Western Civilization II Notes
Western Civilization II Notes HT1143
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The Reformation 1500-1600 12/04/2013 ▯ PPTeacher: Blake Perkins ▯ Jperkin3@mix.wvu.edu or firstname.lastname@example.org ▯ Office hours: MWF 8:15-9:15, 2:00-2:30 MF 11:00-12:00 or appointment ▯ He doesn’t like to give makeups. He makes them harder. –all essays ▯ Gives pop quizzes over reading. No makeup quizzes. He drops lowest quiz score. Class participation helps. ▯ ▯ ▯ Thesis: The movement catalyzed by Martin Luther’s challenge to the Roman Church grew from a number of both longstanding and more recent religious and political developments. Within a decade after Luther’s break with Rome, religious descent spread widely and several different strands of Protestantism took root in various regions of Europe. The emergence of Protestant Christianity transformed the political and social landscape of Europe- and the future cause of world history. Furthermore, the Protestant revolt also affected and changed the Roman Catholic church, which reemerged as an institution different in many ways from its medieval predecessor. ▯ ▯ Martin Luther (1483-1546) Background; Germany– had a rough father relationship (never felt good enough) Quest for justice; emphasis on God’s mercy Lectureship at Wittenburg University o he was a teacher here o he began to teach his ideas Justification by faith o central doctrine o not by works! o he developed this concept o most important to him Scandal of indulgences o this was the practice of “buying out time” in purgatory o benefits the wealthy o Luther is disgusted by this ▯ Luther’s Challenge to the Roman Church 95 Thesis o A list of arguments against the church o Luther wanted to change their minds not start a reformation o He knew there was too much corruption in the church Challenge to clergy and hierarchy; “Priesthood of all believers” Translation of Bible into vernacular o he publicly argued this Significance of the printing press o sets him apart Pope Leo X’s charge of heresy o Demanded that he change his mind and that he stops teaching Luther’s public burning of the Papal Edict o publicly burned Pope Leo’s command (humiliating the Pope) Diet of Worms 1521 –Luther’s trial o Holy Roman Emperor Charles V; emperor over Germany – under the Pope o Where Luther was condemned of heresy o “Priesthood of all believers” Luther believed you didn’t need the Pope to tell you what the Bible said, but that you should be able to study it on your own Luther gets convicted and condemned to death o The church looks one way, but they are acting another. It’s just a mask. Corruption is everywhere ▯ Lutheranism and the German Princes Lord Frederick “The Wise” of Saxony o intervened for Luther o thought Luther had good ideas o gets Luther out of jail Stepchild status of German Princes within Church power structure at Rome o They are scared of losing power so they try to get the common people to listen to Luther’s ideas Resentment of Papal taxation and control over lands o didn’t have good representation o had heaviest tax burdens Centrality of political struggles to spread and entrench Protestantism in Europe this played largely into Lutheranism Zwinglianism in Switzerland Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)- is influenced greatly by Luther o Has a debate with the priest of the church and won; later in life he and Luther had disagreements because Zwingli was more radical –Zwingli wanted to kick out Catholics and replace them with all Protestants Experience of war as a chaplain Influence of Lutheranism- Luther didn’t want politics in the church Reform movement in Zurich, 1523 (where this took place) Departures from Luther (these are Zwingli’s beliefs) o Demanded government- enforced Protestantism o Communion as symbol (Christ not actually present in bread and wine o Removal of instruments, statues, and stained glass from church services because it takes focus off Christ Radicalism of Reformation in the countryside Literal interpretation of “freedom” espoused by Luther German peasant revolt- they are excited by the reformation because they are practically slaves John Calvin (1509-1564) Background o Institutes of Christian Religion (1536) o Main theme: The omnipotence of God and the powerlessness and sinfulness of man Predestination o The “elect” and “non-elect”; God has already chosen the Christians and non-Christians Progressive Sanctification o Spirit moves to elect to work o They knew they were elect if they wanted to do good Simplicity of worship service- wanted to take out stained- glass windows etc. Only four Biblical types of church leadership (rejoicing both Catholic and Lutheran structural o argued that the Bible only speaks of four Preachers, teachers, deacons, elders o he wanted to get back to the old church and only recognize these ▯ Geneva, Switzerland- “New Jerusalem”; agreed with Zwingli on his taking out Catholics and replacing with Protestants Theocracy- blurring of the church and civil authority Consistory- ecclesiastical court led by elders and ministers; set up help establish this government run by church leaders Michael Servetus- (Unitarianism)- was burned at the stake because he disagreed with Calvin on the trinity o If they kicked you out of church you also got kicked out of town ▯ Calvinism’s Spread Embraced by lord elites in Scotland (Presbyterian), Holland (Dutch Reformed) parts of England (Puritans), part of France (Huguenots), as well as parts of Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, and Poland ▯ The Anabaptist Break from Zwingli around 1525 Rejection of infant baptism True church of Christ as a small community of believers o –they disagreed with Zwingli on these two things- John of Leydon- an Anabaptist extremist, and the siege of Munster, Germany, 1534 o Established himself as “King of the New Temple” Obligatory religious practices, abolition of private property, permission of polygamy Catholic forces and the Anabaptist cage o Catholics regrouped and forced them out o Put John and some followers in cages and let them rot (used as an example to others) the bones stayed there or years and the cages are still there today Remnant of Anabaptist survival in the Mennonite sect o Founded by Dutchman Menno Simmons (c. 1496-1561) o “Religion of the heart”- didn’t want to impose religions o Pacifism and tolerance ▯ The English Reformation Henry VIII (1491-1547) and “The King’s Great Matter” o He didn’t have a male heir to the throne Appeal to Pope Clement VII for a marriage annulment and the Pope’s debacle o Holy Roman Empire Charles V (Queen Catherine’s nephew) and his military control of Rome –he didn’t want to make the emperor mad so he does nothing o Papal procrastination Henry’s break with the Roman Church 15331-1539 o King is named by an assembly of English clergy “protector and only supreme head” of church in England, 1531 o Parliaments list of grievances against church officials in England and approval of Kings authority to veto Church legislation, 1532 -He can say no to anything the church says o Henry’s preemptive marriage to Anne Boleyn (already pregnant) and Archbishop of Canterbury’s grand of annulment, 1533; child turned out to be a daughter o Execution of former tutor and chancellor Sir Thomas Moore 1536 –this guy taught him everything he knew as a young boy; killed him because he sided with the church o Confiscation of church lands and wealth in England, 1539 ▯ English Reformation Continued: Edward VI (9 year old son of Henry and Jane Seymour) o The Book of Common Prayers (1549): Persistence of theology, practices, and structure in Church of England Death of Edward in 1553 Mary Tudor (daughter of Henry and Catherine) and the Restoration of Catholicism o Archbishop Thomas Crammer burned at the stake –he was an example to all the church people who revolted with Henry her father Protestant propaganda about “Bloody Mary” Yet little resistance from the English people Death in 1588 (no heir) Elizabeth I (daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn) o “The Elizabethan settlement” o Reformed prayer book; compromise o Solidification of the church of England o Persistence of religious tensions –she has the church of England be the official church like her father intended Catholics, Calvinists, and Protestants are all having religious tensions Counter Reformation in Rome Early Reform Efforts Council of Trent (1545-1563) o Reaffirmation of doctrines, practices, and hierarchical authority o Condemnation of corrupt and abuse- recognized these things o Embraced the term “Catholic” (universal) church o Pope is the head of the church This protestant revolt had a Huge impact on all of Europe! Ignatious Loyola (1491-1556) and the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) o “The Spiritual Exercises” o Emphasis on both good works and faith o Jesus’s emphasis was on charity, hospitals, orphanages, caring for the poor o Education o Established orders of nuns o Missionary works –many come to the French and Spanish colonies in the New World (to the Native Americans) The Jesuits were successful in heading of Protestantism in Poland Conversion of Queen Christina of Sweden from Protestantism to Catholicism ▯ Thesis: The religious differences that divide Europe during the 16 th century soon erupted into more than a century of prolonged widespread warfare. By the end of this period of devastating wars, the dynamics of power had begun to shift dramatically in Europe. While old powerhouses such as Spain began to decline, France and eventually Great Britain ascended, in large part due to new sources of wealth and power generated from their empires in the Atlantic world. Meanwhile, European rulers responded to the chaos of war, dissent, and rebellions by tightening their grips of centralized control over their subjects. By the turn of the 18 th century, much had changed in Europe, and the stage was set for more dramatic changes in the years to come that would greatly alter the course of world history. ▯ ▯ ▯ Religious wars in Germany Holy Roman Emperor Charles V’s goal to reestablish Catholic unity in Germany Outbreak of war with princes in 1540s Charles tries to take power from princes Charles’s Failure o 1.) Distraction of wars with France o 2.) Ironic alliances between protestant and Catholic princes in Germany to defend against Charles Peace of Augsburg (1555): “As the ruler, so the religion” o 1.) First time Catholic church recognizes Protestants o 2.) They decide to coexist (Catholic’s and Protestants) ▯ ▯ French Wars of Religion Rising influence of French Calvinists: Huguenots Death of King in 1562 and the ensuing political struggle and warfare between Huguenots and Catholicism in the royal family (very significant) Truce of 1571: Huguenots leader Prince Henry of Navarre to marry Catholic sister of the reigning boy king o 1.) They were attempting to coexist religions o 2.) These two marry and eventually escape together Dowager Queen Catherine de Medici’s plot (Catholic) has many of the Protestant family killed -She is the unhappy mother of the boy king and the girl in this relationship (boy king and girl are siblings) Catherine’s death in 1589 and the ascending of Henry to the French throne Henry IV renounced his Protestant to placate France’s Catholic majority but granted limited religions freedom with the Edict of Nantes in 1598 ▯ ▯ Revolt of the Netherlands After Charles V retired to a monastery in 1556, his son Philip II took he throne of the Holy Roman Empire (ruling from Spain ) and determined to tighten his control over the Netherlands to exploit the region’s wealth Fiercely independent cities joined Calvinists in the countryside in revolt Philip’s reign of terror or the “Council of Blood” William of Orange converted to Protestantism and, with help from England and Protestant allies in France and Germany gained control of the northern Netherlands in 1572 Though Williams was assassinated by a Catholic in 1564, his son continued the resistance movement and finally achieved independence as a northern Dutch Republic in 1609 ▯ ▯ England and the Spanish Armada King Phillip II of Spain’s marriage proposal rejected by Protestant Queen Elizabeth of England Combined with rise of English sea trade and intense economic competition with Spain o 1.) Spain is resentful of England’s growing sea trade because it’s taking from Spain’s monopoly Naval skirmished and Sir Francis Drake’s plunder of Spain’s vessels (1577-1580 Phillip’s attempted invasion of England and decisive naval battles in 1588. o 1.) Spain is defeated here ▯ The Thirty Year’s War, 1618-1648 ▯ Begins with these: Shifting balance of power between Protestants and Catholics and the collapse of the Peace of Augsburg Rebellion in Protestant Bohemia when Catholic Habsburg prince Ferdinand took the throne in 