Intro to Cinema Feb 29-Mar 25
Intro to Cinema Feb 29-Mar 25 FILM 2120
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Kay Patel on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Bundle belongs to FILM 2120 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Seiving in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cinema in Fine arts at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
02/29 Pattern uses of sound in The Conversation Narrative patterns in The Conversation Common narrative feature of this era: the lone individual struggling against forces beyond his or her nature Harry undergoes a moral crisis after he deciphers the recording of the couple Crucial of film Master of surveillance becomes the target of the surveillance results in paranoia Into the narrative Copla builds moral and ethical critique Sound and viewer expectations Just as it dramatizes the loss of control by the hero, we as the audience feel the loss as well Uses style in general, especially sound, to momentarily confuse and mislead us The opening seconds, the sounds we initially hear seem faithful to the miseenscene Which happens to be a busy quad in the midtown of San Francisco Momentarily, we are confused by the electronic sound effect Noise must be related to what they are hearing when they are trying to record the conversation Electronic sound: diegetic, external, and simultaneous Returns in Harry’s dream: subjective, internal Returns again the bathroom scene: questions whether it is diegetic vs nondiegetic or internal vs. external = don’t really need to know the source to comprehend what’s going on Copla leaves it ambiguous The conversation in the beginning: diegetic, external, on and offscreen A sense of threat emerges when the woman senses that someone is following them Next day, we find out that there are some key parts that we did not hear Emphasis on the date and time “he’ll kill is us he got the chance” – audience was not able to hear this due to the sound of the drums Presented to us as objective, but we were misled; we later find out emphasis on “us”, which makes us revise the understanding of the events in the narrative Shift in tone makes us question the understanding we have about the narration Recording played in front of three other character where the emphasis was on “kill” Copla’s use of sound raises a lot of question, but there are a few answers The larger point/the larger function to the deviant ways in which the sound is used: by misleading us about the fidelity of sounds and the spatial and temporal dimensions of sounds it makes us feel that we are doomed just like Harry is The relativity of the truth Ironic parallel: we are conditioned to hear what the filmmaker wants to hear without raising any questions Authorial expressivity Sound and character Harry’s character arc: transform him from nondetective to a concerned person Was not successful Motifs foreshadow his failure Juxtaposition: Ex. 1: demonstrates instance of much repeated motif = sleeping bum Implies that harry might be similarly doomed as the bummed man on the bench Dialogue/speech “I am not responsible, the tapes had nothing to do with me”—Harry uses it often to answer the question raised against him regarding the recording “I don’t like to be asked a lot of questions”—prides in hearing other people’s secrets, but hates it when people do it to him Music Both diegetic and nondiegetic comment on Harry’s personality Harry and his saxophone: always plays with prerecorded music= no attachment with the society Nondiegetic piano soloprimarily associated with Harry; he is the only on in the frame Ending scene: piano solo and saxophone: Don’t match in regard to melody or rhythm Suggests that Harry is that rare movie protagonist who does not really change throughout the movie Where was the bug: saxophone, telephone, lamps, glasses 03/02 Miseenscene in The Conversation Works with cinematography in an integrated way to produce a narrative Harry seems to want to change he is not capable to change All 4 present when he is in his apartment in the beginning and in the end: Costume: Suit and tie and tidy hair to messy hair Setting: Clean and tidy to a total chaos Lighting: Bright lighting to dim Figure behavior/Staging Place where he can relax Home is the place of refuge in the beginning and in the end it is his prison Sitting against the wall as if he is hiding Harry trying to unlock his door with multiple locks is considered a type of motif Harry feels the most comfortable in the garage because the presence of other people in his personal space bothers him He prefers to interact with representations of the people rather than actual people There are several scenes where Harry sees Anne’s pic with other people and it is a way of interaction with her When he is placed into the outside world, he loses control and puts him at risk The Quad: one of the toughest environment to master/to control Trying to control these events come to haunt him When he has to interact with the outside world he tries to preserve his personal space: By physically separate himself for everyone else Amy’s apartment Ford’s office waiting area Postconvention party: he escapes to the empty space outside Copla exploits the symmetry of the pillars When he is questioned about the murder case in this scene: he places himself behind a transparent curtain His raincoat: wears it every single time he goes out His barrier Motif His way to shield everyone else from his space and his world Also represents his disability to see the outside world The fog: extenuates his lack of knowledge The transparent wall in the hotel: misleads him Last barrier of the translucent motif: plastic sheet that is used to wrap the corpse of the