Exam 2 Lecture + Discussion Notes
Exam 2 Lecture + Discussion Notes ANTH 1003
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Date Created: 11/06/15
October 7 2015 Raiders of the Faux Arc Pseudoarcheology Summary 2 pseudo archeologists claim they ve found famous biblical artifacts places Media outlets sensationalize these findings because they appeal to a wide audience of people who aren t familiar with the how legit archeologists go about things Process Junk Science claims that pseudo archeologists make Advocates a cause Doesn t follow legit research process lgnores contrary evidence They act on instructions from God Noah s Ark Based on Biblical Flood story 0 Probably not petrified preserved 0 Most likely at the bottom of the Black Sea bc it has no oxygen Bob Cornuke found Noah s Ark o A rock outcrop on an lranian mountain is the remains for Noah s Ark o PROBLEMS didn t have other team members with him on the dig I Should ve had geologists conservationists etc to check his work I Education lol went to a diploma mill no background training in archeology whatsoever Ron Wyatt 0 Found everything 0 Noah s Ark o Sodom 8 Gomorrah 0 Many more Lab tests denied all his claims Garden of Eden Michael Sanders found 0 The lost Ark o Sodom 8 Gomorrah 0 Tower of Babel 0 l0 commandments Sanders used NASA satellite photos remote sensing October 7 2015 0 He found 4 rivers but didn t GROUND TRUTH Sanders is a self made scholar 0 Degree in Psych 0 Among the first to join LSD guru Timothy Leary Juris Zarins 0 Anthropology prof Missouri State 0 Thinks changes in water levels point to an underwater site for the Garden Persian Gulf Jim Sower 0 Penn professor 0 Saw dried up riverbeds in the Arabian Peninsula 2 missing rivers David Rohl 0 Garden is in lran o Gihon 8 Pishon rivers Aras or Araxes River 0 Old 81 new names are iffy Claus Schmidt 0 Found Gobleki Tepe 0 Articles came out from a guy with a pen name who sensationalized it so he could write about it in his upcoming book October 8 2015 Discussion Pseudoarcheology There s a fine line btw pseudoarcheology 8 the real thing There s a bias in pseudoa s method 0 O lncomplete teams Forgot their cameras for proof Generalizations 0 Themes Religious places biblical lore Methods Cline does scientific procedures pseudos isolate one placefeature from their context artifacts don t speak for themselves we need amtexz to classify them Publishing Audience Media gobbles up the fantastical stories 8 audiences are captivated by them Real archeology is boring tbh Legit archeologists publish in scholarly journals Pseudos release to media first Vague Statements Use mathematics to loosely justify their findings Citations Use old outdated sources Portray of cultures Downplay achievements Consider ancient peoples incapable of intelligence architectural feats Ethnocenilrist nonWestern cultures areassumes their lives are less complex than ours Preassumptions De nite conclusions Use astrology star science You can use the same blanket statements to justify tech etc today No process from Point A B maarcheologists develop a research design Charismatic Leaders As soon as you start thinking about one point they jump to another V repetitive everything boils down to aliens Chariot of the Gods movie Was nominated for an academy award lt made it seem legitimate Lots of assumptions 0 0 There s life on other planets don t live on our solar system Aliens came to this world to build stuff and purposefully didn t leave any trace October 12 2015 Prehistoric Archeology Summary Paleontology and archeology intersect at the discoveries of ancient human fossils and cave paintings Most of the discoveries were found by accident and date as far as 38 million years ago Leakey Fam basically prehistoric archeology royalty 3 l gen Richard Louise Mary Leakey o Dug in Tanzania semi close to Olduvai Gorge 0 Found 3538 million year old footprints Ca Laetoli Louis Leakey o Mary s husband 0 Richard s dad 0 Found hominid remains Louise Leakey o Youngest person ever to find a hominid fossil 0 In NH she found a l7 million year old tooth Olduvai Gorge Kenya 30 miles long 300 ft deep October 12 2015 Leakey s worked here starting in lq3l 0 Didn t make big discoveries until 54 0 ln 54 found bones from L74 million years ago by accident 0 Australopithecus boisei lt name for the skull they found 0 Turkana Boy 9 I Found by Richard Leakey