Us History Before 1865 Notes
Us History Before 1865 Notes HT2233
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Date Created: 11/07/15
U.S. History Before 1865 –Dr. Spillman 01/15/2014 ▯ January 14, 2014 ▯ Christopher Columbus - 1492- one of the greatest discoveries The Americas were heavily populated o There was a developed civilization o Around 15 million in North America alone Europeans got potatoes, corn, tobacco, etc. from America America got wine, rice, wheat, etc. from Europe Spain backed Columbus’s exploration o Columbus arrived in America because he wanted to get to East by going West. He was upset when he found the Indies. o At this time, everybody was wanting spices. (ex. caf needs pepper) The Black Death was caused by mice boarding ships and transferring diseases ▯ Conquistadors began to explore the West Single men Men with rough family backgrounds Mercenaries (fought for a living) Cortez took down Aztecs in about two years Pizarro took down the Incas in Peru by 1832 o They did this by: Disease Guns (though inferior to bows) Resources (looking for gold) Brought pigs for food which carried many diseases and transferred them to the Native Americans Native Americans were not extremely good people The Aztecs enemies aligned with Cortez to conquer the Aztec Empire The Aztecs captured neighboring tribes and sacrificed them to the “gods” by cutting out their hearts o By conquering these two tribes Spain got a ton of gold which made them ridiculously wealthy Native American population dropped to 200 o This is why a lot of that area speaks Spanish ▯ ▯ France was more interested in religion and creating trading establishments unlike Spanish They didn’t find gold or a northwest passage Relied on trading post instead of creating them for settlements French wanted to come to o Find a passage to Asia o Gold o Religion ▯ ▯ Chesapeake colonies, 1640 Southern colonies were established for monetary profit England was the last to start settling in America because Henry VIII and his craziness with wanting a male heir. He separated England from the catholic church. This led to all kinds of wars which kept England distracted. This also helped the Protestants emerge. English saw all the Spanish ships with gold and decided to just pick off a Spanish ship carrying gold every once in a while. This was “pirate type stuff” and they became types of celebrities called “seadogs” They were picking off gold and weakening catholic church rivals at the same time They built settlements to repair ships in America They then setup Roanoke The Spanish armada distracted England from coming and resupplying the colonies. By the time this finished 3 years later Roanoke was gone. This discouraged Sir Walter Raleigh and other investors from starting settlements in America England started making corporations or “joint- stock companies” In 1607 the Virginia company was established They got permission from the government to get a charter to set up a settlement in a particular area Jamestown was founded in 1607 ▯ ▯ January 16, 2014 Although the colonists were unable to find a river that lead across to the west or gold.. they did find tobacco which became a very profitable business the Virginia company soon realized that they needed more people to come to the colonies o they created flyers that would entice young men into coming with the company to the Americas to ‘make money’ Powhatan eventually dies and is succeeded by one of his brothers (Opechancanough) who becomes the new king of the Powhatan empire o He decided that he no longer wants Jamestown to survive o He launches a violent uprising and slaughters a ton of the settlers and also destroys the Virginia company o The king then decided to revoke the companies charter o He then puts it under control of the country However he doesn’t put much investment into running Jamestown The people had to begin running things on their own The royal governor of Jamestown had no salary or support from the crown By this time the people had already created the house of burgesses so the royal governor tells this house that they need to pay his salary and for his defense For the first time the English create a legislator The crown ignores them from early to mid 1600s This gives the colonies the opportunity to do interesting things The southern companies experimented with ways to work together and survive Other settlers began to move around the country ▯ George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) A rich catholic man from England who asked the government if he could take many Catholics and settle just north of Jamestown At the time England was mostly Protestant so this helped England get rid of unwanted Catholics They then created Maryland and grew a butt-ton of tobacco o Some Englanders believed that tobacco was bad for you ▯ Love and Hate in Jamestown John Smith- spoke with authority; when he spoke people listened; he was good at coming up with ways to get out of situations (quick on his feet) Pocahontas- had her dad wrapped around her finger; it was either a ritual where someone has to be for someone’s life, romance, or she wanted him to giver her things like beads etc. The natives were always questioning why the colonies had no women or children o They thought it could have been cause the colonies wanted to attack them ▯ How did the 13 colonies come to be between 1607-1775 The people of Jamestown create the first legislative assembly (House of Burgesses) where the people of Virginia met to make decisions Maryland was initially founded as a catholic refuge o Quickly became a very good tobacco growing area to make money A group of influential Englishmen got permission from King Charles II to have John Locke create a list of rules on how to govern themselves in the Carolinas (this was to test and see if a place could survive without a king) this was a political experiment that gradually shifted into another place to make money by growing crops especially rice Georgia: last one to be settled. James Oglethorpe got permission to send a lot of poor people from England to go to the Americas who will work hard and not drink alcohol. After a while it became a colony full of people who were interested in making money including tobacco and rice Most of these colonies were full of young men who were interested in making money by growing crops Selling crops in the colonies made these people quite prosperous which then made the England