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Lecture Notes

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by: Tiffany Okieme

Lecture Notes PSY 311

Tiffany Okieme

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Lecture notes from the course leading up to Exam 3
Ray Winters
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This 53 page Bundle was uploaded by Tiffany Okieme on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 311 at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 11/07/15
Topic 10 Behavioral Regulation of Anger The terms active coping and cognitive coping come from Lazarus’ theory of stress and coping. What is his theory? Two Types of Coping (Lazarus Model) •  Active coping: managing or correcting the distressing situation itself. – Breaking a romantic attachment, changing your major •  Cognitive coping (Cognitive Reappraisal): Changing the personal meaning of the situation (see next slide) Cognitive Reappraisal (Cognitive Coping) (repeated slide) •  Rejection by a loved one can be viewed in a positive way cognitively (reappraised so the meaning to the person changes) and thus reduce the intensity of the negative emotional reaction. “ I didn’t like him anyway. He was self-centered, arrogant and paid little attention to me. I can do better than him. I will establish a new relationship with someone who has higher character and integrity; someone who treats me like I am special. I am better off without him.” •  Spiritual people, who in general cope with negative life events well, trust that God has a different purpose for them after a career failure or following a broken attachment. Following the death of a loved one, they believe that the loved one is in a better place. The social/communication function of anger is the focus of a large body of research on this emotion. What is the Social/Communication function of emotions? Social/communication Function of Emotions (repeated slide) •  Social/communication function of emotions: The communication of emotions facilitates interpersonal relationships in groups; also called an interpersonal function, whereas the other functions (used in decision-making, learning from negative emotions, increased motivation from negative emotions) are intrapersonal functions –  Anger says that someone has broken a rule of a relationship such as treating others with respect. –  Sadness is a call for help from someone else. –  Disgust for moral transgressions –  Happiness facilitates interpersonal interactions –  Anxiety is a warning sign of group (family, peers) disapproval (e.g., grades) Defining Anger Definitions of Anger •  Intrapersonal definitions – Anger defined in terms of goals (Power & Dalgleish) •  Cognitive contribution—anger as a moral emotion – Anger defined in terms of the ego (Lazarus) •  Cognitive contribution---attribution of blame •  Interpersonal definition from Tavris – Anger as a social emotion The authors of both the Intrapersonal and Interpersonal definitions of anger use the discrete approach to the study of emotions. Core Appraisals* Associated the Five Basic Emotions (repeated slide) Sadness*: loss or failure (actual or possible) of valued goal. Happiness or joy: successful move towards or completion of a valued goal. Anger: blocking or frustration of a valued goal through a perceived agent. Fear or anxiety: Physical or social threat (possibility of not obtaining goals) to self or valued goal. Disgust: Elimination or distancing from person, object, or idea repulsive to the self and to valued goals. * Core appraisals are ones stated in terms of goals Intrapersonal Definitions of Anger According to Power and Dalgleish there are two important components of the appraisal process when anger is evoked: a core appraisal and a moral appraisal. The core appraisal for anger is being blocked in pursuit of a goal by an external agent (a person). Power and Dalgleish contend that anger is a moral emotion. They assert that defining anger in terms of goals alone ignores the importance of the role of cognition (specifically attributions) in making an appraisal that generates anger. What is their definition of anger? Anger Defined in Terms of Core Appraisal and Moral Appraisal (Power & Dalgleish) The core appraisal for anger is being blocked in pursuit of a goal by an external agent (a person). The moral appraisal involves attributions of intent, negligence, accountability, or blame. [cat example, toe example] Give Lazarus’ Intrapersonal definition of anger Lazarus’ definition of emotion places a strong emphasis on the ego and how it functions in a social environment. He defines anger as: a demeaning offense to me or mine. There must be an attribution of blame so he also considers anger to be a moral emotion. This definition of anger is similar to the one offered by Rozin and Haidt (from textbook): Anger occurs when there is violation of autonomy, that is, an individual’s rights. What is Tavris’ Interpersonal definition of anger? Tavris’ Definition of Anger There must be an injustice, the