I Skeleton of 745 year old boy I l6 million years old Laetoli reconstruction Was this actually archeology Yes bc you re looking for the remains of the humans as well Their footprints were a feature They re static because if you move or dig them up they re gone Koobi Fora Kenya Jack llarris Brian Richmond David Braun Found footprints of LS3 million years old homo erectus Oldest evidence of hominins walking upright Daniel Lieberman llomo Naledi Professor llarvard Donald Johanson 2 Lucy M74 lladar Ethiopia He found a female hominid skeleton by accident She was 20 years old Probably Australopithecus afarensis ll naledi Rising Star Lee Berger led a team near Johannesburg l550 fossil elements were found Could be l0000 28 million years old haven t been THE 59 WOMEN SC39ENT39STS WHO UNCOVERED A NEW dated yet SPECIES OF ANCIENT HUMAN By Ed Yong The Atlanlic October 12 2015 7 inch opening to the cave so Berger sent a team of women in to dig Piltdown Man Most famous successful hoaxll 40 year tenure Found in l408 l2 l5 Charles Dawson said it was found in a quarry in England far af from the other African findings Set off a frenzy in England bc it went against Darwin DlSPROVED 0 Part human part ape o Dawson filed the teeth so it would look human Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was suspected All of the above are AFRICAN nds Dorothy Carrod 08424468 British archeologist First female professor Ca Cambridge Went to Mount Carmel Caves in lsrael 0 Found evidence of Neanderthals 8 Homo sapiens living side by side 0 The Tabun cave dates from 50000040000 years ago 0 Skhul overlap the Tabun people I l00000 l2000 years ago 0 Neanderthal women found the oldest skeleton in all of lsrael CA lE PAN77V6 S Lascaux France Found in M40 by 4 teens Circa l7000 BC 650 ft long painted cave llad 600 cave paintings etchings engravings in it Cave was never excavated just opened to the public in l l48 It isn t open to the public anymore bc black mold There s a replica October 12 2015 Plan of Altamira Spain 02000 BC 4004000 ft of ceiling paintings polychromatic depicting herd of bison and deer Found in l868 Chauvet Cave France Most recent discovery but probably oldest Found by pro cavers Chauvet was a park ranger tasked to look for it Cave dates to 30000 BC quot8000 sq meters long l000 pics on the wall of owls bears etc Scientists say the paintings are faithful to those found in the original cave October 14 2015 Lecture 10 Ancient Near East Summary Purple important person From the influence of people like lan llodder and Lewis Binford archeology Blue important place has shifted from pmcessual fact fact fact gt postLocessuaUOOsZOs Green important COHCGIOt and finally gt postostLocessual used today The evolution of these methods show that archeology is not a perfect science but it is constantly being rewritten to reflect our new knowledge area where first domesticated animals found Women probably figured this out bc they re the huntergatherers Domestication of plantsanimals Q Do you start domesticating in areas that are fertile 0 yes bc it requires less work 0 Lots of hypotheses on this Gobekli Tepe 4600 86 Klaus Schmidt started excavating from 14462014 During a survey he found a stone with animal pieces on them arranged in a circle Classification when we don t know what a thing is we turn to religion Gobekli Tepe was considered the world s first temple the oldest known example of something bigger than a hut importance This site is threatening to change everything we know about this period Jericho Biblical site One of the earliest fortified inhabited places Joshua and the Battle of Jericho o Said his potterystratigraphy was proof of the biblical story Excavated by Garstang o Asked Kathleen Kenyon to check his pottery dates October 14 2015 0 She said he was way off so she started her own dig Jericho too in l450s Jericho Tower 7500 86E Pre Pottery Neolithic A o Excavated by Kathleen Kenyon 0 Earlier than Joshua 8 the battle of Jericho so more important 0 Was either a tower to prevent attacks from neighbors or storage unit for grain and food 0 In one week of harvesting you could get a year s worth of food for your city I To store used tower as a grain elevator Jericho Tomb lntermural burials o Reusable Family Tombs They placed dead people in tombs closed it and reopened them when new bodies came in Jericho Skull 0 Dead bodies