, he was richest man in Florence, leaves bulk of money to son, Cosimo Cosimo is taught by humanist teachers, groomed for a major role in Florence he got this because of Albitzi mistakes 1422-28 Florence fighting Milan, first ever property tax o rinoldo digli Albizi pushed this, part of more general imperialist policy o Initially people supported the war, but support fell o Rinolodo makes peace with Milan but where did all the money go? Cosimo becomes a threat to Albitzi rule Sept. 29 1433 Cosimo an exile along with brother Cosimo goes to venice treated like a king Every two months, the vote would go in favor of the Albitzi Sep 1434 pro medici takes office October 1434, exactly a year to the day Cosimo returns Medici also had support in Florence Pursued a campaign of marrying family members into better families careful calculation and manipulation of money o Cosimo marries into a distinguished bank family Medici acquire friends through political patronage held together by meetings/letters/solicitation of boats Manipulated names eligible for election By the time albizi realizes what happened its too late and the medici have gained control private passing of power Florence is still a republic up until now Medici become the public system Cosimo seldom held positions of high power but frequently was on board of Monte power of how elections ran government run by Medici and supporters Cosimo disguises power by calling himself “the first citizen” Maintained the trappings of republican government Cosimo didn’t dress like his money entitled him too, acts as a private citizen wasn’t lavish, looking like a good citizen allowed humanists/ artists to speak highly of him When Cosimo dies, his son dies 5 years after, Piero has two sons -=-> Lorenzo and Giuliana (Very Flamboyant) increasing territorial states Lorenzo develops reputation of great judge of art, contests, jewels, making peace 1478- Pazzi (crazies) wanted medici’s thrown out Exam NEXT WEDNSDAY 15 century art a century after giotto Masolino: adam and eve painting. Life like figures not a lot of movement Masaccio: artist in the same chapel. Expulsion of adam, a lot more movement in this picture, the voice of god acts as motion. Eve shows external anguish while adams is internal o Defines with shadow and light Painting of peter: shows three images of peter. One where he is speaking with the tax collector, one where he is doing the will of Christ and catching a fish, and another when he is paying the tax collector. Events not left to right but middle first then left then right. Masaccio: trinity : a greater sense of depth perception, god the father, jesus and the holy spirit all touching in his painting. 1427 Piero della Francesa: comes in and out of style, sometimes called horrible art. Scene of the whipping of jesus Christ, however its not the center focus. The center focus is three men that no one truly understands why they are there and who they are o Trained in math and used skill in his paintings Resurrection: Jesus is painted as a solid, heroic figure. Shows the rebirth of winter into spring Uccello: battle of Sanromano: Florentines vs. troops (during the war of Florence and lucca) 3 panels of the painting, Cosimo bought 1 and impounded the other two. o Battle depicted like a pageant o People shown from all different angles Old man and the young boy o Old man was actually dead in the painting, we can see this through the study of early sketches o Shows the passing on of generations Botticelli: Adoration of the Magi o Early 1470s, Botticelli was a favorite of the Medici’s th o People in the painting are dressed in 15 century clothing while the image of mary, jesus, and joseph are depicted as usual o Cosimo and other medici family members painted into the painting along with the image of Botticelli looking at the viewer Primavera o (spring) o 3 graces depicted (classic mythology figures) o no one truly knows whats going on in this picture Birth of Venus o Based on a sculpture the medicis owned Donatello’s David: Feminine, 1430s. commissioned for the Medici. Almost hermaphroditic Michelangelo’s David: “the giant” made of marble and gets used politically. At the time of its creation the medici family is not in power Test is next Wednesday!! Professor gave example of test questions. They will be four passages (3 will be from readings we have already done, and 1 will be one that we haven’t read but related.) of these passages we will be required to pick 3 and analysis them separately. Analysis is key and we must also explain the context and importance! The passage the professor used was an excerpt from the reading about St. Andrew. The handout was passed out in class. Professor Gouwens wants a greater emphasis on analysis and reminds us not to summarize. It is best to go line by line with analysis and be aware of things like who is the narrator and what the text is translated from. Lecture: Humanists went from a private practice (private cubs) to a very developed community/movement. o Professors at universities were humanists o Founders of many schools were humanists Guarino: tries to open up his own private humanist school in 1414 but fails due to money issues o In 1418 he marries Tadea Zandrata and gains her money, with which he is able to open up his own successful school. (boarding school) o Had a skewed view of things like language He thought knowledge of the greek language would be essential for understanding Latin Gateway to antiquity Defends pagenistic books Argued modern Christians needed to understand old texts (pagan) to understand Christianity. Enforced regular mass with students and also the education of Latin. He had highly trained students who were skilled in speaking