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Chapter 8-9

by: Adrianna Notetaker

Chapter 8-9 22287048

Adrianna Notetaker
GPA 3.0
Human Development
Renee L Babcock

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Human Development
Renee L Babcock
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Popular in Human Development

Popular in Psychlogy

This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Adrianna Notetaker on Friday November 6, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 22287048 at Central Michigan University taught by Renee L Babcock in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Psychlogy at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 11/06/15
Human Development Biological Changes of Puberty The Physical Changes of Puberty Hormonal changes Estrogen estradiol production 8 times higher in females Androgens Testosterone is 20 times higher in males Primary sex characteristics directly related to being able to reproduce Secondary sex characteristics bodily changes of puberty not directly related to reproduction Menarche first menstrual period Spermarche first ejaculations Brain Exuberance overproduction huge increase in synaptic connections Synaptic pruning the connections not used are lost Frontal Lobes Especially concentrated here I Involved in planning ahead problem solving making moral judgments Biological Changes of Puberty Timing of Puberty Age of menarche Decreased in Western countries Lowest in industrialized countries Why Technology n food production Improved medical care Early maturation Girls depressed mood negative body image eating disorders Boys favorable body image higher popularity earlier delinquency Later maturation More negative for boys with fewer problems for girls Health Issues in Adolescence Eating Disorders Anorexia Inability to maintain body weight Fear of weight gain Lack of menstruation Bulimia Fear of weight gain Engage in binge eating then purge Can damage teeth from repeated vomiting Often normal weight Effects Cardiovascular Esophagus damage Reproduction problems Treatments hospitalization medication or psychotherapy Effectiveness 13 remain i amp 1in 10 die Bulimia 12 relapse Health Issues in Adolescence Substance Use 0 Reasons for substance use among adolescents Experimental try it once or twice Social use with friends Medicinal use to self medicate Addictive use because addicted to it Piaget s Formal Operations Hypothetical Deductive Reasoning o Hypothetical Deductive reasoning thinking scientifically o Pendulum problem what determines speed of pendulum Information Processing Attention and Metamemory 0 Attention tasks Selective attention focus only on relevant information Divided attention focus on two things at once but not well 0 Memory also improves Mnemonic devices memory strategies improve Experience and knowledge improve memory Social Cognition Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable 0 Adolescent Egocentrism Imaginary audience belief that everyone is watching you Personal fable belief that you are unique and special Cognitive Development Culture and Cognition Vygotsky 0 Zone of Proximal Development skills you can do with guidance 0 Scaffolding the degree of assistance provided Education and Work Schools Secondary Education 0 Enrollment The norm in developed countries 0 Ethnic minorities from low income families lower completion rates than the majority culture 0 School types Comprehensive schools one type for all Europe three types college preparatory vocational school and professional school Developing countries not many can go Cognitive Development Work 0 Developing countries Prostitution on rise especially in Asia 0 Work in developed countries Not related to family support Could negatively impact development Increased hours could lower grades 0 European countries apprenticeship Emotional and Social Development Emotional and SelfDevelopment Storm and Stres o Adolescence A time of quotstorm and stress Emotional volatility Self conscious moody etc o Declines with later adolescence Emotional and SelfDevelopment o Adolescent self Actual self true self conception Possible self what you could become I Ideal self would like to be I Feared self fears becoming it False self what is sometimes shown to others Emotional and SelfDevelopment Gender lntensification 0 Gender intensification hypothesis gender differences are greater now because of social pressure to conform o This is higher in traditional cultures Boys Provide Protect Procreate could fail Girls Womanhood is inevitable can t fail Cultural Beliefs Moral Development 0 Kohlberg used moral dilemmas to study moral reasoning 0 Three levels two stages each Preconventional likelihood of rewards and punishments Conventional value conforming to moral others Post conventional objective principles of right and wrong 0 Alternate view of moral reasoning 0 World view provides basis for Moral reasoning explaining right or wrong Moral evaluations outcome of moral reasoning Moral behaviors actions that reinforce world view Cultural Beliefs Religious Beliefs 0 Less religious in industrialized societies than traditional cultures 0 Even then Religion is low priority and adolescents often do n t know own religion s doctrines 0 Still Religious involvement provides protective factors Social and Cultural Contexts of Family Relationships 0 Conflicts with parents increase 0 May be due to Sexual maturation Cognitive maturity in the adolescent Greater independence 0 Closer to mothers but also more conflict with mothers 0 Sibling relationships have more conflict than other relationships 0 Traditional cultures Siblings have child care responsibilities Close to extended family members Social and Cultural Contexts of Development Peers and Friends 0 Adolescent social groups Cliques small group of friends Crowds larger reputation based and not necessarily friends I Elites athletes academics deviants and others 0 Bullying significant problem in many countries 0 Negative effects helplessness anxiety and unhappiness 0 Cyber bullying has highest rates in early adolescence Social and Cultural Contexts of Development Love and Sexuality 0 Relationships and sexuality are viewed differently due to culture Permissive cultures tolerate sexuality Semi restrictive cultures have prohibitions Restrictive cultures have strong prohibitions Social and Cultural Contexts of Development Sexual Orientation o Adolescence is when one is fully aware of sexual orientation Historically homosexuality kept secret now more likely to quotcome out Homophobia can make coming out traumatic Parental rejection a concern Acceptance by peers may be increasing Problems and Resilience Crime and Delinquency 0 Crime rates peak about 18 then decline 0 Two types of delinquency Life course persistent delinquents Adolescence limited delinquents occasional more minor crimes Problems and Resilience Depression 0 Types of depression Depressed mood common 35 Major depressive disorder not common only 3 7 0 Two types of treatment Medication Psychotherapy Problems and Resilience Resilience in Adolescence 0 Resilience good outcomes in spite of threats to adaptation and development 0 Protective factors are High intelligence Effective parenting Adult mentor High self regulation Ethnic identity minorities Religiosity Chapter 9 The Emergence of Emerging Adulthood 0 Time between adolescence and adult roles Marriage Increased education Opportunities for women 0 Identity explorations explore various possibilities of work and love 0 Instability exploration leads to instability o SelfFocused learning to be more self sufficient before committing 0 Feeling n Between feeling of being transition o Possibilities potential for dramatic changes Physical Changes of Emerging Adulthood The Peak of Physical Functioning 0 Peak physical functioning time o Delayed sleep phase syndrome sleeping longer on weekends and holidays causes academic and sleep problems 0 Eveningness vs Morningness Risk Behavior and Health Issues Injuries and Fatalities 0 Carfatalities highest between ages 16 24 Inexpenence Risky driving behavior Personality characteristics 0 Reducing fatalities Parental involvement and monitoring Graduated Drivers Licensing Risk Behavior and Health Issues Substance Abuse 0 Substance abuse peaks in early 205 o Unstructured socializing informally hanging out 0 Role transition causes decline in substance abuse Cognitive Development Postformal Thought Pragmatism o Pragmatism Adapting logical thinking to real life situations Consider social factors Postformal Thought Reflective Judgement o Reflective judgment capacity to evaluate the accuracy and coherence of evidence and arguments Dualistic Thinking polarized Perry thought there was much polarized thinking Multiple Thinking awareness of duplicity Relativism compare merits of competing views Commitment commit to viewpoint College 0 Tertiary education beyond high school 0 Women now outnumber men 0 Most America ns take 6 years to earn a 4 year degree 0 Benefits financial verbal and quantitative skills social and emotional growth


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