were left somewhere to disintegrate then they took the skulls off and plastered the skull w mud placed shells for eyes etc then brought skulls into their homes Bodies were left in the tombs 0 Maybe for ancestral worship 0 Secondary site bc they ve been moved Catal lloyuk 65005600 BCE A Prepottery Neolithic 3 South eastern Turkey lt Excavated by James Mellaart from l46l65 All buildings homes are interconnected Special bc no streets windows doors btw rooms amp homes o How Tunnels windows ladders from roof to roof 0 Why Rudimentary form of fortification protection from large animals nearby cities October 14 2015 lan llodder Legacy Paved the way for a new era in archeology I o Wrote a book called The Goddess and the Bull sociocultural analysis 39 o Refined the art of tundraising a I Had fashion shows where models wore Catal lloyuk inspired outfits o Started post processual archeology Before people did processual archeology aka traditional quotfact fact factquot method Reconstructed history Processual Lewis Binford called for archeology to have scientific laws 60s 80s Wanted archeology to be considered anthro Universal lawlike generalizations Archeologists should be objective 8 neutral That ll give em more credibility and scientific process Post Processual lan llodder was opposite of Binford There s more than one voice from the past Rejects cultural evolutionary generalizations You can t say we re a science We re not objective or neutral acknowledge our biases Now we re in a PostPost Processual new pragmatism October 15 2015 Discussion Research Process Makes archeology scientific o Desya formulation A working plan editable Find a research problem make a hypothesis 8 question needs to be measurable Frame it like you mean it Going from general gtgt specific Method how you go about getting data Find out who you need with you supplies Background research don t go in blind Formulate q s based on what others studied I important bc you don t wanna redo the same project as someone else I Makes it scientific Exlsrael I What was buried under the sand I How did they live I Examining how society reacts to environmental effects did they flee Did they stay Were there riots when everything went downhill I Hypothesis testable idea of what you want to know more about I Background history of region ecology sites that are similar sociological analyses of reacting to moments of stress 0 Implementa on funding gofundme Gobekli Tepe put on a fashion show to raise 0 Getting from institutionsNSF gives your project credibility publicity o you need to give them an estimate time frame proposal your credentials credit etc 0 Budget include everything you need wo being crazy anything you don t put on is out of pocket Permissions gov t needs to let you dig in their country Recruitment squaaad students conservators colleagues etc 0 Data acguisifion logistics 3 organization Survey I Surface reconnaissance I Remote sensing Mapping Excavation October 15 2015 0 Processing analysis Working w what you dug Study the data to help you answer the research questions Not everything is analyzed I Might not have to do with your question I lt would take too long to look Ca everything I You still need to record everything I l week in the field l month in the lab 0 Interpretation v importantpart Working w processed data Proposal question needs to be loose and flexible to fit what you find Sometimes you have more q s than answers Synthesis of info needs to be readable to the public 0 Publication Gives you prestige You can make off the books you write If you don t publish it s like it never happened Responsibility to disseminate the info to the general public Others can t reproduce your findings if you don t put it out there Peer reviewed vs general public October 21 2015 Lecture l2 Preserved Peoples Purple important person BI 39 Terracotta Warriors gutton lloo Vikings amp Otzu 9 39mportam p ace date Green important concept Summary Accidental discoveries in China England Denmark and the Alps reveal how ancient civilizations buried their royals and ritually sacrificed their people Archeologists are able to examine these remains and do forensic analyses on them because they are so well preserved by the elements Terracotta Warriors ca 2l0 BCE China 0 Xi an site was home to First Emperor Qin 0 Found in lCl74 by farmers 0 Army of 6ZOOO was found in 3 huge pits