in ancient dialects. Claimed this model would shape students as free individuals more humane because they studied the humanities. But does this make them any better? o Graftin and Jardine say it doesn’t February 24 2016 In class exam Savonarola: emerges as the most influential person after Medici expulsion o His message was preaching against social injustice o Not preaching to change political system o God would punish all that was vain Later on his message changes, now preaches about renewal of church and state 1494: Piero Medici thrown out of Rome st on November 1 1494, Savonarola says he prophesied French invasion o Florence sends Savonarola to delegate with king Charles of France Negotiations stalled when King Charles entered the city with his troops and took over home for housing. Charles wanted to reinstate Piero de Medici (Even though Medici was aligned with Spain it was easier to control one man than one republic) Savonarola drew a silver crucifix from his breast and said that King Charles was meant to leave Florence alone and take over Naples Treaty struck with republic and french Savonarola credited in saving Florence, he was asked to weigh in on important political decisions “Florence is the new Jerusalem”- Savonarola o God’s chosen city A grand council was created that 3,000 families were eligible to take part in People tired of Savonarola’s message of giving up earthly goods Significant faction of florinians don’t like the large representation that the grand council offers Pope Alexander VI (Borgia) o Stories of his corruption are widespread o When he died, rumor quickly spread that he was poisoned by his own poison that was meant for an enemy o Not a man of high moral character o In the past he had summoned a man named Jan Hus who was an enemy and promised him safe passage, when he arrived to Rome they burned him alive o When Savonarola was invited to Rome, he declined o Savonarola continued preaching o Pope puts economic sanctions on Florentine merchants o Excommunicates Savonarola and anyone that goes to hear him preach o Francesco, a Friar declares he will compete in a trial by fire to anyone that denounces Savonarola. (Savonarola does not agree with this) o Friar Domenico challenges, and Friar Francesco agrees but sends a substitute o Government decrees the losing side is banished, and if both lose than Savonarola is exhiled th o April 7 1498 Set up a huge platform, 90 feet long, 7 feet off the ground, 16 feet wide Covered in earth and rubble so the platform itself would catch on fire A bonfire is built on top that has accelerants and also gun powder. There is a 2 foot wide path through the middle that the friars are meant to walk through Francesco’s substitute says Domeneco’s clothing is bewitched When Domenico changes clothes, they blame his crucifix While this is happening a huge storm rolls in and the trial by fire is called off The Florentine government grabs Savonarola and tortured him o He is tortured with Strapado (hands tied behind back and raised up by his hands and then dropped. The rope snags just before he hits the ground which results in shoulder dislocation) o He endured this 14 times before he is burned alive in the town square for being a heretic A government is established under Piero Soderini which lasts 10 years In 1572 the French withdraw armies from Italy. The Spanish army invades and sacks the city of Prato. They demand the Medici back in power Giovanni came to power following year elected pope leo X In 1572 when Rome was sacked Medici use Spanish troops to take back home In class quiz on the Role of the Family Findlen 93-123 and Gouwens, 108-25 After quiz, professor Gouwen’s briefly talk about how important it is to do the readings even though they are very dense. He also mentioned how important close readings are for doing well on the exam. February 29 2016 QUIZ NEXT CLASS ON READINGS Significance of Merchant culture can be seen in the two readings that were assigned for today Gouwens reading What happens to this character? Once flaunted money now he knows better Will not return to the “big city” Not a lot of moral order seen in this story Human nature o Corrupt there are two different groups of grave robbers, thieves, etc. o Cutthroat o Greed (no morality) o Cleverness (by the greedy) o A lot of anti-clericalism in Italian pop culture in 1400s The fat woodworker Fat physically and also Fat financially Essentially this story is about a group of well off, respected merchants gas lighting Manetti Convince him he is Matteo Prof. mentions pg. 26 No sympathy for the fat one Different set of values in this society o Anti clericalism priest is in on the joke praised for being crafty and clever Street smarts values This society made fun of the disabled, the handicapped, and were considered macro aggressive Class was focused on the Cohen readings, Love and death in Renaissance Italy 1-70. Again, students did not read enough of the readings for there to be a full class discussion, however Professor Gouwens outlined the brief main topics found in the book. These main topics were about cleverness and wit and how highly it was valued in Renaissance Italy. Another main idea was religious and societal expectations. We see in the reading “Lost love and a Handkerchief” that each form of communication is a physical importance and has major significance. For example, the handkerchief. The other tale, “Double murder in Cretone Castle” addresses how important honor was in this time period. It trumped family importance and we can see that when the brother of the murdered woman agrees with her husband who killed her that she deserved to die for her adultery. Professor asked for a class discussion on the