Midterm HED 371 001
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by ayla on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HED 371 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Angelica Boyle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public and Community Health in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
• Question 1 Describe one step in the MAP-IT framework. Correct Answer: MAP-IT stands for Mobilize, Assess, Plan, Implement, and Track. The Mobilize step of MAP-IT deals with bringing interested parties together within communities to deal with health issues. The second step, Assess, is used to find out who is affected by the health problem and examine what resources are available to deal with the problem. In the Plan step, goals and objectives are created and an intervention is planned that has the best chances of dealing with the health problem. The Implement step deals with putting the intervention into action. And the final step, Track, deals with evaluating the impact of the intervention on the health problem. • Question 2 Explain how social norms may be a factor affecting community health. Selected Answer: Social norms can be positive or negative in affecting community health and can change over time. For example, in the past cigarette smoking was socially acceptable in most all the places, however nowadays in most public places smoke cigarette has become socially unacceptable. Also, when I was child smoke marijuana was sort of a crime and today there are some states where the marijuana is acceptable by the law. • Question 3 True or False? Physical factors affecting community health include geography, community size, and industrial development. Answers: True • Question 4 True or False? The ability of the health care system to prevent, protect against, quickly respond to, and recover from health emergencies defines medical preparedness. Answers: True • Question 5 Explain one way a state health department can be at the disposal of local health departments. Answer: They serve as conduits for federal funds aimed at local health problems. State health departments may also link local needs with federal expertise. For example, epidemiologists from CDC are sometimes made available to investigate local disease outbreaks at the request of the state health department. And, state health departments usually must approve appointments of local health officers and can also remove any local health officers who neglect their duties. • Question 6 List and provide the key responsibility for at least three operating divisions of the Department of Health and Human Services. Answer: 1. Administration on aging: Have as responsibility track the characteristics, circumstances, and needs of older people; develops policies, plans, and programs to promote their welfare; administers grant programs to benefit older Americans; and administers training, research, demonstration programs, and protective services for older Americans. 2. Administration for children and families: Is responsible for providing direction and leadership for all federal programs for needy children and families. 3. Agency for toxic substances and disease registry: Is responsible to serve the public by using the best science, taking responsive public health actions, and providing trusted health information to prevent harmful exposures and disease related to toxic substances. • Question 7 Provide at least four barriers to coordinated school health programs. Correct Answer: Insufficient local administrative commitment, inadequately prepared teachers, too few school days to teach health in the school year, insufficient community and parental support. • Question 8 The contributions of religious groups to community health have been Answers: A. relatively ineffective in the past 100 years B. expensive C. substantial D. minimal • Question 9 The main reason for corporate involvement in community health is due to Answers: A. the federal mandates for employee wellness programs B. the provision of health care benefits to employees C. efforts to keep infectious disease rates low D. their tax status • Question 10 True or False? The core functions of public health are utilized by state health agencies. Answers: True • Question 11 Which agency maintains records, analyzes disease trends, and publishes epidemiological reports on all types of diseases? Answers: A. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) B. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) C. National Institutes of Health (NIH) D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) • Question 12 Which agency is a leading medical research center, and the federal focal point for medical research in the United States? Answers: A. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) B. National Institutes of Health (NIH) C. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) D. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) • Question 13 A study that seeks to compare those diagnosed with a disease with those who do not have the disease for prior exposure to specific risk factors is a: Answers: A. experimental study B. descriptive study C. cohort study D. case/control study • Question 14 An outbreak of disease over a wide geographic region is a(n): Answers: A. endemic B. epizootic C. pandemic D. epidemic • Question 15 Morbidity rates measure: Answers: A. birth B. death C. life expectancy D. sickness • Question 16 Mid-Year Population 200,000 Population of Women 15-49 years 55,000 Mid-Year Population 55+ 60,000 Number of live births 4,500 Number of fetal deaths 76 Total deaths 1,350 Number of infant deaths 0-1 years 41 Number of deaths 15-24 years 950 Number one cause of death in country - heart disease 224 Number two cause of death in country - cancer 96 Number of deaths from cancer 55+ 85 Number of people diagnosed with heart disease 61,000 Number of deaths from other causes 558 Formulas on Page 75 (Provide answers) 1) Crude Birth Rate 2) Crude Death Rate 3) Age-Specific Death Rate 4) Heart Disease Death Rate 5) Cancer Death Rate 6) Infant Mortality Rate 1. 4,500/200,000 x 1000 = 22,5 live births per 1,000 population Answer: 2. 1,350/200,000 x 1000= 6,75 deaths per 1,000 population 3. 950/60,000 x 100,000= 1583,3 age specific deaths per 100,000 population 4. 61,000/200,000 x 100,000= 3050 heart disease deaths per 100,000 population 5. 96/200,000 x 100,000= 48 cancer deaths per 100,000 population 6. 