connected to tombs o Ei soldiers were buried to keep the emperor company in the afterlife Life size horses chariots o M lOOO more warriors o MeaniL weapons intact in this one Taller in battle formation Archeologists preserved their paint Figures were shalacked aka the paint was bound to the terracotta animal glue was inside the paint 0 Terracotta type of pottery o Lifesize vs of soldiers horses 8 chariots 0 V intricately made 0 Step up from Death Pits of Ur bc more humane and you don t leave the next ruler wo any servants 0 Fire the elements faded off the paint on their bods also may have been looted 0 We have a ton of signatures from the sculptors of the army hidden behind clothes hair 0 Bodies prob made somewhere else and assembled in the pits October 21 2015 0 Figurines 2 ft tall armless amp naked gt ivquot 0 May have had wooden arms at one point but those disintegrated Qin s Tomb for Emperor Qin llasn t been excavated yet but remote sensing says there are chambers in it quot0 BC Historian wrote that 700000 men worked on the warriors for 36 years Traps crossbows likely to guard the tomb 0n the inside rivers still flow bc they re made of mercury So if archeologists excavate they could die of poisoning Sutton lloo Ship AD 620650 AngloSaxon period Suffolk England Found in M34 Prob a royal burial or cenotaugh monument o BUT there s no body in there Maybe removed disintegrated The ship itself is GONE Earth stains o o Rusted iron nails 0 Ridges o the only things left 0 The wood itself is completely gone Sutton lloo Artifacts gt Gold shoulder clasps gt Murse man purse gt Sutton lloo Solid Gold Belt gt llelmet October 21 2015 gt Drinking horns gt All this survived gt lvory is v well preserved M quot Viking burial Body was there t some point Boat was l3 of Sutton lloo size l000 years old Lindow Man England AD 50 l00 Murder victim Ritually sacrificed dude 0 His internal organs hair and nails were preserved suggesting he had a ritual last meal Autopsy shows he was 25 years old 0 He was hit twice strangled broke his neck and throat cut Tollund Man Denmark 4quot century BC Found in l450 Thought to be 40 yrs old Preserved stomach 8 intestines felt hat Ritually sacrificed llung 0tzi the lceman Found in mm by hikers in the Alps in a gully hidden under a glacier Radiocarbon dating 3200 BC copper bronze age October 21 2015 North African sandstorm and ice preserved him Forensic reconstruction gtgtgtgtgtgt Arrowhead was found in his back so he was murdered 4O 50 yrs old October 19 2015 Lecture ll Dating Methods Summary archeologists use a wide variety of methods to date their finds ranging from chemical analyses to counting the rings on trees Some methods are more common and more reliable than others which are explained in detail below 2 systems 0 0 Absolute chronology years Exact date 74 AD for Pompeii I You can deduce this from coins Relative chronology you don t know the exact date but have a relative period it could be from Types most common are explained 0000 0000 PotassiumArgon Thermoluminescence Obsidian llydration Rehydroxylation clay has an internal clock bc the act of firing them to make pots absorbs all the water This is v constant and accurate to date Carbonl4 Radiocarbon Willard Libby sampled from cave paintings gt I Everything that lives 8 breathes releases carbon in the atmosphere I This studies the halflife quot5730 years of bones artifacts I this lets you see when something ceased to exist Electric Spin Resonance Uranium Series FissionTrack Archaeomagnetic 1930 Tree ialisi 57 ewe C October 19 2015 o Dendrochronology you can count the rings on tree trunks to date them g 9 39r v r 160 Jamestown settled 39 39 c 7 A9 cantorrim Gold Rush 39 1776 Declaration of Independence signed 39 1492 Columbus arrived to America 1325 Aztecs founded the city of Tenochtitlan I California Gold Rush Muir Woods llmionol Monument I903 minded 1 I im falls l I N Declaration ollndopendonce I o 7 Preservation half the stuff we find is inorganic bc the organic material have mostly disappeared o Ones that survive Waterlogged conditions Bogs deep underwater o Tollund man was found w stomach contents intact Dry conditions desert king Tut s tomb Cold conditions Otzi the ice man mountains o 500 year old lncan lce maiden was found by Johan Reinhard in 1445 gt Areas w little to no oxygen deep in Black Sea 0 Archeologist Ballard sent