1618 Ferdinand was then made Holy Roman Emperor in 1619, and war broke out between imperial France and German princes, leading Lutheran king of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus Ironically, Catholic France (secretly) subsidized Sweden and the German princes and then openly declared war against Spain and the Holy Roman Empire in 1635, fearing encirclement by a strong Habsburg alliance Germany was the bloody battleground for this war Peace of Westphalia, 1648, and the emergence of France as powerhouse France and German princes win the Thirty Years War ▯ Shifting Balance of Power in Europe Decline of Spain –they were used to being at the top (thought they were invincible) o 1.) Expense of heavily-dependent colonies in the New World o 2.) Commitment to the Catholic Church and costly wars o 3.) Internal revolts o 4.) Dependent on exports, especially agriculture o 5.) Increased economic competition from France and England o --In general, the colonies just starting costing more than they were bringing in and this hurt Spain Growth of France o 1.)Availability of natural resources and agricultural self- sufficiency o 2.)Benevolence of monarchy and loyalty of subjects o 3.)Colonial possessions kept in perspective o 4.)Relative stability of monarchial authority by 1650’s ▯ Absolutism in France Lessons of chaos in France Louis XIV (1643-1715); “Divine Right of King” and Royal Absolutism o 1.) He revives this Divine Right of Kings idea (God chose him for this position so do what he says) o 2.) He tightens the reigns on France because he looked at it’s past; “Sun King” Firm control over army and bureaucracy (government) Domestication of the French nobility o 1.) Court life- Louis XIV’s way of getting them out of his way of the monarchy –this was a distraction Reality of limited authority o 1.) Other regions didn’t have absolute authority Absolutism As Performance and Image o 1.) Versailles-put it here because that’s where a lot of the nobility lived o 2.) Paris was the center of French life but he moved the palace to Versailles which was above where the people lived-this gave the impression that he was above the people ▯ England’s Slower but Steady Rise James I (reigned 1603-1625) and Charles I (1625- 1649) Parliament: o 1.) House of Lords (nobility) o 2.) House of Commons (gentry) –people with money but who didn’t really have any important family lineage The English Civil War, 1642-1651 o 1.) War with Scotland and Charles’s reluctant summons of Parliament o 2.) Parliament’s demands for monarchial reform and Charles’s dispatch of armed guards to the House of Commons –Charles was furious with this -Civil War breaks out o 3.) Oliver Cromwell and his Puritan Roundhead army – Cromwell is successful o 4.) Public execution of Charles I- important because this is the first time a king has been executed by the people o 5.)From commonwealth republic to Cromwell’s dictatorship- parliament was the law of the land until over time Cromwell gains more power than the monarchy ever had (absolute dictator) he still controls army and military and everyone knows it –people begin to miss the monarchy –he finally dies Restoration of the Monarchy o 1.) Charles II (1660-1685) and initial compromise with Parliament –made Charles II know that the parliament would have power-he couldn’t do like his father and stop involving parliament in government o 2.) Drift toward absolutism in 1670s –he eventually starts behaving like his father and taking more power (though not as bad or as obvious) -dies o 3.) James II (Charles’s devout Catholic brother), 1685-1688 – worried about the religious changes he will make –gentry man start to come up with a way to bring in a new monarch –James II just leaves and lets William and Mary take his place William and Mary and the “Glorious Revolution” (1688- 1689) –new king to replace James II o 1.) English Bill of Rights, Constitutionalism, and the prevalence of Limited Monarchy o 2.) Maintain church of England as official church o 3.) called Glorious Revolution because there is no bloodshed during their reign o 4.) set up a Constitutional monarchy (shared power with parliament) ▯ Colonization of an Empire Exploiting wealth in the Atlantic World o Sugar – Haiti makes A LOT of money for France o Tobacco } -these three were big exports for them –A lot in Virginia for Great Britain o Furs Success of Imperial Mercantilism for France and Britain o Self-sufficiency, manufacturing, and consumer demand at home plus raw resources and consumer markets for finished goods in Colonies o Mercantilism- the wealth of the nation is judged by the amount of gold found within the country; the idea was to keep all trade within the empire; self-sufficiency –this is why Spain declined –they were having to pay for a lot of imports o France and Britain were mostly independent –colonies had a lot of raw resources –they made goods from these then sold them back as a finished good Centrality of African Slavery –primary source of labor –the wealth is built upon the backs of these slaves –slave trade became a HUGE industry Colonial and Commercial Rivalries between Britain and France –conflicts at sea and in colonies –Britain wins Seven Years War –France loses horribly –France had to pay Spain for fighting by giving Louisiana territory ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ After the 1550’s, new sciences in Europe questioned older beliefs about the physical universe, and new methods of inquiry led to the development of new scientific fields and institutions that supported research and education. The new scientific method and processed of reasoning were then expanded during the 1700s by intellectuals in France, Britain, and elsewhere in Europe to help answer questions about the nature of good government, morality, and the social order. In doing so, they challenged traditional norms and institutions, insisting that an “enlightened” use of reason could solve social problems better than age-old customs and beliefs. Enlightenment taught undermined central tenants of traditional culture and politics in the West (the status quo) and helped set the course for major revolutionary changes by the latter part of the 18 century. ▯ ▯ Intellectual Origins The Renaissance of the 15 century th o the Renaissance spurs the Enlightenment The invention of the printing press and expansion of reading culture o especially helps Martin Luther, Calvin, etc. o