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Bundle for Exam #3

by: Madison Krasko

Bundle for Exam #3 NUTR 400 L21

Madison Krasko

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these are all the notes that are needed for exam #3
Nutrition Health & Well Being
Professor Jesse Morrell
nutrition, NUTR, exam3, exam, Nutrition 400
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This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Madison Krasko on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Bundle belongs to NUTR 400 L21 at University of New Hampshire taught by Professor Jesse Morrell in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Health & Well Being in Biological Sciences at University of New Hampshire.

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Date Created: 11/08/15
Week of 11/2 -11/6. Week 3, Notes for Exam 3 I am not paid by the University. I am a student in this class taking my notes on the lectures and the readings. This notes combine the notes from the lecture and the reading assignments. 11-3-15 Nutrition and Fitness 1) What is the most common Eating Disorder?.......... Binge Eating 2) Currently 1/3 of the U.S. kids are overweight *1/2 Americans don’t meet basic physical activity minimal Nutrition and Fitness Physical Activity (PA) effects every system in the body 1/5 Americans do strength training activities What is fitness? The ability to respond or adapt to demands and the stress of physical effort Components: 1) Cardiovascular endurance 2) Muscular strength and endurance 3) Flexibility 4) Healthy body composition 1) Cardiovascular Endurance------ how long we can do cardio. Helps the heart 2) Muscular Strength and Endurance—built by resistance training. Makes muscle stronger 3) Flexibility----- Least studied. Prevents injury 4) Healthy Body Composition—Healthy lean tissue to adipose tissue ratio Achieving Fitness *Modes: -aerobic -resistance -flexibility *Duration *Frequency Recommended (to improve health) -Aerobic Activity  150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity activity  75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity activity -moderate activity= brisk walking. -vigorous= running -Muscle Strengthening 2 or more times a week  All major muscle groups *May be more for individuals who want to lose weight or for older individuals *Of the 4 Aspects of fitness Cardio Endurance is the Most Important for long term health *Max Heart Rate= 220- Age in years. *Heart Rate Range= 50% of Max Heart Rate= bottom range 90% of Max Heart Rate= top range Assessing Fitness *1 Mile Rockport Test: -test of cardiovascular endurance -predicts VO2 Max -VO2 Max= max capacity of the body to use oxygen -how we quantify levels *Press up Test -tests upper body muscly endurance -modified for women *sit and reach test -test of lower back and hamstring flexibility Clicker Question: 1) Sonia is 30 years old. What is her target heart rate? 220-30=190. 190 x 0.5= 95. 190 x .9= 171. Heart Rate= 95-171 BPM What Fuels The Working Muscle? Energy Metabolism  15-30% total daily energy intake used on Physical Activity  At rest:  1-1.5 Kcal/Minute  Physical Exertion:  15- 36 Kcal/Minute  Muscle converts ATP to mechanical energy  ATP= molecule with energy potential. Used by cells to fuel the activities we do.  Energy stored in chemical bonds of nutrients must be converted into ATP What Type of Diet supports physical activity? Dietary needs *energy -highly variable dependant -monitor weight change *Macronutrients Carb Loading *high glycogen stores 50-80% *Certain activities *increase carb. Intake, decreasing activity *tries to trick the body to store extra glycogen Protein? *provides minimal fuel source *recommendations vary (.8-1.7 g/kg bodyweight) *many athletes consume adequate amounts via the diet Vitamin and Mineral Needs (micronutrients) *similar or slightly increased *special populations *iron vs. sports anemia *calcium status *sports anemia goes away. It happens when there is a quick increase of muscle mass. Blood mass raises to equal the muscle mass increase but the iron does not keep up. This will recover on its own Fuel Needs *needs can be very high due to losses *perspiration -water electrolytes -helps keep the body temperature *decrease fluid intake=potentially fatal *activity, environment, temperature, age influences needs Heat exhaustion (5% loss of bodyweight) 1) muscle spasms 2) rapid and weak pulse 3) lower blood pressure 4) disorientation 5) profuse sweating Heat Stroke (7-10% loss of