pay more attention to the colonies Because of all the crops they needed people to come over to work o They tried recruiting Englishmen o Poor people didn’t have enough money to come over and buy tools They then told the poor people that if they gave them 7 years of work they would pay for their trip over to the Americas and help them get started and set up after their 7 years this was called indentured servitude They wanted healthy males The workers sometimes didn’t work off their 7 years because they saw that there was land for the taking and ran off ▯ In the 1660s the southern colonies began to turn toward a more viable source of labor: African slave trade ▯ 1611 was when they started growing tobacco and realized that they needed workers to be in the fields; It began the whole slave process This was made for financial reasons Africans did sell each other but only other tribe members Colonists bought slaves mostly from the Caribbean because the slaves there had already become accustomed to being slaves Chattel-slavery- you’re like an animal; even your children are owned Indentured contracts began to diminish and the African slave trade came into play Once England realized the colonies were beginning to make money they began to tax the colonies and put in more rules It cost England money to regulate (ex. TSA in airports) Each wave of settlers coming from England had to move further and further into the country and away from water so they came into more and more contact with native Americans which led to more conflict People who worked their seven years were beginning to be told that they had to go back to England after they worked These people started the Rebellion by burning Jamestown to the ground because they wanted land and the people of Jamestown weren’t wanting to give it to them This conflict taught the Englishmen that it was better to not have conflict between themselves but to instead come together and fight the natives Its called Bacons Rebellion 1676 because Nathaniel Bacon led it; he was the son of a rich Englishmen whose father made him come to America where he caused a lot of problems Navigation acts- tax, and making sure the colonies were sending tobacco to England not to other countries (regulated trade) By 1700 the dominant form of labor was African slave labor Only about 5% of the Africans taken from Africa came to America the rest went to the Caribbean Once the colonists began making money they started dressing like wealthy Englishmen They didn’t want to create a new culture they just wanted to become like wealthy Englishmen The Settlement of the Northern Colonies: (Puritan colonies) Were founded mostly for the sake of ideas which has had a lasting influence on America today Puritan referred to the most radical protestants of England Protestants fought a lot among themselves over what was good doctrine Queen Elizabeth was hostile to the puritans Henry VIII was the first head of the Church of England then Elizabeth This is important because if you criticized the church you criticized the king or queen Elizabeth found ways to slow the puritans They claimed to be happy to be Englishmen but really they held to Calvinism John Calvinism taught that God had absolute control over human destiny and that the only way out of sin was through the work of God; this belief really resonated across Europe This belief meant that kings and queens were not sovereign and that you should obey God not the king This belief bread resistance to authority puritans would not stop criticizing the church of England the puritans were radical and within the puritans were an even more radical group they believed that the church of England was beyond hope and wanted to form something new -these people were called Separatists (Pilgrims) radical of the radical puritans in 1620 they formed their own joint stock company which was a cover for how to escape England and go to the new world these are the people we call Pilgrims they settled in Plymouth in 1620 which was the first permanent settlement by the Pilgrims the puritans who stayed in England were subjected to much harsh treatment and were becoming disenchanted by the end of the 1600s they were desiring to leave England and make corrections to the church of England puritans landed and established Boston in the 1600s and made to Massachusetts bay company Boston was settled in 1630 by the puritans These puritans traveled with their wives children servants dogs etc. unlike the other colonies these were whole family units In the new world things did not go as planned of course In the absence of established institutions it was possible to do amazing and also scary things John Winthrop was the leader of the Puritans They wanted America to be “a city on a hill” to England and England would want them to come back and show them the new government they would create Southern colonies ship manifest: 114 settlers 72 were single men around age 20 all of them were indentured or servant labor Northern colonies manifest: 126 passengers 13 complete households average age 36 stability, family, and firm ideas ▯ They were completely different! ▯ ▯ Because of all the ideas of the puritans they found it difficult to keep their colony stable ▯ Also they started to rebel against their own leaders and separate from each other ▯ Churches started popping up all over Boston ▯ Between 1630 and 1642 so many puritans came to the new world that it was called the great migration ▯ Roger Williams arrived and advocated a lot of dissension in Boston he later set up is own colony in Rhode island ▯ Anne Hutchinson started to tell people in Boston that God had spoken to her; they banished her from Boston and she settled in long island ▯ One by one each of these puritan towns with their separate church’s began to define church membership in a slightly different way They made people tell the whole church a relation of their faith so that the others knew for sure who was a Christian The congregation itself chose who could be a member (congregationalism) ▯ The children of these puritans weren’t as on fire for their religious beliefs like their parents were because they had not been under persecution The first generation started to worry Gradually new Englanders were less willing to give the relation of their faith Church membership declines Church’s came up with the half-way covenant so that grand-children could still attend church without being for