engages middle and lower classes (reading) The Reformation and challenges to longstanding religious and political authorities o The Reformation and Enlightenment seem to feed off of each other and work together because the government is against both of them European voyages of discovery of “New Worlds” o Causes people to wonder what else is out there; question old ways of thinking; searching for knowledge ▯ Nicholaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Mathematician, Astronomer, and Christian from Poland Heliocentric View: labeled as “Sun Worshiper” by religious critics, both Catholic and Protestant Kept his theories secret until the last years of his life ▯ Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Renaissance man: Mathematician, musician and other sciences Scientific observations and research o The Starry Messenger (1610) o Letters on Sunspots (1613) o Openly declared himself a follower of Copernicus Inquisition on trial in 1633 ▯ Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Education at Cambridge University in England, where he later taught at as a math professor for about 30 years Early scientific innovations: o Optics and composition of light o Invented calculus o Early work on gravity Principia Mathematica (1687) –his book that was aimed at/for other scientist Newton as turning point in the history of knowledge ▯ The Foundations of the Enlightenment –helped launch it Scottish writer David Hume o Called for skepticism and careful observation in the study of morality, the human mind, and government German philosopher Immanuel Kant o “Dare to know!” o Enlightenment as “determination and courage to think without guidance of someone else” British thinker John Locke –has a big influence on the constitution and the founding fathers o Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) o Human mind as a “blank tablet” ▯ French Philosophes Montesquieu (1689- 1755) –critical of France’s absolute monarchy and Catholic church o “Persian Letters” o The Spirit of Laws (1748) “separation of powers,” “checks and balances,” and admirer of English Government which is France’s rival and enemy at this time Voltaire (1694-1778) –wrote more for the common people; he brings this to the people o Popularized Newton’s work in France (summarized Newton’s difficult book for the people) o Staunch critic of the French monarchy and Catholic Church o “Crush this infamous thing!”-repression, fanaticism, and bigotry o Deism: God as “divine clockmaker”; he just set the world in motion and let the creation be –God doesn’t actively intervene in people’s lives; rejected Jesus’s miraculous aspects o Exiled from France and books banned and burned Denis Diderot (1713-1784) o Encyclopedia (1751-1772) –best known for being the main editor of the first Encyclopedia; didn’t hold back what he thought about the government and he didn’t care who got upset about what he said o (Because of this^)French government revoked printing permit in 1759 arguing Diderot was trying “to destroy religion, to inspire a spirit of independence, and to nourish the corruption of morals” ▯ The Radical Enlightenment Swiss writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) o The Social Contract (1762) “Man was born free, and everywhere he is in chains” Social inequality, private property, and the corruption of “the social contract” No one should be “rich enough to buy another, nor poor enough to have to sell oneself” Sovereignty of the “general will” Most influential and popular of the philosophes who brought the Enlightenment to a larger audience More radical but more influential and popular (brought enlightenment to public) British writer Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) o A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) o Staunch critic of monarchy and radical advocate for social equality o Natural rights of women: (very radical) 1.) Women had same capacity for reason and self- government as men 2.) Virtue should mean the same thing for women 3.) Relations between the sexes should be based on equality The Enlightenment in Action American Revolution of 1776 French Revolution of 1789 Latin American revolutions of 1830s Fundamental assumptions of Enlightenment ;liberalism: o Liberty of individual conscience o Government authority cannot be arbitrary and must reflect the general will of the people o Equality and freedom are natural rights ▯ Thesis: The French revolution overthrew Louis XVI and created a government committed in principle to liberty, the rule of law, and an idea of the nation as a sovereign body of citizens. The actual meanings of these concepts, however, were greatly contested and literally killed over, these political changes and the nebulous rhetoric of “liberty” also opened the way for new expressions of a wide range of social grievances by laborers and the poor, women, slaves, and other dispossessed groups, though many revolutionaries did not share their visions. Generally, the Revolution encouraged the spread of democratic ideas. At the same time, the power of centralized nation-states increased, especially as they responded to the pressures of revolutionary wars, causing contests over “liberty” to continue. Ultimately, along with American and Haitian revolutions, the cataclysmic change in France reshaped the political order of the West and altered the course of World history. ▯ ▯ Causes of Revolution:1) Kings of France Louis IV: Father of Absolutism o Versailles-60% of French budget; caused a lot of debt o Wars (to try to stay the main power) are draining their budget as well Louis XV: “Irresponsible King” o “After me the fall” o He didn’t really do anything besides live the life of luxury in the palace Louis XVI o Reluctant king o Affinity for the poor and peasants –he actually cared for the French people; tried to get the nobility to pay more taxes o Queen Maria Antoinette –political marriage; was always having affairs with the nobles “Austrian Whore” o He pays the price for many of the kings before him; he was actually trying to be a good king even though he didn’t really even want to be king ▯ Causes of Revolution: 2) Social Structure The three estates o 1 Estate: Clergy (2%) o 2 ndEstate: Nobility (3%) rd o 3 Estate: Everyone else (95%) –bourgeoisie (prosperous professional class) and proletariat (common working people) Revolution mostly comes from these two groups^^ Estates General o One