readings Religion and Morality found in Findlen pgs. 124-166. However, after no one contributed to discussion Professor Gouwens dismissed the class early asking that the class please do the readings for next class. March 21 st Coming up: if you do better on the final it will replace the first exam Next exam is next Wednesday it will be half essay half identifying and analyzing passages Lecture: Donna Onesta Honorable Woman Men who take a dominant role in sex o Men married later on in life, many men don’t marry prolonged and powerless adolescents o Gangs of adolescents roaming the streets Assumption women had unruly sexual desires After puberty to when they have first child, women are covered up and under strict supervision o Lineage was key women punished for adultery more than men In mid 1300s state established brothels appear because the gov. recognized an issue due to adolescent male gangs Keeping unmarried women chaste Brothels were the answer (?) Elite males made out the best in this society, didn’t have to face the law because of connections and power Older males roamed the streets and raped younger males There was an effort to police male sodimy o This was a police force of old men o 17,000 homosexual actions were found by this task force o 2/3 Florentine men had been implicated officially in homosexual activity (assumingly rape) o 9/10 of active sexual partners were over 19 o passive partners were typically aged 13-20 those who were older and passive were punished 1496 63 year old man admitted to being a passive partner first sentenced to being burned alive in the town square but then sentenced to mad house instead o this maligned honor of entire male community The readings We see dynamics we aren’t usually able to see in past readings in Love and Death. Quiz at beginning of class: How does Griselda react to being mistreated? Lecture Focus Questions on Readings: What happens to Griselda? What is the take away? What should the reader be thinking while reading this? Why did Petrarch go to such great extents to make it more readable? Book of Jobe: God and the devil make a bet that Jobe is only devote to God because his life is easy right now, God tests Jobe and essentially takes away everything, but he still stays faithful. God rewards job with double of what he originally had Parallels between Jobe and Abraham Message of obedience (to God) The original version of this story had the prince as a Monster o What challenges our perceptions now that we know that the antagonist was originally a monster, what has changed now that he is a prince? Into Barbaro Women should moderate mans temperament don’t laugh often decorum Outlines how to raise children Don’t use a wet nurse, breast feed your children yourself so that your characteristics transfer through breast milk breastfeed your servants children. (not likely people took this advice) No space for womens personal growth in this book of advice Pg. 156 noted by professor Pg. 152 Barbaro admits to essentially just summarized this entire book from teachers work Why does Barbaro give this to a couple? o Idea of you have it all but if you could have more…… Exam next Wednesday half analyzing half essay January 25 2016 Class # 2 th There was a physical importance of churches in 14 century Italy People wanted to be buried as close to the alters as possible Professor shows images of 14 century paintings 1314-27 Giotto painting saints, his work was a revival of 3 dimensional space used in art Giotto’s painting of Madonna and Christ is a painting with more depth then what has been used at the time. Back ground angels have different faces and expressions as opposed to earlier paintings all having the same face or no face at all. o A better sense of linear space o Paintings focused on a narrative and depicted the peak if excitement Jesus being taken down from the cross Judas kissing Jesus in the garden Giotto’s figures look a lot more like personal beings, beings you could have a connection with Dante Dante was a Florentine (at one point exiled) In 1300, Dante was elected a prior to the Ordinance of Justice o Chief executive officers that served short two month terms o The most prestigious position in Florence Guelfs and Ghibelline Guelfs support papacy Ghibelline support holy roman empire, imperial loyalists In Dante’s time, Florence was Guelf. White Guelf and Black Guelf o Dante was a white Guelf o Dante gets conspiring black Guelfs kicked out of Florence o Black Guelfs regain power and throw out the white Guelfs. o In his exile, Dante puts a lot of faith into the emperor at the time (German king, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII) o When Henry died in 1313, Dante was still in Exile Dante’s Works Hell, purgatory, and paradise Of monarchy Monarchy is the best form of government ordained by God Dante avoids paradox in his work uses crisp, clear language that makes sense Professor refers to page 17 of the Findlen book Ulysses Story mirroring Adam and Eve, both tempted by knowledge Hercules Pillars Where the Mediterranean and the Atlantic merge although people have sailed past it, generally it was considered a place of no return. They believe the world outside was uninhabited. Ulysses plays “the snake” and entices his men to sail on for knowledge that would otherwise be unattainable. Virtus (Latin) Meaning excellence Dante’s emphasis on the personal conscious of himself as a great creator, emphasis on personal feelings a social role of the individual. Dante and Virgil, not just embodiment of type. For Dante everything that he writes makes sense. For Petrarch it is better to have willed the truth than to have known the truth
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