sure saved This sounds much like what they were trying to get away from in England As the church’s separated out Boston soon became a town of merchants and their income rose steadily The first Boston brothel began operating in the 1650s the number of slaves brought into Boston grew by six times People began having to move more and more into the country this led to conflict with Indians so many wars broke out (the Puritans were hard fighters) By the 1660’s the new England colonies were becoming larger so they broke up into several different colonies The Englanders often got the upper hand on the Native Americans Many of the Indians had died off just before they got there because of diseases so they found many different ghost towns where Native Americans did live but were no longer there King Phillips war we should take note of was 1675-1677 in this war the Native Americans were able to wipe out a large number of English towns o They did this by clubbing the men and women and taking the children especially little girls with them o Those who survived attempted to rally others to get their children back but it usually didn’t work o Many of the puritan ministers viewed this as a sign from God that they had soiled their religious purpose o A new style of sermon called the Jeremiad which became one of the earliest form of sermon For an hour the pastor tells the audience their sins then begin to suggest that God could revitalize the mission of the culture o In Salem Witch Trials in 1692 the stress and difficulty of life expressed itself in accusations of witchcraft and trials that lead to hangings of some prominent church people ▯ The middle colonies ▯ Were founded by a group with a less distinct origin ▯ ▯ New York founded by the Dutch for trading Had a difficult time expanding Unlike other areas in the colonies there was a powerful group of Indians (Iroquois Confederation) living in northern New York These were a group of 5 or 6 Indian tribes who all worked together and overcame internal differences so instead of one tribe going out all 5 would so it was hard to penetrate upstate new york ▯ Pennsylvania Founded by Quakers Rejected the Calvinist doctrine of predestination and original sin They thought all humans had divinity within themselves and all people could attain salvation Didn’t believe in a formal church leadership Didn’t experience the persecution of the other groups in England They were pacifists so didn’t believe in violence They converted William Pen who was the son of a very influential men (friends with King Charles2) His dad allowed him to travel to Pennsylvania and establish a town They actually paid the Native Americans for their land ▯ ▯ Colonial America: How did they evolve and reach the point that they were able to participate in this war 1756-1763 The Seven Years War or the French and Indian War the people living in the colonies until 1763 thought of themselves as Englishmen. It wasn’t until after 1763 that they began to think of themselves as American Population growth through emigration from Europe, Central, South America, and natural increase Natural reproduction was the key to long term growth In the north men’s average life expectancy was 70 however women died younger because of childbirth. Men’s life expectancy was higher here because the cold killed off many diseases In the south, there were a lot of orphans and widowers because of the many people dying from diseases The population doubled every 25 years The population in the Americas was rapidly gaining on the population in England However medicine technology remained old fashioned Lots of infections Unclean water and unsanitary waste disposal Midwives helped the women deliver babies and other things (headaches, toothaches, etc.); dominant way people got medical attention Humeralism dominated medical advice o Why do some get sick and other are healthy o Body is governed by 4 bodily fluids --yellow bile, black bile, blood, and phlegm o They have to be balanced or else the person will get sick o To cure them you had to get rid of the one that was in excess (ex. leeches to minimize blood) People followed medical advice based on inherited ideas ▯ Chesapeake (southern) Marriages: First marriage often happened at 20 or 21 because female indentured servants were technically forbidden to marry until their servant ship was done If you had a child while being an indentured servant they could take your child away until your time was done Most women had an average of 8 children up to 5 would die during childbirth or infancy Women usually had a child every 1 to 2 years Life expectancy began to increase around the early 1700s ▯ New England area families: Sex ratio was much more balance Most men were married Children were likely to survive longer Average woman would have 6 to 8 children who would reach adulthood Parents were still alive when kids were older so they had more control of the kids lives which was healthier Fewer women were unmarried and pregnant here Placed a higher value on family Women were held in a fairly high position but males did have authority Women earned for the family as well because they could make clothing and raise animals and a garden Southern plantations began to switch to African laborers Africans in the ships did not view themselves as fellow Africans and they could usually not even understand each other Only about 5% went directly from Africa to the colonies By the 1700s there were about 20,000 in the southern colonies although slavery did exist in the north Once slaves arrived in the Americas their population increased dramatically Slave laws didn’t occur until mid 1700s Inheritable slavery meant that if you were a slave your child was also a slave ▯ Southern economy prospered mostly because of tobacco (first shipment was sent to England in 1617), rice, and indigo Large numbers of acres ▯ Northern colonies also prospered because of agriculture More of a diversity of agriculture Rocky soil and more mountains so they couldn’t plant large acres Shipping industry thrived (Boston became the hub) While the southern colonies concentrated on growing the northern colonies did much of the shipping New England became a specialist in making ships because they had so many long tall trees Molasses was valued because with it you could make rum ▯ Trade Was complicated because they had to project sales 6 months in advance Ships sank They had to rely on bartering Paper