down a robot named Hercules to see the shipwreck we re talking about the matrix aka the physical substance surrounding the objects o if it s in open air it s matrix is air Provenance precise 30 position in space time Context matrix provenance associated finds o More than just where it is history of how it got there i I Looting biggest problem worldwide Sipan Baghdad Iraq during the Gulf War Bad e Drah in Jordan Cairo Museum during the revolution Syria by ISIS Some items were returned others still missing October 19 2015 October 22 2015 Discussion Site Formation How a site becomes a site from burial gtgt excavation 0 Can be destroyed by war 0 Covered by volcanic eruption Site 2 place where there s evidence of human habitation 0 Even Laetoli footprints count 0 Can be a building assembly of rocks like Ca I Mycenean grave circles I Stone henge 0 V abstract 0 There s usually a break in history 0 We wanna find out why sites got ABANDONED I Roman colosseum I Natural earthquakes I Cultural conflagration migration I Sudden abandonment or gradual desertion I Not just movement of ppl their objects 8 belongings too Cultural Transformations 0 Human behavior changes the archeological record I Archeologists are one factor of this I Cities on top of cities Tenochtitlan was partially destroyed then leveled 0 Modern lliroshima was built on top of the old one I Warfare battlefields leave messed up ground bumpy from bombs I Farming on previously inhabited places happens after a break in ppl living there the old revered site isn t remembered appreciated anymore NonCultural Transformations o Sphinx was covered by sandstorms Cairo was next door but wasn t covered bc it was maintained Pompeii was covered by volcanic ash and preserved Mayan site gradual desertion but well preserved Volcanic eruption indicated by bent walls Vegetation literally physically covers old sites New plants grow over ruins OOOO October 26 2015 Lecture l3 Mycenaean 8 Knossos Bronze Age Summary The other side of the Trojan war was excavated in the early lZOOs Key findings include gold masks grave circles throne room buildings and temples lnterpretations of what each discovery was originally used for are influenced by greek and roman myths lleinrich Schliemann 0822 lZClO 7quot l o Came to Greece to find Agamemnon s remains Found both sides of the Trojan war 0 Didn t stay bc couldn t negotiate funds i o Lion s Gate l250 BC gt N o Started digging wo a permit smh 0 Myth that it was built by Cyclops cyclopean masonry o lleadless lion on top probably a family insignia Tombs Beehivuomb looks like a beehive on the inside o Other names Tomb of Agamemnon Atrius 0 ln l876 Schliemann dug with Palzaneus 0 V wealthy society tons of gold jewelry swords were found Mycenaean gold mask gt 39 0 King of Greece came to see it Grave Circle A 0 From btw l600l500 BC 0 too early So they can t be Agamemnon s o Electrumask mix of silver 8 gold Grave Circle 8 Mycenean Throne Room Building 0 Used to be painted bright colors 0 Egyptian goddess plaques o By quotso everything was crumbled 0 People caught wind of that so they created tunnels o By l250 they were gone Other Key Archeologists gt Christos Tsountass 08574234 5 39 y 39 39 c l 1 t 94 3939 It I l 39 r I s K D gt Alan J B Wace 08744457 ti Minoan Crete 2000l200 B6 Slightly older than Mycenaean s There s Minoan influence Knossos one of the palaces looks like a temple October 26 2015 0 Sir Arthur Evans 0840 coined the Minoan name after the Greek Myth about King Minotaur I Reconstructed what he thought it looked like PROBLEM used permanent material only what he thought it looked like Palace ruins 2 light 8 airy October 26 2015 So much storage space ppl think it doubled as a redistribution center barter system I No evidence of Fortification walls Problem Nah Iheories They ruled the sea naval ships lsland so geographical safety Matriarchy So they didn t fight Schliemann almost excavated here In i700 they suffered an earthquake 400 years later war paintings evidence of warfare in Palace by Myceneans Bull leaping Myth of theseus 8 minotaur October 28 2015 Lecture l4 Santorini Akrotiri amp the Uluburun Shipwreck Summary 2 Natural disasters prompted the destruction of Santorini and an Uluburun ship These sites were preserved by volcanic ash and waterlogged conditions which let archeologists date them and connect them to ones nearby o The