vote for each estate –because of this the first two estates are almost Always overriding the last estate which means only 5% of the population is making decisions for the 95% o First two estates don’t pay taxes Privileges of the First and Second estates o Basically exempt from taxes o Hunting rights were reserved for the nobility only The Plight of the Third Estate o Peasants and poor workers o Merchants and propertied class –wont always see eye to eye with peasants and poor workers in their estate o They are very diverse; have different interests o Will eventually start taking over France ▯ Causes of Revolution: 3) Enlightenment Enlightenment thought: o Critical of existing government structure (Absolute monarchy) o Promotion of individual freedom (natural rights) o Optimistic about social progress and betterment o Talks a lot about individual freedom which appeals to the third estate o Humans Are capable of governing themselves Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) o Leviathan (1651) Humans must be led by strong authority Incapable of self-rule; chaos and anarchy This is his explanation for why the people need the government and social classes (it would be chaos without some strong authority controlling the people and maintaining order) this has been the prevailing idea of government in France John Locke (1632-1704) o Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) o Optimism in humanity Argued that humans can perfect society o Government created by and for the people o One of Hobbes biggest critics ▯ Causes of Revolution: 4) France’s Financial Crisis (last straw) Monarchy’s debt o Costs and debt of wars (30% of annual budget to military plus expense of repaying old way debts) o Costs and debt associated with Versailles (building and maintaining) Poor harvests, soaring food prices, and failing economy= smaller stream of revenue o As the revolution starts to unfold many families are spending about 80% of their income just to pay for food o Hurts the economy because it hits the merchants and more wealthy as well (hurts their income because 95% of the population cant hardly pay for food so they cant buy anything else extra that the merchants are selling) o Because of this the poor people are no longer able to pay their taxes so none of the debt is getting paid (Louis realizes this and decides that they will have to raise taxes on the nobles) The Assembly of Notables (1787) o Louis’s failed efforts to raise taxes on the nobility Tell him no of course so he threatens them o Louis’s threat to convene the Estates General (hadn’t met since 1614) Estates General, 1789 Demands of the Third Estate o Demands for tax relief o “Double the Third” means that the third estate should At least have double the representation for the third estate because they represent most of France o Calls for a National Assembly A type of legislative body that would kind of double the third The nobility is getting worried and they complain to the king; convinces king that doubling the third is going to far so he locks their chambers on the day that they are meeting (irate people) The Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789) and the National Assembly o They declare that they are a national assembly whether the king or nobles like it or not o The peoples love of the national assembly grows Popular Revolts o 1.) The sans-culottes and Bastille sans-culottes-means people without knee briches (nobility wore the knee briches) they began to call themselves this and go to Bastille (armory in Paris where the king stores weapons) they storm here, take it over, arm themselves, and demand that the king grants the national assembly a right to meet o 2.) The “Great Fear” in the countryside far fetched conspiracy theories that the king was going to take their families etc. this fear causes them to rise up against their lords and gives momentum to the rebellion o 3.) Parisian Women and “October Days of 1789” Women rise up because lack of food; they take up spears, pitchforks, and other weapons; march to Versailles; demand that king leaves Versailles and return to Paris so he can know what’s going on and rule better Louis’s concessions o Lets assembly meet and returns to Paris to govern o Stage is set for the revolution ▯ The National Assembly, 1789-1791 Tri color flag o Frances new blue, white, and red flag that symbolized their new government o White represents monarchy and blue and red are the city of Paris (represents the people) o The white being in the middle brings the King down to the level of the people and he is controlled by them because he is between the people (two colors) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (Aug 1789) o Enlightenment encoded New taxation system and 83 departments to run government o Shifts the burden off the common people and puts more on the wealthy Constitution of 1791 o Unicameral legislature (one branch) has main power in France now o Limited monarch: suspensive veto (6 months is how long it delays) pretty much all he as left now in his power “Active” and “Passive” citizenship o Shows the conflict of interest in the third estate o Active citizens- were the only ones allowed to vote and hold office Requirements were that they had to own property to be an active citizen; no women o Passive citizens- guaranteed rights under the constitution but not allowed to vote Debates over women, slaves, and religious toleration o These freedom movements sparked women, slavery, and religious rights movements etc. The Jacobins o Group of people who gradually gain power that are more radical and Very anti-monarchy (want to overthrow it altogether and put in a more republican government) o Grows bigger and bigger ▯ The National Assembly continued Confiscation of Church lands to pay government debts, 1789 Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790 o Requires the clergy to pledge an oath to the French government that they will have to side with the French government on any controversial ideas King Louis, Marie Antoinette, and the Flight to Varennes, June 1791 o Has very little power anymore o His wife (Austrian whore) causes more trouble for him by telling him that he needs to send out military to suppress the rebellions o Attempt to leave for Austria but they are discovered so they go back to Paris and pretend that it was just a trip but everyone suspects that he was attempting to leave o This