currency was not used only specie, gold, and silver coins Commerce thrived so much that England decided to regulate so they could get money out of it ▯ Patterns of Society England o Whatever your parents did for a living that’s what you would do o If your parents are rich you would be rich o There was no way to improve your lot in life significantly o Things were crowded in England and no one owned a lot of land America o Whatever you were born into you could change your career o You could improve your lot in life- social mobility o You had a much wider range of options o There are fewer people in ratio to the land available ▯ How slave plantations operated Large plantations Half of all slaves lived in plantations of at least 50 people Many of these developed their own culture Whites seldom allowed formal marriages although slaves had their own marriages but they lived with the knowledge that the wife or husband could be sold off Many slave owners wanted to teach them the Bible however many of them only showed the slaves passages about submitting to their masters etc. Many of the slaves adopted the religion but integrated it with their own religio Frenchns – syncretism (taking 2 religions and blending them together) Religion became central to African-American culture within the black communities most worked in the field harvesting tobacco, rice, etc. (not cotton yet) but a few were allowed to work as house servants within the masters house women were subjected to unwanted sexual abuse so there became many mixed children identity was still determined by the mother so they became slaves too two things are certain o it is astonishing how infrequently the slaves rebelled o however it did happen from time to time most famous slave rebellion: The Stono Rebellion: 1739 o about 100 slaves rose up took their masters guns and attempted to go to Florida but the whites caught them and killed many to make an example of them more common method of rebellion was running away o literally trying to escape o run into woods and return o they really didn’t have anywhere to go another common method of rebellion o slaves worked slowly o broke tools intentionally but make it look like an accident some slaves were taught trades and crafts (carpenters, blacksmiths, and midwives) it was possible to purchase your freedom although not all blacks were slaves all slaves were black there were small free black communities in the south In the south there would appear to be very little order in the towns. Large plantations with few clusters of towns In the north there would be the huge city of Boston with nice plants of town everywhere they had small farms Middle colonies also had a lot of farms but a lot of different people mixing about (diversity) and lots of people The people wanted to be Englishmen and women living in America They did not want to be called Americans 1770 Philadelphia was the biggest city in America 28,000 people New York was the next biggest Boston Charlestown Newport, Rhode Island (these are becoming large cities even by European standards) the hub of international commerce and the leaders in these cities tended to become the richest people in the Americas booming business taking molasses and distilling it into rum in the northern cities then shipping it out advanced schools were in the cities and that’s where sophistication, cultural hub, and crime were new ideas could be circulated newspapers, books, and publications from abroad circulated in towns taverns, pubs, and coffee houses provided places for discussion revolution began in cities because that was the center point of discussion the colonies became a place where many religions could be worshipped but this toleration flourished because they had no choice because of how diverse the population was the official church of Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and even Georgia’s main church was the Anglican church of England Roger Williams went to Rhode Island and kind of started the American Baptist from which the Baptist religion comes from Heavy persecution of Catholics throughout most of American history because England’s great rival was France who is catholic; the Catholics were always connected with France the enemy of England so that is in part why they are often persecuted Throughout all of the colonies you could hear pastors and religious leaders worrying because of the peoples new love for money and loss of faith (ex. Jeremiad); an increasing fear that the colonists were moving toward making wealth and becoming wild and free Declension of religion (decline) Amidst this fear we turn to the Great Awakening (1730-1740) Great awakening is meant to express a widespread fervor of religion up and down the coast “finally God is at work” George Whitefield, John and Charles Wesley Jonathon Edwards was one of the greatest preachers during this time These great awakening preachers were Series of revival meetings in towns and people would travel from farms and cities and a preacher would tell them that they have the ability to reconnect with God and didn’t need to be tied down by their previous religious alliance This type of preaching often emphasized emotion over intellect (charismatic frenzies) Why would these people have been flocking to the sermons? o Strong good speakers who stirred emotions o Many women were affected by these religious ceremonies One of the recurring themes of these preachers was that it didn’t matter what gender you were. You could have an independent relationship with God For many women this would have been a liberating experience o The other group that stands out was usually the 3 or 4 son of th many families These children usually had fewer options and less land opportunity o People who were converted tended to be people who had fewer options in society ▯ Divisions even developed in churches about whether the great awakening was a good or bad thing Jonathan Edwards o Described hell vividly o Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God o Was a preacher for a long time but got an illness and died young at 55 ▯ This was one intellectual change another was… ▯ ▯ The Enlightenment: ▯ Brief description The product of great scientific and intellectual discoveries in Europe Discovered “natural laws that regulated the workings of nature” Nature operated according to certain laws (gravity) Origin of the enlightenment o Rational thought not just religious faith could