Eruption of Santorini o l628 BC an active volcano in Thera aka Santorini filled up with water and blew up affecting Crete o the Pompeii of the Aegean o A fallen olive tree was carbon dated to determine the exact year the volcano erupted o Spyridon Marinatos 1467 I Theorized that the Pompeii explosion affected the Minoans too I he excavated to prove it and they ve been digging ever since 0 Wood was disintegrated so they poured in Plaster of Paris 0 Frescos paintings and small sculptures of Blue Monkeys were found 0 Cultural Practice I Young boys were represented on frescos with many locs of hair I lt was hypothesized that each year girls and boys cut off one loc of hair I of naval battles depicted scenes that match llomer s o Plato 8 Atlantis 0 May be based on Santorini north of Crete o Uluburun Shipwreck quot39 l300 BC 0 Underwater Archeology Cargo from the ship has items from 7 other nations Cline thinks it was a ship sent by Egyptian king Thought to have slammed into rock and sunk on a stormy night George Bass father of underwater archeology I lle investigated the shipwreck I Found ancient tin I ldentified the wreck as Canaanite I CapLGelidonya site where many items were found 3 I Bass and his team went under and excavated these 0 O O O October 29 2015 Discussion Archeology theory 0 We borrow from other sciences social natural Purple 39mportant person 0 6mm law of superposition Blue important placetime O Anthro how TO interpret cultures GreenOrange important 0 Sociology evolution of socialcommunity changes concept 0 Esychology how to classify interpret past behavior 0 We borrow bc 0 We need a systematic way to go from point A gtgt B 0 There s no action when you find items it s static o Archeologists want to know about the human experience so we draw on social sciences hard sciences etc 0 We want a full picture of all the ways humans express themselves Old Archeology 14 Century 1460 0 Victorian era started as a hobby for rich folks on the weekend 0 Colonialist thinking Eurocentric ideas time of curious Europeans exploring and encountering new peoples I Looked Ca how new people fit into the scheme of things I No scientific method dating yet I they used the Bible to date everything on the 6000 year time frame 0 An quarianism goal of excavating is to collect things I Art over cultural traits 0 Culture history archeologists back then were more interested in culture than formed by traits absence and presence I Reasoning You re an Egyptian bc you make style of clothing structures ceramics 0 Descriptive I Oversimplified what they found I Scale of barbarian gt civilized I Justified their own beliefs and found evidence to prove what they thought I Took objects for fun I idea of how things developed Civilizations started in Egypt and diffused everywhere Processual New 1460 1480 0 World war 2 population knowledge boom 0 Looks into processes 0 I be scientifically objective 0 Universal laws of human behavior October 29 2015 I Ex Wilm processualists said they did bc little access to outside didn t have big mammals 0 Change of subject looking more into I AWMF more Anthro I W more historical 0 Carbon dZing I Now we can place things into time frames I Ex stonemm is older than other things I Expands human history to millions of years I Society impersonal view 0 No hierarchy people get more complex over time Post Processual quO now 0 lan llodder o Rxn to flaws of Processual Attacks objectivity lt s impossible to be objective Human agency Explains cultures less by their functionality ideology I MW WllY did they built that I data no defensive walls why Our frame of reference We can t explain things we don t know so new interpretations are based off past ones 0000 We have biases EX There was a diff interpretation of what Stone llenge was for when it was first found vs 0000 now 0 EX collapse of Mayan civilization November 2 2015 Lecture l5 Biblical Archeology q Megiddo Summanl An indepth look Ca what goes on in biblical archeology the beginnings of the subfield to modern excavations Megiddo Armageddon 34 battles took place here Below are exs o Thutmose iii Egyptian Pharaoh o Crusaders o Mongols 0 Napoleon 0 General Allemby WM 0 So many battles took place there bc it s at a crossroads you need to get thru Megiddo to get to other key places 0 Early bronze temples water trench system gates and Solomon Stables were found 0 