director Cinematography in The Conversation Camera movement denies us the clear view of the action Foreshadow of harry becoming the target in the beginning of the film in his apartment: The camera stays in the same spot When it does move, it seems arbitrary and makes us question why move now? The camera work seems to be mimicking the surveillance camera When he is trying to watch Ford on the camera, it moves in the same way he did in his apartment. Why the similarity? Early camera works plants an idea: Harry will himself become the target of the surveillance When Harry is talking Meredith 3 unnecessary camera movements Camera movements suggest a surveillance camera Other moments with similar patterns of camera movement: When he is in his apartment playing his trombone and the phone rings, but no one answers 03/14 Extra credit: 1. Screening: Hitchcock; March 23 and 24: about the making of an influential books 2. Public lecture: in this room on Triangle film cooperation; March 29 at 4 Nonnarrative formal systems 4 categories: categorical, rhetorical, abstract (2 types), associational Documentary: Categorical: GapToothed Women (text example) Each section deals with a different topic/subject Most commonly as a documentary Rhetorical: The River (text example) Pose an argument Trying to convince the audience of something Ex: advertisements Ex: Blackfish Organized more like an essay than a story Most commonly as a documentary Avantgarde/experimental Consciously tries to push the envelope and tries to be unconventional in its style No all are nonnarrative Many tell stories and have the same rules of causality Ex: man on wire Nonrepresentational abstract: Ex: mothlight (Stan Brahkage) Made over 300 films Made experimental films Presents a mothlight perspective Very few notable films made without a camera Jackson Pollock: lavender mist: painting About shape and rhythm The point of making the film is the form itself Composition in Blue (Oskar fischinger, 1935) Two kinds of materials: oils paintings and pixilation of clay shapes Pattern of development: the way the music intensifies The movement of shapes and color is timed to the music and the tempo of the music Shapes: squares to circles End with cubes in depth Music track: slow to up tempo Representational abstract Made using recognizable objects Bridges go round (Shirley Clarke, 1957) Envision as a documentary about a history of a bridge Movement and motion Passage a l’acte (Martin Arnold, 1993) Scene from a print from an existing film and reworks the scene and the sound from the To Kill a Mocking Bird Aka psychotic Abstracted agitated figure behavior Uses these actors to exploit them for other properties Associational Images and sounds juxta posited in a way of two contracting sounds A movie (Bruce Conner, 1958) Depends on our interpretation Take footage from a variety of different sources 03/16 Postwar American avantgarde cinema; two strains Often shown at museums Took cues from the Europeans Don’t make a lot of profit Most finance through a full time jobs and other were essentially destitute The general motive behind this type of movie is to make you rethink the fundamental preconceptions about cinema and about art in general Though thought provoking The Romantic Tradition: Feeling over rationality Maya Deren and the trance film (1940s1960s) Meshed of the Afternoon 1943 Shot it in their own house Maya Deren: god mother of American avantgarde cinema Exemplifies early subgenre: trance film Dream like environment Dream like stage Freudian Irrational Discontinuous In a dream Tried to capture inner reality Called it a vertical narrative because the protagonist experienced things simultaneously Stan Brakhage and the lyrical film Lyrical film: purest form of romantic manifestation Jackson Pollock—abstract expressionism Reflections on Black (Brakhage, 1955) Concerned with the act of seeing and the imagination Human beings are born with a holy individual identity He was trying to use the cinema to represent an unmanipulative and untutored consciousness Intended to retrain the visual state of the viewer The conceptual tradition (19601970s) Conceptual art: Becomes a big buzz word Think of it as a term that describes an artwork whose premise is established before its execution Conceptual artists valued spontaneity More likely to be screened in someone’s basement The fluxus Stated around 1960 Wanted to erase the boundary between art and life First major multicultural group A lot of festivals held Shared the belief that the art world was too behold and social elite and that it had become a business Most notable fluxus work: Fluxus international festival of very new music; Piano Activities Nam June Paik; 1960 Zen for head Their activities raised philosophical questions about art For them anything could be art and anyone could be an artist Andy Warhol He bought the fluxus group to the cinema His films invited viewers to question the traditional standards of film arts He wanted to make art into a commodity Popart movement Campbell soup cans Elvis Monroe These paintings reject the standard rules of art Sleep (1963) First notable film 6 hour film Empire (1964) 8 hour movie The focus of his sound film emphasizes the people Kitchen (1965) They have no idea about what lines to say March 21, 2016 Animation - way of making a movie by using a series of drawings, computer graphics, or photographs of objects that are slightly different from one another and that when viewed quickly one after another create the appearance of movement Gertie the Dinosaur (McCay, 1914) o Animated by Winsor McCay Cartoonist Appeared in the newspapers of William Randolph Hearst Cartoon strips: Little Nemo in Slumberland and Dreams of Rarebit Fiend o Gertie first appeared as a part of a vaudeville routine o Artisanal - small team drawing the images o Predates cel animation o 6 months to create 7 minute animation o Animation “Cycles” Power of Recycling o Actual Numbers Approx. 