create progress in the world o In the enlightenment people began to say “maybe each of us can begin to study on our own instead of only listening to religious leaders” o This was completely new to them because they usually just listened to religious leaders The notion that if there is a problem you should begin to study it slowly began to spread o Very few leaders like to have their position undermined o There wasn’t a fundamental conflict between science and religion (don’t overstep it) In the 1700’s new religious focus developed o Ex. Ben Franklin o Maybe puritan beliefs and the church of England isn’t the right focus o Maybe God arranged the world then took his hand off of it and just let it operate –these are called deist o Deist- believed God made the world but then let it go If you wanted to know Gods plan you studied nature not the Bible ▯ White males had a much greater chance of learning to read and write Fewer educational opportunities beyond grade school for women ▯ More literate people in America than in Europe ▯ This created a tremendous need and want for the Bible ▯ Almanacs were widely read –dozens of these circulated throughout the colonies Most families owned at least 1 They provided a wide range of information including medical advice, practical wisdom, humor, agricultural advice, and predictions about the future and weather patterns Most popular was Benjamin Franklins Poor Richards Almanac ▯ Printing technology developed rapidly by the 1630s most towns had a printing press Pamphlets, books, almanacs, newspapers Public Occurrences was the first printed newspaper Educational opportunities High value on education so that kids could read and write and read the Bible Public school system emerged quickly Unmarried women operated “dame schools” African Americans had pretty much no access to education Harvard was the first college established in 1636 by Puritans for the purpose of training ministers Yale in 1703 They believed that the best way to become and educated adult was to have a broad based curriculum – Liberal arts curriculum Scientific outlook spread From the mid 1600s on England paid attention more and more to what was happening in the colonies ▯ Middling folk- people who are neither poor nor rich; many of the colonists were this; though by the standards of Europe they were doing well ▯ ▯ Scots-Irish- came over after many of the first settlers and really had no choice but to live closer to the Indians; tend to be a people who did this a lot (moving further inland and had to fight) ▯ ▯ American Philosophical society- Americans began to form their own scientific societies; a way for people to get together for scientific discussions; these were just well-educated people who in their free time liked to experiment with electricity and fire etc. ▯ ▯ Colonial mass markets- farmers who sold tobacco and other stuff had a lot of money and wanted to spend it; they wanted to buy proper London items (clothes, bedding, china, etc.) they became an area where manufacturers in England could sell there goods ▯ ▯ Middle Passage- the transition of Africans from Africa to Central or South America in slave ships ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ How did the colonists go from being loyal to England in 1763 to fighting them in 1775 ▯ ▯ French and Indian War- (French/Indian against England in the colonies) established British dominance in North America ▯ Many of the colonists owned a lot of things from England ▯ French and Indian war was an expensive war for the British They spent a LOT of money trying to protect their citizens living in the colonies Before this war the British government didn’t really want to spend money on the colonies but by 1763 the French and Indian war was making the British go broke (in debt) The English won the war by a landslide King George III took throne in 1760 and had his buddy George Greenville become Prime Minister o Believed that he ought to be running the country not parliament o It appears that he suffered from a disease that brought about moments of insanity o Immature and insecure in his leadership In 1763 the British needed very secure statesmen but instead that got George III and his buddy Grenville who was in parliament They believed that the American colonists had been allowed to coast along enjoying the benefits of being British without paying their way After this war ended the colonists began moving past the Appalachian mountains into where the French had been and there were more Indians o Indians started fights o Pontiac was an Indian leader during this time British told the colonist in the Proclamation of 1763 that forbid them from crossing the Appalachian mountains o They did it any way even though they knew it was in direct violation with the British The British never succeeded in keeping the colonists out of land they wanted George Greenville decided to implement the Quartering act of 1765 which required the colonists to supply British troops within the area The British troops stayed in America to restrict smuggling Sugar Act of 1764 was an act to lower the tax on molasses and raised it on sugar in order to encourage people to actually pay for the sugar instead of smuggling Currency act of 1764 Stamp act of 1765 was the biggest one; marks the beginning of widespread colonial resistance to British policies o A stamp had to be put on every paper product the colonists used and it increased the cost o British did begin to raise money o It was difficult for the colonists to unify against one opposition o The stamp act had a unifying effect because most colonists were affected by it o Northern merchants suffered because it restrained their commerce o Southern planters and small farmers were affected o It didn’t make anyone go broke though it was just the principle that the British parliament can tax them on what is happening internally within the country o The colonists thought that anything coming or going from America could be taxed but they didn’t like the British regulating the internal commerce in America o They realized that the British were just doing this to make money and that is where they drew the line o It was the principle of it that bothered the colonists especially since they were not represented in parliament Representation o Virtual Representation-whatever parliament does is in your best interest; parliament is representing you because you are a British citizen even if they