bodyweight) 1) dry skin 2) confusion 3) loss of consciousness 4) greater than or equal to 104 degrees F body temperature Goal = prevent fluid loss (less than 2% body weight loss) Thirst= late sign of dehydration Strategy Before= 2-3 cups, 2-3 hours before activity During= 1-1.5 cups every 25 minutes Pre-game: Medium size meal 3-4 hours before event Avoid difficult to digest food Hydration Post-game: Small mixed meal within 30 minutes Associated with protein synthesis and restored glycogen Sometimes liquid options are better tolerated. Sports Drinks: Advantages= contain glucose and electrocytes Disadvantages= extra calories and sugar Recommended for: Activities longer than an hour High intensity workouts High fluid losses Readings for NUTRITION AND FITNESS lecture Physical Activity Basics *children 6-17 years  1 hr or more a day of aerobic (brisk walking and running count)  muscle strength- 3x a week  bone strengthening- 3x a week (jump rope, ect.) *adults 18-64  opt. 1) at least 2.5 hours a week moderate with muscle strengthening 2x  opt. 2) 1 hr 15 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity with muscle strength 2x  opt. 3) mix of moderate and vigorous aerobic with muscle strengthening 2x a week. *older adults 65+  2.5 hrs week + 2 days strength  75 min. vigorous +2 x a week strength  mix of moderate and vigorous + 2 x strength Benefits of PA Regular Physical Activity Can:  control weight  reduce cardiovascular risk  reduce type 2 diabetes risk  reduce some cancers risk  strengthen bones and muscle  improve mental health and mood To maintain weight: Work to 150/75 minutes per week of aerobic exercise Absolute intensity= amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity Baseline activities= light- intensity activity in daily life exercise Clicker question: Carbs provide 40-50% energy required 10-20… First Lecture after exam. I am not hired by the University, just a fellow student taking my notes during lectures and Readings. Lipids What are lipids? - energy yielding (9 cal/g) - organic nutrient - Insoluble in water (hydrophobic) - Fats and oils - Diverse group:  triglycerides  phospholipids  sterols - Fairly diverse in structural appearance Triglycerides - most common lipid - made of 3 fatty acids + glycerol backbone - 3 fatty acids can vary, however there will always be a glycerol backbone - If you remove 1 Fatty Acid, it makes a diglyceride - If you remove 2 fatty acids, it makes a monoglyceride Phospholipids - found in food and body - the body can produce all it needs of this, but we eat extra from out food - make up every cell membrane - 2 fatty acids + glycerol+ phospholipid - hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions - Emulsifiers== agents that suspend fat in water… Example: bile is an important emulsifier Sterols - cholesterol= most common sterol - no fatty acids or glycerol in the structure, instead is has a ring structure. Made of 6 or 5 carbons, one in the shape of a “house” - Produced in the Liver, so only in animal-based organisms - in all of our cell membranes. - Important starting material for sex hormones - Make vitamin D. from sterols as well - We consume this and ALSO make it Fatty Acids - Building blocks of Triglyceride and Phospholipids - Long chain of carbon atoms with an “omega”/ methol end and an “alpha”/ acid end. - Classified by  Length of carbon chain  Saturation  Shape of chain Chain Length - Short = less than 6 carbon, Medium= 6-12 carbon, Long= more than 12 Carbon - Shorter are more likely to be liquid at room temperature, Longer are more likely to be solid at room temperature (butter, for example) - Longer chains are more common Saturation - Saturated: when all carbons are bonded by single bonds - Where ever a hydrogen can be connected to the carbon chain, it is. - Monounsaturated: 1 double bond within the chain  This loses a hydrogen on the double bond - Polyunsaturated: 2 or more double bonds - Point of unsaturation= where the double bond replaces the single bond and Hydrogen Shape - Saturated------- straight carbon chain - Unsaturated---- may bend at the double bond - Cis o 2 hydrogen atoms rebel each other, creating a bend in the chain - Transformation o H atoms are on separate sides of chain so they don’t repel each other, keeping a straight chain *long chain, saturated fatty acids stack well. They are solid at room temperatures. Examples= lard and butter *monosaturated and polyunsaturated don’t stack well because they are bent. They are liquid at room temperature. Oils are an