7,000 frames of film Approx. 2,300 individual drawings o ⅔ of the finished animation is from recycled drawings o By recycling material, McCay can spend more time on important moments Gertie crying, his entire body shivers Industrialization of Animation o John Randolph Bray Visited McCay’s studio (posing as a reporter) during the making of Gertie McCay introduced Bray to the animation technique behind Gertie Bray then preceded to patent the techniques, and sued McCay Brau used McCay’s techniques to break animations into segments that would be given to separate animators → small army comes into play here o Key Animator and the “In-Betweener” → important in Disney animation Key Animator - animates the most prominent part/keyframes In-Betweeners - fills in the blanks o Keyframing is alive and well in 3D Animation In-Betweener is actually the computer Cel Animation o You only have to draw background once o Key terms: acetate, ink line, background plate, paint on underside of cel o How would you make Porky walk down a street? o “Draw on the 2s” - animate every other frame Early Use of Computer Animation o Tron (Lisberger, 1982) o Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (Nimoy, 1984) “The Genesis Sequence” Computers Aiding 2D Animation o Beauty and The Beast (Trousdale & Wise, 1991) o Made more elaborate camera moves possible John Lasseter and Pixar o Luxo Jr. (Lasseter, 1986) Music in Animation o Silly Symphonies o Merry Melodies o “Mickey Mousing” Music - try to accentuate movement through the use of music o What’s Opera Doc? (Chuck Jones, 1957) Adapting operas of Richard Wagner Sound Effects in Animation o Foley Sound Recording March 23, 2016 I. Documentaries and “truth/reality” A. Choices are made at stylistic level 1. Decisions about cinematography, framing, mise-en-scene, duration 2. Editing for how we interpret image 1. Creative Geography b. Hoop Dreams (James,1994) 1. 250 hours of footage cut down to 3 hour movie → subjective choices made on what’s being presented B. Choices are made at the formal/organizational level a. Narrative Form - automatically highlight certain events as important causes when in reality they might not have been and other events could be downplayed or eliminated altogether b. Rhetorical Form - make argument 1. Food, Inc. (Kenner, 2008) 2. Invites skepticism from critics and viewers on how factual the film is B. Institutional context influences film a. Considering who finances the film and how that affects the validity b. Documentaries distributed to museums, PBS, II. Traditional Documentary vs. Direct Cinema A. Traditional Documentary a. John Grierson 1. “Creative treatment of actuality” - material from real world was creatively organized 1. Raw footage has to be subject to creative process in order for it to reveal its truth 2. Critic who organized major documentary production unit in England in 1920s 3. Coined the term “documentary” 4. Believed documentaries should be made with rhetorical objective b. Nanook of the North (Flaherty, 1922) 1. Financed by fur trading company, Revillon Freres 2. Ethnographic documentary - recorded cultural practices of Inuit tribe of upper North America; population of this group dwindled quickly 3. Furs visible in the frame serves as advertising for fur trading 4. Inuits and White traders get along. White people not viewed as a threat b. General Qualities (Nanook) 1. Prior Planning - basic outline of plot before filming takes place 1. EX. Planning to shoot sledding, dogs, etc. 2. Staged Material - stage/recreate events for camera, 1. EX. Nanook biting record to show curiosity 3. “Pictorial” Quality - high degree of control over mise-en- scene; follow rules of continuity editing; use 35mm film 4. Post-synch Sound (and “Voice of God” narration) - due to limitation of technology, frequently add non-diegetic voice over narrator. b. Movement from 20s to 50s B. Direct Cinema/”cinema verite” a. Primary (Drew/Leacock,1960) 1. Filmmakers wanted access to what the senators did b. More spontaneous, and intimate style of documentary making compared to Traditional Documentary 1. Less controlled 2. Seemingly more objective, captured reality with minimum interference b. Movement began in late 50s early 60s 1. Influenced by WWII Newsreel photography - used sound recorded on location b. Used 16mm camera & Nagra tape recorder 1. More flexibility in moving around; able to move into confined spaces b. General Qualities 1. Little Prior Planning - no script, don’t really know what’s going to happen 2. No Staged Action - filmmakers try to be there at all times, end up with high shooting ratio 3. Rougher Visual Image - uses available lighting; rougher camera qualities (lots of zooms, lots of jerky mobile framing) 4. Direct Sound - avoid non-diegetic additions, conveys that footage was captured on the run and it wasn’t staged, “this is what really happened” Extra Notes Documentaries are produced by a variety of sources o Now we see a lot more documentaries due to television First few years of cinema, films documented everyday life = actualities Documentaries have a very long history, they remain a force in media Documentary films are films that purport to present factual information about the world outside the film, and that present themselves as factually trustworthy. - Bordwell and Thompson Definition o Give us access to reality in a more objective manner Digitized manipulation are examples of how film can manipulate the truth
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