are doing something you don’t like o The British believed that no matter where they are if you are a British person then the parliament is representing you by trying to do what is best for the British empire o The colonists didn’t believe they were being represented They had different ideas of government representation because since 1607 Jamestown until 1763 they had been controlling their own governments and towns with the House of Burgesses etc. ▯ Patrick Henry Member of the house of burgesses May 1765 he gave a dramatic speech to his fellow Virginias Thought the stamp act was an encroachment on the colonists liberty In 1765 he introduced into the house of burgesses that the colonists had the same rights of those in England Anyone who taxed Virginias should be deemed an enemy of Virginia (Virginia Resolves) this shows that the colonists had a different idea of what was representation Virginia had been use to setting up their own things (House of Burgesses ▯ James Odes Said maybe they should work together to protest these policies For the 1 time the colonists began to meet for the Stamp Act congress to figure out how to debate the tax In the summer of 1765 mobs arose in violent resistance to the stamp act o Largest mob was the Sons of Liberty This was a group of colonial thugs who burned buildings etc. (Samuel Adams included) Terrorized stamp act agents and burned stamps People who were hired to enforce the tax retired because they knew they would be killed by these people if they didn’t The principle and alcohol drove this Attacked people who were associated with British Parliament didn’t really back down because of this mob; mostly just because they were losing money People in England were beginning to be affected by boycotts of the stamp act (economic pressure) The British parliament backed down and repealed the stamp act in 1766 but issued the Declaratory Act o This said “Parliament had authority over the colonies in all cases whatsoever” o Colonists thought they had won because parliament backed down but they ignored the Declaratory Act Soon a new series of ministers begin to take over King George’s government o Charles Townsend was over the budget and focused on raising revenue The colonists dislike about the taxes was mostly about the principle o They did not like internal taxation but they were okay with taxing things that were sent or received to or from Britain ▯ Charles Townsend Supported efforts against the colonists to stop opposition against the quartering act The colonists had actually been feeding and housing British soldiers for a long time but they objected because they were told that they HAD to do it (again it was the principle of being told) They were doing it before because they were proud citizens but this time they viewed it as a tax New York and Massachusetts assemblies said No we wont do it Townsend then said that these assemblies can no longer meet o From England’s perspective they couldn’t have these people telling them what to do o They thought this was setting an example to the other colonies o Closing of new york assembly is 1767 o Townsend duties A series of taxes on lead, paint, paper, and tea because he thought that the colonists would not object because these are items that came across the oceans (this wasn’t too crazy) The colonists absolutely resented the closure of the assembly and didn’t want it to happen to their own It made them angry enough to work together to help New York They no longer thought that Britain could tax on shipped goods because they knew that Britain was just trying to raise money Townsend ordered the British taxation office to tighten control on custom houses and to tighten up on smuggling Colonists refused to obey and boycotted these British goods Other colonies were joining Boston’s boycott Throughout the colonies it became popular to not buy British goods They no longer wanted to look like wealthy Britain’s They began to make homespun clothes (no more fancy London gowns) Townsend died just as all this uproar was happening Lord North became in charge and decided to back down and repealed all of the Townsend duties except for the tea tax The ship with this news was going across The Boston massacre occurred before the colonists got news that the Townsend duties were repealed ▯ Boston Massacre Customs officials had been attacked because of taxes o Colonists were physically assaulting these workers Spitting at them; throwing rocks; profanity o Because of this Britain decided to put some troops there o The presence of these troops further stoked the anger of the colonists To the colonists it seemed that the colonist’s independence was being undermined These colonists began to call the British soldiers “Lobster backs” o Many of these British soldiers were young unranked men who came from poor homes or were orphans o Officers were the brains of the operation o The soldiers weren’t paid well Off duty British soldiers began to find other small jobs around to make a little extra money (moonlighting) This moonlighting further compounded the colonists anger because it was taking away jobs from the Bostonians o The ship with the news of stopping the Townsend act still hadn’t arrived One night on March 5, 1770 a group called the Liberty Boys gathered outside the customs house and began to harass the guy working the customs house; the soldier gets some reinforcement; crowd is growing and throwing rock snowballs; we aren’t exactly sure what happened next; more threats were being launched a snowball hits the wrong soldier and a shot was fired into the crowd eventually 5 people were killed in the confusion including a black man Colonists anger blew up (many images of the British killing colonists) and they got worked up o These pictures became a classic symbol of British oppression o 5 who died where viewed as martyrs for their rights o many inaccurate accounts spread a trial was set up o British soldiers were arrested and put on trial in front of a jury of colonists They had trouble finding someone to represent them because no one wanted to be attacked themselves by the sons of liberty and many felt that the soldiers shouldn’t have been there to start with John Adams one of the best young lawyers of the time volunteered to represent them because of the principle that they had a right to be represented and it wasn’t a clear cut case Several men were found guilty of manslaughter and others were