gives the radical Jacobins more credibility so their support grows ▯ The Counterrevolution Émigrés o Immigrants who leave in large numbers to other monarchies o Start stirring up countries against the revolution British conservatives and Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) Austria, Prussia, and the “Brunswick Manifesto” o Alarmed that the revolution will spread into their countries o Manifesto was a threat that if they influenced their countries it would be a war The National Assembly’s declaration of war, April 20, 1792 o Feared the loyalist and royalist who are stirring up the other countries o Declare war against Austria and Prussia o Wanted to spread their ideas to other countries and new they would be attacked if they didn’t start war anyway Armies of Austria and Prussia invade, Aug. 1792 o Looks bad for France Battle of Valmy, Sept 20, 1792 o Turns the tide o French army defeats Austria and Prussia o Austria and Prussia decide to stop fighting with them as long as it doesn’t influence their people “The King’s conspiracy” o all of the rallying causes the people to thing that the counterrevolution was started by him o he wasn’t really directly involved in influencing the countries but he did support it King Louis’s arrest, August 1792 o Jacobins have him arrested Defending against the Counterrevolution within o Have to defend from those countries without and the counter revolutionists within o Because of widespread fear they build up a big army and kill anyone in question ▯ A French Republic Conservatives v. Liberals: The Rise of the Jacobins and an elected republic (Sept. 22, 1792) o The people think that trying to topple the monarchist is a bit extreme o Liberals (Jacobins) win out after finding that the king tried to flee The Trial of “citizen Louis Capet”, Dec. 1792-Jan.1793 o Notice they stopped calling him king The Guillotine o Executed him o Newer “humane” way for executing people o Comes to symbolize the radical revolution because so many people were killed by it ▯ The National Convention Levee on Masse (1793-99): “all get up together” o This is one of the first things the convention does o It’s a military draft that all Frenchman should get up together to serve the revolution and defend against those who want to tear down the French republic o Important because this is how they fight their battles Abolition of slavery (but not in colonies) o Don’t address the colonies (especially Haiti and its sugar production) Some modest redistribution of wealth and property “General Maximum”: Fixed prices on food and other necessities o pleases the women who rose up in the October days Some women’s rights: right to divorce, mandatory spousal and child support, equality in marriage o Important gain because before this the women had no way out of bad relationships Constitution of 1793 (stillborn) –they drafted a new one o Universal male suffrage Poor and non-property owning men could vote now o Most liberal document of the Revolution o Stillborn meant that this constitution never made it; they never really made it law of the land; they had to make sure that the revolution was preserved before they accepted it (Counterrevolution was still going on at this time) ▯ “The Terror”: Preserving the Revolution, 1792-1794 Counterrevolutionaries at Vendee and rebellious cities in the Rhone Valley: Civil War o Counterrevolutionaries are angry about the new revolutionary government trying to take away catholic rights (if government believed one thing and others didn’t then you had to agree with the government) o Revolutionary government is stretched thin because of outer threats and inner threats Committee of Public Safety (12) o Law of suspect If anyone is suspected of being an enemy of the revolution they will arrest you No right to trial or anything o This was 12 individuals who sat on a committee and were put in charge of protecting the revolution o Hunts down suspected revolution traitors Georges Danton o Was a leader of the committee of Public Safety; boss man o Didn’t dress up in the fancy knee-briches so the people liked him o He begins to question if they are going to far (because they are killing so many people) o Starts to speak up and say they should back off a little o Committee turns on him, calls him a traitor, and has him guillotined Maximilien Robespierre: “The Incorruptible” o Gets voted into committee and eventually replaces Danton o Best known figure of this phase of the revolution o “The Incorruptible” meant that he wasn’t going to let anything slide o leading figure during the reign of terror o was a leader of the Jacobin radical party Consequences of Terror o 40,00 dead o 300,000 imprisoned o Oppression and rolling democracy o A bloody nightmare in France where most were killed by the guillotine or as they sat in prison waiting to be guillotined o People are in fear for their lives ▯ End of Terror: The Directory Execution of Robespierre, July 28, 1794 o Most people were wanting to back of but he kept arguing that they needed to continue o Was kicking and screaming when they took him to the guillotine o Committee was abolished More conservative Constitution of 1795 o Male suffrage to the literate (revoked universal voting) o Indirect elections: electors choose legislators Puts checks on the people The people choose an elector then the elector chooses the leader o Bill of Rights and Declaration of the Duties of Citizens (grants and modifies these) The Directory (5): upper bourgeois o Replaces the other committee o This is a committee of five people who are in the bourgeois Tend to be more skeptical about letting the people have more of a choice Once the committee is dissolved they write a new constitution to do away with the stillborn one Tried to make it so that they can control the Revolution Revoke the universal male suffrage and only lets the literate vote ▯ End of Terror: The Directory Execution of Robespierre, July 28, 1794 o Most people were wanting to back off but he kept arguing that they needed to continue o Was kicking and screaming when they took him to the guillotine o Committee was abolished More conservative Constitution of 1795 o Male suffrage to the literate (revoked universal voting) o Indirect elections: electors choose legislators Puts checks on the people The people choose an elector then the elector chooses the leader o Bill of Rights and Declaration of the Duties of Citizens (grants and modifies these) The Directory (5): upper bourgeois o Replaces the committee of public safety o This is a committee of five people who are all in the bourgeois (professional class) Tend to be more skeptical about letting the people have more of a choice Once the committee is dissolved they write a new constitution to do away with the stillborn one Tried to make it so that they can control the Revolution Revoke the universal male suffrage and only lets the literate vote ▯ Rise of Napoleon The Directory and the Elections of 1797 o Members of the clergy get elected and this makes the directory unhappy because they were fearful that the church would take back too much power o Decided to cancel the elections and wanted a strong leader to take over who will keep moving the revolution Napoleon Bonaparte o Is asked to come and replace The Directory Coup d’état, 1799 o Taking down of the old leaders and replacing with a new administration o This is what Napoleon does except he was asked to by The Directory o Directory dissolves Napoleon as “First Consul” o Named Consul for life in 1802 (basically dictator) o He now has executive power as well as full loyalty from the military o This is unsettling to many people The Napoleonic Code o The laws that he implements in France o Solidifies a lot of the gains that have been made in France (free speech, religious toleration, etc.) o Made sure that Feudalism was dead forever o Also brings about some major setbacks including a vast centralization of power given to Napoleon o Backtracks gains that women made during the revolution because he believed that women should focus on home life Enlightenment and Education in France o He put a major emphasis on education in France o He loved the enlightenment and made education a top priority in France o Implemented the first “high school” in France Emperor Napoleon I (1804): abandonment of the French Republic o Napoleon declares himself emperor o All hope for the French republic is gone now o Continues to make spreading the Revolution a top priority during his rule o Sets up puppet rulers (his brother) in Spain and other places ▯ France’s Archenemy: Britain British Navy: “Whale at Sea” o Horrified by how much Napoleon has conquered o Britain has the top navy that the world has ever seen o Everyone fears their navy French Army: “Lion at Land” o Napoleon is a military genius on land o Everyone fears Napoleons army Impact of Geography: English Channel and Atlantic Ocean o They are isolated from the European continent o Surrounded by water This is important when your strong point is your navy o If it hadn’t have been for the water Britain wouldn’t have held out against Napoleon Continental System: Economic Warfare against Britain o Failure and road to unraveling o Napoleon knows that he cant attack Britain like this so he establishes a widespread embargo (trade law) against Britain o This hurts Britain badly but they survive it because they can still trade with the Americans and Indies o Ultimately, Napoleons trying to force other countries to abide by the continental system is what leads to his demise ▯ Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804 Outbreak of Slave Rebellion in Saint Domingue, Aug. 1791 o Sugar and coffee industries o They want to be involved in French revolution o Massive uprisings and slave rebellions break out in Haiti Invasion by Britain and Spain (while new French Revolutionary Government was distracted with Revolution) to assist French planters o They are interested in taking Haiti for themselves o France doesn’t have the time or effort to deal with the revolution in Haiti or with Spain and Britain attacking French troops arrived in Aug. 1702: French government promised freedom to slaves who would join the French in 1793 o British withdraw in 1798 and Spanish in 1801 o Because France doesn’t want Britain or Spain to take Haiti, the French promise things to the slaves for their help Toussaint L’Ouverture o Emerges as the main leader (was a slave) o Was very successful and talented in leading the slaves o Under him a government is installed in St Domingue that will be a copy of Napoleons government o Declares loyalty to France but they are still going to control their own land in Haiti Napoleons imperial designs, repeal of antislavery, and invasion in 1802 o Napoleon still wants to control Haiti o Decides to repeal the antislavery acts that the Revolutionaries granted o Napoleon sends armies to invade Haiti but things don’t work out for him because of the commitment of the slaves The slaves rise up and form militia’s against them and win Achievement of Haitian Independence, 1804 o Finally this is granted and they receive freedom o This is really the only successful slave revolt in history o This causes the American south to panic because they think their slaves might revolt Sale of Louisiana to U.S., 1803 o Now that Haiti is gone Napoleon sees no profit in keeping Louisiana so he sells it extremely cheap to Jefferson and the U.S. ▯ Spain and Portugal Napoleon’s invasion of Spain, 1808: crowns brother king o Puppet kings Spanish guerillas and the Peninsular Wars o Guerillas are sporadic hit and run hidden warfare o This eventually drags out into a big mess for him Portugal’s support from Britain: The Duke of Wellington’s British Army and the Spanish guerillas Bonaparte’s Army vs. Wellington’s in Spain: The Seven- Year “Spanish Ulcer” Spread of Resistance ▯ Russia Trade with Britain: Violation of Continental system o Leader: Alexander I Napoleons invasion of 1812 The Trap of Russian Terrain and Winter: Attrition of French Army Siege of Moscow (lack of resources) French retreat Depletion of French Army, resources and might ▯ Napoleon on the Ropes Russian and Prussian entry of Paris, March 31, 1814 Napoleon’s abdication and exile to Elba (off coast of Italy) o Still popular in France o Controls Elba o Steals some ships and returns to France Napoleons Return 1815 Battle of Waterloo (Belgium) June 15-18, 1815 o British and Prussian victory Napoleon’s exile to St. Helena in S. Atlantic ▯ Congress of Vienna (Sept 1814- June 1815) (kept mentioning this) The Big 4: Britain, Prussia, Austria, and Russia 1.) Balance of Power o not letting one power get too much control 2.) Legitimacy o installation of Louis XVIII to French throne 3.) Compensation: Redrawing Territory o big issue of who is going to get what now that Napoleon