breaking of a rule of a social contract of a social system. One must believe that an act is unfair to experience anger. Tavris speaks of anger as a social event and stresses the importance in the regulation of behavior with respect to rules of a social contract. What is the major advantage of the way Tavris’ defines anger compared to Lazarus and Power and Dalgleish (also Rozin and Haidt)? Lazarus’ and Tavris’ definitions of anger are compatible. Explain. Lazarus' definition can be viewed in terms of a broken rule. The rule broken is that people should be treated with respect and dignity. Discuss cultural differences in the expression of anger in terms of breaking the rules of a social contract. Cultural Differences in the Expression of Anger Among the Utkas there is no situation in which anger is considered a justifiable or appropriate reaction. In the Nomad Society of Kungs anger is only expressed when someone fails to share food or water. Both types of societies live in very harsh environments where cooperation is essential for survival, and social conflict must be kept at a minimum for the sake of survival in the face of famines and droughts. Individualistic societies encourage the expression of anger. Anger acts as a personal judiciary* in societies where individual rights are valued more than the collective good. * Personal judiciary means that its all in your hands. You have to look out for yourself. You are the enforcer of the rule, the judge, and the jury. Explain in terms of the Replication Theory of Marriage and Tavris’ definition of anger why people are more likely to become angry during the initial stages of marriage. Replication Theory of Marriage Marriage involves two people trying to confer their goals, values, beliefs, world- views (see next slide), customs, and social norms, to their children; that is, the “rules” that people have learned. Often times these are not the same for the two individuals, particularly if they have different ethnic backgrounds. Definitions of World View 1. The overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world. 2. A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or a group. 3. A theory of the world, used for living in the world. A mental model of reality — a framework of ideas & attitudes about the world, ourselves, and life, a comprehensive system of beliefs — with answers for a wide range of questions. 4. The basic way of interpreting events that pervades a culture so thoroughly that it becomes a culture's concept of reality — what is good, what is important, what is sacred, what is real. Worldview is more than culture, even though the distinction between the two can sometimes be subtle. It extends to perceptions of time and space, of happiness and well-being. The beliefs, worldview.d behaviors of a culture stem directly from its More anger because both individuals believe that his/her mate is breaking rules [Examples of toothpaste tubes, paper towels, being late, leaving home and becoming independent.] People often confuse the terms anger, aggression, and frustration. Define these terms. Anger, Frustration, Aggression and Assertiveness •  Aggression: to do harm (social punishment) to others or use aversive control (e.g., using threats or temper tantrums) by actions or words. Aggression is an observable interpersonal behavior. Aggression usually involves social punishment. •  Frustration: Being blocked in pursuit of a goal. •  Anger: An emotion (has subjective- experiential, motivational, somatic, cognitive components)-- being blocked in pursuit of a goal by an outside agent, with accountability (attribution of blame). It requires an appraisal to be elicited and can have an intrapersonal or interpersonal function. •  Assertiveness: Expression of thoughts and feelings without being hurtful, insulting or demeaning. Aggression is defined as an observable interpersonal behavior. Describe the three types of observable behaviors that are considered to be aggressive. Three Types of Aggression –  Physical aggression: bodily harm –  Verbal aggression: hurting with words (insults, fault- finding, non-constructive criticism, abusive language,) or using aversive control (temper tantrums, guilt, threats). –  Passive aggression: hurting by withholding something (a reward) that the victim of the aggression wants (e.g., “the cold shoulder”—withholding attention). What is the relationship between anger and aggression? When do people show aggressive behavior and why? •  Instrumental aggression: Getting what you want by using aggression [Examples of clerk] –  An intrapersonal function of anger that involves aggressive behavior •  Exacting justice by using aggression: justice by retaliation--retaliatory justice-- an “eye for an eye,” setting right the wrong by returning in kind and degree (also called the Law of Retaliation). Retaliation is the action tendency (initial reflexive response) for anger—a link between anger and aggression (e.g., saying something hurtful to a person in response to being hurt) –  An interpersonal