exonerated It became fairly clear that this wasn’t a massacre o Even though several men were set free papers continued to convince Americans that it was a Boston Massacre During the time of the Revolution, Britain had the biggest military of the time o Water was still dirty during this time o Alcohol was a much safer form of drinking (not hard liquor) Samuel Adams- most affective radical in the colonies stirred up the people thought England had become full of sin and corruption and that only in America did true English principles survive by 1772 he proposed a series of committees of correspondence o this was letters being sent around to different cities to spread word around it continued to operate throughout the revolution ▯ George Washington A physically built/strong man Bravery Wanted to be accepted into the British army Fought in the French and Indian War Led the American Revolution One of the key reasons Americans won the revolution Throughout his entire military career he was never hit by a bullet ▯ ▯ Constitution was written in 1787 Northern colonies took the lead in the start of the rebellion Everyone is viewing everything as being Englishmen o They just have different views of representation o This led to a deterioration between parliament and the Englishmen in America Sometimes if an argument isn’t corrected it festers and grows worse and worse (this is what’s happening here) ▯ Boston tea party 1773 Colonists are celebrating repeal of the stamp act Parliament passed the Townsend duties that targeted colonists good Townsend was repealed and only tea tax remained East India Company – specialty was selling tea o They overproduced tea and had it in cargo ships that was nearing expiration o They didn’t want to lose money so they asked to sell it at a discounted rate in the colonies Tea act of 1773 exempted the East India company from having to pay the tea tax from the Townsend duties Colonists were going to get the tea without having to pay a tax Colonists viewed this as another front from the discounted government because this discounted rate hurt other tea merchants in the colonies who already had tea in their stores that already had the tax (it was going to undersell American merchants) They thought this was going to be a monopoly on tea Lens of distrust The colonists responded by boycotting it Unlike earlier protests, large segments were affected because a lot of people drank tea o This linked together all 13 colonies o Colonial women became the leaders of the boycott because they were the biggest group who bought tea Women of liberty who opposed to by the tea o They played a key role in the rebellion In Philadelphia and New York colonists were able to keep British ships from landing at the docks In Boston three ships docked because there were more British troops in Boston due to the massacre o Three companies of about 50 men each dressed up as Mohawk Indians, boarded the ships, and dumped the tea chests into the harbor o Most people could still tell who it was o Colonists were cheering them on To the British government this was property destruction The Boston Tea Party title stuck just like the Boston Massacre title stuck Parliament saw this and said enough and the people couldn’t do this o 1774 the British government set in the Coercive Acts (colonists called this the Intolerable Acts) parliament outright closed the Boston port it was central to life of the colonists all the business in Boston who relied on ships were in danger of closing Massachusetts assembly (little parliament) lost its powers said that accused people would be sent to England for trials required the colonists to house and feed more British soldiers Massachusetts became a martyr to the colonies women’s groups began to escalate their boycotts (other textiles and commodities) ▯ Quebec Acts was also passed Told the French Canadians that they were allowed to practice their catholic religions o American colonists did not like Catholicism o They thought the British government would use the French Canadians to undermine colonists powers (distrust) They thought Catholics were being treated better than them ▯ By 1774 opposition towards parliament was dramatically increased ▯ ▯ September of 1764 members of different colonies held the First Continental Congress Colonies are in uproar This basically had no authority o Leaders in each of the 13 colonies got together to talk about how they could plead with the king to get parliament in order Made 5 major decisions o Unable to come up with some widespread plan for colonies unity o Endorsed moderate statement of grievances which they sent to the king Said that parliament had the right to tax things crossing the ocean but demanded repeal of taxes that were on things in the colonies o Approved a series of resolutions recommending a series of military operation incase Boston was attacked o Agreed to a series of boycotts (Continental association) o Agreed to meet again spring 1765 Letter had less affect than the boycott This was the first formal meeting of all these leaders This next meeting is very important They were all getting to know each other and understanding the other colonies Parliament passed the conciliatory proposition Parliament told the colonies here is what we need you just decide how to tax yourselves As this was travelling by ship Lexington and Concord happened ▯ Lexington and Concord 1775 The colonists were just wanting to be ready for whatever the British did Thomas Gage was commander of the British in Boston but was reluctant to take action o He heard rumor that the colonists were storing up gunpowder and weapons in Concord o He decided to take about 1,000 men, march at night, get there in the morning and blow up the powder o Patriots were tipped of and Paul Revere and William Daws sounded the alarm that the British were coming o Minutemen were waiting for them when they got to Concord o We don’t really know who fired the first shot but they were fired Minutemen were regular plain people who could get read in one minute; farmers with hunting guns o About 8 minutemen were killed and the British kept going to Concord o The gunpowder was moved o On their way back to Boston minutemen hiding behind walls etc. were picking off the British soldiers o By the time they got back to Boston a lot of the British were picked off o Whoever fired the first shot, patriots seized on this and called it another act of atrocity of the British