During warfare water supply was cut off so people dug Bronze Age tunnels 0 Edward Robinson 838 and l852 0 One of the earliest biblical archeologists 0 Actually a minister o Dug with Eli Smith 0 ldentified dozens of sites by matching modern day sites w biblical names method didn t work for Megiddo they were on top of it o Excavated before Sir William Flinders Matthew Petrie s stratigraphy method 0 if they used that method they would ve seen that there were 20 cities 0 Lieutenants Conder 8 Kitchener lZ7ll877 0 British surveillance team that pretended to make maps do surveys 0 Sent bc the Ottoman Empire was about to collapse I Pretended to survey West Palestine so Brits could claim the land I Found MegiddoLejjun O o Gottlieb Schumacher lqO3l405 0 First guy to dig Ca Megiddo 0 Not an archeologist either engineer November 2 2015 i o Took a cue from Schliemann from Troy and dug a huge trench not v accurate I archeology 0 Most of the stuff he found went missing 0 Found a grave w possible bronze age royal family a a I Gave finds to the Ottoman Sultan 7 3 I the stuff is lost now 0 Now it s in lstanbul probably in a private collection somewhere o Clarence Fisher Gordon Laud PLO Guy 0 qu5 1434 0 First actual archeologists to dig there 0 Used Petrie s stratigraphy pottery seriation techniques 0 Petrie already trained 6ufties aka the locals who did the digging o Rockefeller Fam visited in idlqu 0 Sponsored the digs 0 that let them classify and peel apart city l I They photo d it dated it picked it up and threw it out I Once they ran out of money they vertically excavated ftis is lmw we know there sZO cities 0 Now if you visit most everything you see is stratum 3 o Chicago s Great Trench o Excavated 30002000 BC Similar to Schumacher s but this time they re doing it right using strati Team was there every day all year long 39 if if 400 people on workforce Stopped excavating bc WW2 Back dirt pile 2 things they missed I Cuneiform stones I rare writing source Megiddo Found 20 cities l on top of another 0 Excavated HALF OF A PALACE I ivory boxes were found I Missed stuff bc it was in their back dirt pile 0 Solomon Stables I Bible says Megiddo is one of the Solomon s chariot cities I prob not true 0 Nobody dug Ca Megiddo until M34 graph 00000 O November 2 2015 o l460 Yadin brought 7 0 Didn t agree w Chicago about Stables being Solomon s 0 He said late Bronze Age entry gates were Solomon s Cline Ca Megiddo 0 Found what looks like temples o h m emple largest temple in ancient near east Bronze Age 0 quot2000 BC 0 Area L where Yadin was 0 Tested Yadin s theory about palace placement 0 Accidentalamheology found more stables 0 Deborah Cantrell 8 Lord Allenby investigated what Cline thought were troughs I The troughs were evidence of stables o Arlene Rosen Soil expert sampled the soil I lf horses were there by products of urine and manure would be present barium potassium I She found potassium barium I BUT not decisive for horses in particular Could mean animals have been pooping on top of Megiddo for a while 0 Palace 6000 stone by stone plan 0 Cline s team did a reconstruction of it 0 Now they think Solomon was further below aka stables 81 palace weren t BOTH his 0 Area H 0 ln qu4 Cline found remains of NeoAssyrian o Became one of the capital cities of Maggi do Area K l700 BC Unlike Knossos there s clear fortification walls Evidence of fire aka destruction Radio carbon dating 8 microarcheology o Excavated in l by l squares so you can see exactly what came from where Ongoing debate about how Megiddo was destroyed 0 Chicago found evidence in Schumacher s back dirt pile that Shishak conquered it quot 425 BC I Not completely accurate bc might be from a diff time period November 2 2015 o Earthquake I Bodies wo evidence of warfare Area Q Neo Assryian 0 University of Chicago team began to excavate here quOs 0 Headed by Norma Franklin in 2008 o Stratum 3 0 Was completely overgrown by the time Cline s group took over 0 Expected to find grain silos 0 Actually found l00s of bullet casings o Ba lefieldALcheology new thing where archies mapreenactanalyze where bullets are found I None of them dated until after lq40 I was Megiddo Battle of Fill8 I Bullet was for Czech machine guns from M48 battle I Reconstructed the battle November 4 2015 Lecture l6 Canaanite Palace Tel Kabri EXAM Know sites Know dates Format 0 Choose 4 Slide lD s o 8 Matching