41/4,500 x 100,000= 911,1 infant deaths per 100,000 population • Question 17 A pathogenic agent enters a susceptible host through a: Answers: A. portal of exit B. carrier C. portal of entry D. reservoir • Question 18 Community efforts aimed at preventing the recurrence of an epidemic is an example of: Answers: A. secondary prevention of noncommunicable diseases B. tertiary prevention of noncommunicable diseases C. tertiary prevention of communicable diseases D. secondary prevention of communicable diseases • Question 19 Explain the difference between acute and chronic diseases, and provide at least two examples of each. Correct Answer: Acute diseases are short term, lasting less than three months. Chronic diseases are long term, lasting more than three months. Acute diseases include the common cold, a broken finger, and appendicitis. Chronic diseases include heart disease, AIDS, and diabetes. • Question 20 List and explain the three ways communities can prioritize prevention and control efforts. Leading causes of death –focuses efforts on issues that have the largest number of people dying from those diseases; years of potential life lost – focuses on years of life lost from life expectancy attributable to a particular cause, or premature death; economic cost to society – focuses on the economic costs associated with particular diseases or health conditions. • Question 21 True or False? AIDS and tuberculosis are examples of chronic communicable diseases. Answers: True • Question 22 True or False? Mammography for breast cancer is an example of primary prevention. Answers: False • Question 23 True or False? The common cold is an example of a chronic communicable disease. Answers: False • Question 24 True or False? Years of potential life lost (YPLL) is the single best way to prioritize prevention and control efforts. Answers: False • Question 25 A process by which an intervention is planned to help meet the needs of a priority population is: Answers: A. needs assessment B. program evaluation C. health promotion D. program planning • Question 26 Explain the difference between health education and health promotion. Correct Answer: Health education is only a part of health promotion. Health education is any combination of planned learning experiences based on sound theories that provide individuals, groups, and communities the opportunity to acquire information and the skills to make quality health decisions. Health promotion is any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups, and communities. Health promotion is much more encompassing than health education. • Question 27 List, in order, the generalized steps for program planning. Answer: 1. Understanding and engaging 2. assessing needs 3. setting goals and objectives 4. developing an intervention 5. implementing the intervention 6. evaluating the results • Question 28 Program goals: Selected Answer: B. are more encompassing than objectives Answers: A. are measured in exact terms B. are more encompassing than objectives C. are easier to complete than objectives D. have specific deadlines • Question 29 True or False? An activity or activities designed to create change in people is a needs assessment. Answers: False • Question 30 True or False? Community capacity is the characteristics of communities that affect their ability to identify, mobilize, and address social and public health problems. Answers: True • Question 31 True or False? Health education and health promotion are terms that can be used interchangeably. Answers: False • Question 32 Components of the Coordinated School Health Program include: Selected Answer: D. all of these are correct Answers: A. physical education B. nutrition services C. health promotion for staff D. all of these are correct • Question 33 Explain what should be outlined in an effective health curriculum. Correct Answer: The health curriculum should include the scope and sequence, learning objectives, standards, learning activities, possible instructional resources, and methods for assessment to determine the extent to which the objectives and standards are met. • Question 34 Explain why it is important for administrators to support the school health program. Answer: It is important because the schools offer the most systematic and efficient means available to improve the health of youth and enable young people to avoid health risks. • Question 35 Priority health content for a school health curriculum includes: Selected Answer: D. all of these are correct Answers: A. mental and emotional health B. tobacco C. personal health and wellness D. all of these are correct • Question 36 Provide five examples of characteristics of effective health education curricula. Selected Answer: 1. Counseling, Psychological, and Social Services 2. Physical Education 3. School Nutrition Services 4. Parent/Community Involvement for School Health 5. School-Site Health Promotion for Staff • Question 37 True or False? All school districts are required to have at least one full-time school nurse. Answers: False • Question 38 True or False? Controversial topics are a leading challenge to the implementation of a school health curriculum. Answers: True • Question 39 True or False? The ideal school health advisory council would include representation from a wide variety of school personnel, community members, and community health agencies. Answers: True • Question 40 Approximately how many teenage girls in the United States get pregnant at least once before the age of 20? Answers: A. 5% B. 33.333% C. 65% D. 50% • Question 41 Title X was signed into law to provide: Answers: A. well-baby care B. WIC services to women who were pregnant and could not afford healthy food C. family planning services and help to all who wanted them but could not afford them D. free abortions to all who wanted them but could not afford them • Question 42 Provide five examples of prevention measures for reducing maternal and infant mortality. Selected 1. Screen women for health risks and pre-existing chronic Answer: conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and sexually transmitted diseases. 2. Counsel women about contraception and provide access to effective family planning services. 3. Monitor and, when appropriate, treat pre-existing chronic conditions. 4. Screen for and, when appropriate, treat reproductive tract infections including bacterial vaginosis, group B. 5. Vaccinate newborns at age-appropriate times. • Question 43 True or False? Title V is the only federal legislation dedicated to promoting and improving the health of our nation's mothers and children. Answers: True • Question 44 True or False? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that babies be breast-fed for the first year of life. Answers: True • Question 45 True or False? Nearly half of all new STD cases are acquired by the 15-24-year- old population. Answers: True • Question 46 True or False? Statistics indicate that the more education a person has, the more likely he or she is to use tobacco. Answers: False • Question 47 True or False? The two factors affecting community health that need special attention when dealing with health problems of adolescents and young adults are community organizing and physical factors. Answers: False • Question 48 Monitoring the Future is a current data source available regarding health behaviors of: Answers: A. high school students only B. adults only C. a broad participant age range D. college students only • Question 49 Describe what types of prevention programs are needed to change the culture as it relates to adolescents' use of alcohol. Answer: 1. Legal principle: According to state law you must be 21 years old to consume alcohol. 2. Abstinence principle: If you do not drink alcohol, do not start; it is okay to abstain; many students do abstain. 3. Social norming principle: Not as many of your peers drink alcohol as you think; every college student does not drink. 4. Harm reduction principle: If you do consume alcohol, do so in such a way that you reduce your risk of hazardous outcomes; learn harm reduction skills. • Question 50 What are the factors affecting community health that need the most attention when dealing with the health of adolescents and young adults and why? Selected Answer: Physical factors, community organizing, individual behavior, and social and cultural factors.
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