has been defeated o Austria gets more territory because it was weakest at first and they wanted it to be balanced o There was a lot of anger about the distribution of land 4.) Extinguish Europe’s revolutionary fervor o French diplomat Charles Talleyrand and “Collective Security” for the status quo Attempting to make certain that the monarchies are secure from any revolutionary activity They made formal alliances that said if any country started undergoing a revolution again then the other powers would have to help them out o Britain’s retreat into isolation Britain didn’t like the idea of fighting for the other countries so they do not agree and back out ▯ Industrialization 1.) The large-scale introduction of manufacturing, advanced technical enterprises, and other productive economic activity into an area, society, country, etc. 2.) Conversion to the methods, aims, and ideals of industry and economic activity, particularly of an area that was previously underdeveloped economically 3.) The process in which a society or country (or world) transforms itself from a primarily agricultural society into one based on the manufacturing of goods and services. Individual manual labor is often replaced by mechanized mass production and craftsmen are replace by assembly lines. Characteristics of industrialization include the use of technological innovation to solve problems as opposed to superstition or dependency upon conditions outside human control such as the weather, as well as more efficient division of labor and economic growth. ▯ ▯ Industrialization put Europe on the path to a new form of economic development, based on the concentration of labor and production in areas with easy access to new sources of energy. This led to rapid growth of new cities and the development of new transportation networks to connect industrial centers to growing markets. Industrialization created new social groups, defined by their place in the new economy. New opportunities and wealth created a new elite of entrepreneurs, bankers, engineers, and merchants who were the primary beneficiaries of industrialization. With these new opportunities, however, also came a new kind of vulnerability for those whose livelihoods were threatened by industrialization. This dynamic ensured that the industrial era would be marked by social conflicts. ▯ ▯ Why Britain? 1760-1850 Island nation (protected on three sides by water) Robust empire and trade networks Consumers at home and abroad Natural resources (especially coal) Developed transportation networks Efficient and profitable agricultural system Large supply of poor laborers: rural to urban migration ▯ British Textile Industry Cotton imports from India and American South James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny in 1764 o 16 threads at a time American Eli Whitney’s cotton gin, 1793 o Costs of profits and efficiency: expansion of slavery Water to steam power o Textile factories had to be located near large rivers or creeks to power their machinery this lessened that This was a major part of the industrial revolution ▯ Costs of New Textile Industry Damage to independent craftsmen and local and family business o Can no longer support themselves and are driven out of business; some of them resist violently by attacking the factories and attempting to destroy machinery Luddite revolts in northern England, 1811-1812 Woman and child labor o Cheaper labor o This re-alters the family system o Long working hours, hot, no breaks, dangerous for kids, bad on their lungs because of all the lint Debates over the benefits and tyranny of new capitalism and demands for regulation in British House of Commons by 1830s o This is fought tooth and nail by the factory workers o Workers begin to form early labor unions to gain power to pressure political leaders ▯ Coal and the Iron Horse Coal as the new fuel o Used wood but they were running out of forests Steam engines Development of “pig iron” Importance of Railroads to industrial development and new economy Interconnectedness of steam engines, textile machines, iron-making, and railroads ▯ Industrialization in Continental Europ e Different path o Less developed transportation systems o Fewer raw materials o History of economic disruption by wars New Industrial Development after 1815 o Population growth More workers so cheaper labor costs More consumers o Direct role of government Encouraged industrialization They spent money to help develop some things o Government-funded infrastructure improvements Government of Austria built over 30,000 miles of (roads?) from 1830-1847 Belgium nearly doubled its road networks France built 2,000 miles of water canals o Government-funded educational systems Tried to create a more educated and innovative population to keep driving this revolution In sum, what Britain had produced almost by chance, mainland Europeans produced by deliberate design o These things seem to have occurred naturally in Britain ▯ Social consequences Population Boom o Europe’s population soared from 205 mil. In 1800 to 480 mil. By 1914 o Urbanization Environmental impacts o Pollution, disease, housing, and growing crime rates Impact on Rural life o Market dependence and small farmers o Irish Potato Famine, 1845-49 1 Million deaths and 1 and 1/2 million people moved away some to America o Centralization of agriculture and dispossession of small farmers o Erosion of rural cottage industries and village economies o Exception of France It took a lot longer for industrialization to take off here ▯ Middle Class Diversity of middle class o Their lives improve from the revolution o Includes factory owners, managers, lawyers, medical professions, etc. Prosperity and social mobility o They were able to move up the ladder Gender and the cult of domesticity o This transforms family life and the way people see themselves o Etiquette manuals were Very popular at this time Performing middle-class identity(ex. Big houses) Social segregation and “Respectability” ▯ Working Class Diversity of working class Strains of factory life o Loss of pride in craftsmanship (assembly line/mass production) Control of employers Working conditions Discipline of the clock Transformation of family life o Father was rarely seen because of long working hours (kids were already in bed by the time he came home) Vulnerability as the defining feature
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