o 40 Multiple Choice 0 l Essay 3 Short answer parts Tel Kabri ca lZOOlSOO BC 0 North lsrael near border of Lebanon 0 75 acres big o Cline started excavating in 2005 o BtitisiLMandatLRoad built in l420 cuts straight thru the site 0 They found stuff when they made it llow to build a successful city 0 Water system 0 Food 0 Defense fortification walls surround Kabri Aharon Kempinski o 06 archeologist on the site glitjitil i o Started digging in lng I I 0 Found middle Bronze Age checkered palace floor gt I it was painted in Aegean style i I I that should have been in Knossos Crete 0 Under one door miniature fresco fragments were found I Similar to ones in Santorini gt o Kabri is quot the same time period as Aegean s so it makes sense to link em Wolf Dietrich Niemeier November 4 2015 o Primarily Mycenaean Minoan archeologist Before Digging o Cline did a survey In 20067 0 Followed the existing evidence and finetuned the middle bronze finds 0 In 2008 they did slratigraphy showed the palace was built on regular ppl s home 0 WHO KILLED KENNY I Kenny the Caaninite name for a skeleton found in a burial under the palace 2006i discoveries found fragments of painted frescos in blue white In 20quot found 0 an Orthostat building I Didn t belong there was Crete Minoan I Orthostat beautifully cut stone block w wooden fortifications I Could be an animal ritual sacrifice building Marzeah o More Aegean style wall paintings frescoes o Scarab from l650l550 BC imitation of the Egyptian ones I Radiocarbon 8 pottery dated it In 20l3 they found a huge room wine cellar o Residuejnalysis of the pot shards showed the bottles held wine FRESCOS 4 Middle Bronze Age Sites found Aegean art too l700l400 BC 0 Kabri griffinsflying fish mini fresco pieces 0 Daba capital of Egypt in the 2nd intermediate period I Garbage dumps had pieces of frescoes with bull leapers on em pic on left I We think bc paint doesn t adhere to mudbrick as well as Aegean walls I Should be t crete but it s Nile delta connection btw Crete 8 Egypt 0 Tel AtchanaAlalakh Vll Turkey November 4 2015 I Sir Leonard Wooley excavated here Death pits of Ur guy I he found wall paintings of bulls head double ax amp griffin pics below AAA I Those are all Aegean motifs o Qatna Syria I Found l400 BC tablets that say The hitites are coming I Depictions include dolphins amp turtles ltlt Aegean motifs Who made fliese Frescos and z sfribufed them all over 0 Roving craftsmen lnterntl trade 0 Excavator said a Minoan princess married a Egyptian king to spread the fresco gt Daba o cline says that ain t true 0 Assof did conductivity remote sensing D North to see if there were walls 0 Cline put down 3 trial trenches to ground truth Oline s Method 0 MR mapped lOOs of thousands of data points to measure capacity 0 Organic residue analysis boiling to find out what was inside something even though it s long gone I Tested pottery jars wine bottle shards I Syringic acid present the bottles used to hold red wine November 5 2015 NAGPRA DebateDiscussion Who does the past belong to O Descendants of the culture or society as a whole NAGPRA quo Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act O 0000 0 Federal American law governing who gets ancient human remains Says you have to return stuff to the people it belonged to Gives culture back to the tribes 81 protects that stuff Started bc quO Zuni s tribe demanded their stuff back there was a lawsuit This movement isn t limited to America I Australian aboriginals I New Zealand natives SHADY We acquired their stuff in not so legitimate ways and committed genocide on the population so this is the least we can do Museums are given funding and penalized for not giving back material human remains ArcheologLQNAGERA o Establishes method for cultural items to be excavated o lssues 0 Doesn t apply to private or state lands or federal 0 Makes archeologists contribute to society Anti NAGPRA Pro NAGPRA Science is more important than Partnership btw native peoples and culture museum curatorsarcheologists Kennenziclgman important in understanding Native cultures bodies We should honor past cultures preserving them and respecting the burial traditions that are still in place Conclusions 2 there should be a dialogue btw tribes and scientists archeologists gt Who gets to make the decision gt Still being debated
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