This rallied large numbers of colonists to the cause o This was a brutal war for the time o 9 million people in England o colonists had about 3 million people o Britain had the largest army of the time o Colonies were largely divided o Only about 25% of the population were patriots who were wanting to fight against the British o 25 to 30% were loyalists who wanted to stay with the British some went to Canada or England some stayed and fought with the patriots o 50% didn’t care and went with whoever was winning 1775 war starts 1781 was the last real battle (Battle of York Town) 1783 ends with the treaty of Paris o in an effort to win the war the British began to take an increased effort this angered the 50% who didn’t care and made them like the patriots more one of the keys to the Americans winning the revolution was not the minutemen (they were overstated)however it was the presence of the French and the endurance of the continental army (George Washington’s army) with the exception of Bunker Hill, the minutemen usually lost most of the time when they faced the British the continental army did most of the fighting o the British usually tried to take over cities but it didn’t work to slow the rebellion so they began to target the south but it also didn’t end the rebellion, only in the late 1770s early 1780s that in order to win the rebellion they had to capture George Washington and his soldiers war of attrition – the British realized that if they had just targeted Washington’s that they may have quelled the rebellion Washington realized that he didn’t really have to beat the British.. he just had to outlast them so he just had to dodge and avoid them The longer the war dragged on the more reluctant British citizens were to fight it This is why Washington and his army were key to the military part of the war ▯ July 1775 Olive Branch petition was sent by the Second Continental Congress to once again try to persuade the king ▯ ▯ ▯ Thomas Paine Wrote Common Sense which was a little pamphlet that really made the colonists want to have their own government He had the ability to put into writing the anger of the colonial rebels He was a propagandist although he didn’t do anything else well Common sense laid out for Americans why they should rebel Said not just the parliament but also the king was to blame This document spread like wildfire and brought about direct action ▯ ▯ Declaration of Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson July 2, 1776 it was approved Actually passed on July 4, 1776 This document was mostly lifted, summarized, or copied from a lot of other documents and summarized the feelings Its was distinctly his because of the beautiful language he used The final document comes in two parts The first part is the preamble restating John Lock’s ideas The second part is the list of the things that the king and British government has done that he believes justifies Americas separation from England; most important part During the revolution the most important part was the second part However after the revolution the first part became more important especially the phrase “all men are created equal” ▯ ▯ The articles of confederation Created an informal confederation of 13 different states Created a week decentralized system of authority This weakness led to many problems for Americans o Ex. Washington’s not having enough supplies (guns, food, blankets, etc.) o The continental congress didn’t have enough power to enforce the states to giving stuff for the army ▯ Continental congress didn’t have money and couldn’t get it from colonists buy taxes and couldn’t get it from the government so they decided to print their own currency ▯ Volunteers to fight in the war were scarce so they began to draft men Continental congress told the states a number of men they had to supply and the states were required to draft the men You could pay someone to serve in your place Why did the people decide to fight.? A lot of different motivations Most common was that the people who fought tended to believe that they were fighting to preserve their English rights and freedoms ▯ General Washington over the continental army Was good at lifting the mood of the men Solid quiet strong individual ▯ Revolutionary War Long war Most important battles were early on Lexington and concord Battle of Bunker Hill 1775 outside of Boston o Colonists controlled this hill o British try to take Bunker Hill o Americans lost about 1,000 men on this day and the British take the hill o This battle was important to the Americans because the British lost 2,5000 men o The number of losses taking this hill shocked those in England o Because of this they began to send many more soldiers o Americans viewed Bunker Hill Thought they were just as good soldiers as English They could not fight them on equal footing o the minutemen or militia men did not join permanently with the colonists they really just guarded their local communities more vicious dressed in hunting clothes o had about a 5,000 man core who was permanently with them Motivated by signing bonuses promising them money or land; also had a genuine patriotic fervor and a thirst for adventure; a lot were indentured servants and some were convicts o Marched through the colonies throughout the war and some men would join them sometimes o 1776 British were able to take Philadelphia and new york things turned very bad for the Americans General Howe was in charge of the British o When they captured New York all they had to do was chase after the Americans and William Howe’s army could have taken them over however they didn’t Some say it was because of a mistress, his love of alcohol, or that his heart wasn’t in it but more importantly he didn’t understand the nature of the war Washington realized that he just had to outlast the British o Thomas Paine who wrote “Common Sense” also wrote the “American Crisis” with the quote “these are the times that try men’s souls” o Washington made a key battle decision “Battle of Trenton” where Washington crossed the Delaware o He realized that to boost moral he needed to have a small victory so he went to attack a small group of soldiers in Trenton and Princeton o This would be a victory just before Christmas and give people hope for the new year o Troops who were guarding Trenton and Princeton were actually Hessian troops o So the American’s
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