function of anger that involves aggressive behavior Retaliation, which is an aggressive act, is not the only way to exact justice. That is, justice can be exacted without acts of aggression. Name two other ways. Restorative justice: exacting justice by countering a wrong with a socially constructive act [Examples of community service and diamond rings]. Cognitive Coping: Reconciliation by Forgiveness •  Apology (remorse)/forgiveness method—justice by mercy •  Individuals with low self-esteem have a difficult time achieving reconciliation by forgiveness. •  People who use forgiveness as (as opposed to seeking retaliatory justice): 1. Report less depression, hostility, and anger 2. Are more hopeful and experience higher self- esteem. Anger Expression in Western Cultures Tavris asserts that anger acts as a personal judiciary in societies where an individual’s rights need to be respected. The assertiveness model of anger expression taught in Western cultures reflect this view, but it also seeks to minimize aggressive behavior (retaliation). What are the two rules (according to Tavris) that form the basis for the assertiveness model? Two Rules for Effective Anger Expression •  Expression Rule # 1: Anger must be directed towards the target (source) of your anger (i.e., the person who provoked you). •  Expression Rule #2: The way in which anger is expressed toward the target should minimize defensiveness and the aggressive expression of anger. What is displaced aggression? Definition of Displaced Aggression Displaced Aggression: Aggression toward an object or person that is not the source of the anger, such as showing verbal aggression toward someone who is not the source of the anger, or physical aggression toward an object such as a wall. The Ventilation Theory of Coping asserts that this is a good way to cope with anger, but is it? Give examples of displaced aggression and indicate whether this behavior is an effective coping technique. Expression Rule # 1: Anger must be directed toward the source of the anger. Examples of displaced aggression: (1)Toward another person—the “chain of ventilation” (2)Toward an object: “bashing the boss” Definition of Situational Specificity Anger cannot always be directed to the target so Tavris’ introduces the concept of situational specificity, where the coping method depends on the circumstances (e.g., your boss or cases where the aggressor can’t be confronted). According to the Assertiveness Model, how do you minimize aggression when you confront the source of the anger (Expression Rule # 2)? Expression Rule # 2:The way in which anger is expressed toward the target should minimize defensiveness and the aggressive expression of anger •  Confronting the source of anger often leads to defensiveness: Example: “That’s not me. I’m not rude, hurtful, inconsiderate, or insensitive.” •  The best way to minimize defensiveness is to use assertive behavior rather than aggressive behavior because aggressive behavior usually elicits defensiveness. Being assertive means standing up for your rights and expressing your feelings without being insulting, rude or hurtful. Aggressive behavior is rude, disrespectful, and hurtful. •  Passivity (non-assertive) means not saying anything. It accomplishes nothing and you may harbor resentment. Define “You message” and “I message” and indicate their importance to conforming to Expression Rule # 2. Give examples. Decreasing Defensiveness and Counter-aggression “ You messages” are aggressive: They are insults, threats, rude or condescending statements such as lecturing someone like a child. “ I messages” are assertive: Communicating feelings and thoughts without being demeaning, rude or insulting. Examples of “You Messages” and “I Messages” “You Messages” “I messages” “If you don’t turn down your stereo I will “I am studying and having a difficult time call the cops.” “You are extremely concentrating. I love your taste in selfish.” music but I am studying and can’t concentrate because the volume is too high.” “You are wrong.” “ I disagree.” “ I am offended by what you said.” “You are self-centered and selfish.” “ I studied hard and still did poorly on the “Your test was unfair because there were exam. What can I do to improve? a lot of ambiguous questions.” Describe the disadvantages of the passive (non-assertive) and aggressive approaches to coping with anger. Problems with the Passive Approach and the Aggressive Approach •  Individuals who use the passive approach (non- assertive) often feel inadequate, used, exploited and demeaned by others. It is not good for the self-schema. •  Passive approach often leads to gunnysacking where resentment and hostility for a long period of timeoring (example of “sudden murders”; Phillip. Zimbardo). • be expected when using the aggressive approach.on is to •  Even if there is no counter-aggression, the receiver of the aggression often harbors resentment, has bitter feelings and hostile feelings toward the aggressor.


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