example. Trans Fatty Acids - Most formed by hydrogenation - Hydrogenation: When they add unsaturated oil and add hydrogen, creating saturated oil. This results in trans fat - The purpose is to make inexpensive oils into solid fats like butter. This makes the product cheaper to make - The LEAST HEALTHY to consume Essential Fatty Acids - Our body is unable to make 2 Polyunsaturated Acids (PUFA):  Alpha-linoleic acid  Linoleic Acid - Alpha- linoleic:  In flax seed, canola oil, fatty fish (Salmon)  Want people to eat more of this - Linoleic  In common things we eat - Eicosanoids:  Used by our bodies for physiological functions that come from these to PUFA’s Why do we need to eat Lipids? - We need to eat to get 2 essential fatty acids - We need 2 fatty acids to create Lipids - They provide:  Energy, insulation, FSV  Make all of our cell membranes  Essential fatty acids are needed  Increase taste in food and our feeling full after eating - FSV: o Fat soluble Vitamins o Essential to our health o Best absorbed with dietary fats Digesting Lipids in the body? 1) Mouth and stomach= minimal digestion 2) Top of small intestine: a. Bile released (made in liver, stored in gallbladder) b. Emulsification facilitates digestion c. Bile mixes with chime and emulsifies the lipids d. Allows the pancreatic lipase to break down the large lipids Track the fat: Fat droplet ↓ Bile breaks it in little droplets (called micell) ↓ Pancreatic Lipase can now break down the triglyceride ↓ Triglyceride breaks down into a monoglyceride and 2 fatty acids ↓ It can now be absorbed into the intestinal wall ↓ It goes through the intestinal wall once broken down into monoglyceride and Fatty Acids ↓ Inside intestinal wall it goes back into a triglyceride ↓ Coats triglyceride with protein (this makes it hydrophilic so it can be transferred in blood) ↓ Enters lymphatic system now as a chylomicron (protein covered triglyceride), then enters blood Lipid Transport - Humans mainly are made of water - Water and oil don’t mix - In order to transport fats in the body, we need to make a lipoprotein Lipoprotein: allows fats to circulate in blood *Types: - Chylomicron (biggest) - VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) - LDL (low density)… “Bad cholesterol” - HDL (high density).. “good cholesterol” *VLDL- travels in blood, delivers FA to bodies tissues *LDL- High cholesterol in it. Delivers cholesterol to body tissue *HDL- smallest and most dense. High protein. Removes cholesterol from body. Protects against heart disease. Are some lipids better than others? - Most foods are a mixture of Fatty Acids - Animal-based fats and tropical oils (coconut or palm oils) are rich in saturated fat - Example of Monosaturated rich foods= canola oil - Example of PUFA= soft flower, corn, soy - Example of Trans fat= hydrogenated oils like margarines *Total Fat: 20-30% of kcal - saturated: should be less than 7% - Trans fat: should be less than 1% - Cholesterol: should be less than 300 mg per day -moderation -choose plant fat over animal fats -liquid fats are more unsaturated and better for you than solid fats. -pick foods lowest in trans-fat, then saturated fats, then total fat Health concerns related to lipids -high intake= obesity, heart disease, cancers - omega-3 fatty acids (supplements)= hemorrhagic stroke if there is excess - Trans fatty Acids= high blood cholesterol Week of 11/2 -11/6. Week 3, Notes for Exam 3 I am not paid by the University. I am a student in this class taking my notes on the lectures and the readings. This notes combine the notes from the lecture and the reading assignments. Water: The Forgotten Nutrient And Vitamins and Minerals 11-5 Basics  Essential  Most abundant molecule  30-70% adults weight -higher in infants and kids -lower in women, obesity  lean vs. adipose tissue Fluid in the body  fluid= water and solutes  intracellular fluid (2/3 of all fluid)  extracellular fluid (outsie cells) rd -1/3 body fluid -between the cells= interstitial fluid -in the vessels= intravascular *osmosis- water will go from high to low concentration *concentration of fluid matters in osmosis. Water will always go from high low Functions of Water  maintenance of blood volume  transport of nutrient and oxygen  lubricant and protection (tears, fluid in GI tract)  chemical reactions  solvent  temperature regulation (water resists temperature change)  waste removal How Much Do we Need?  Varies with size, activity, environment conditions and diet  Adequate intake (AI): -Men= 3.7 Liters (15 cups) daily -Women= 2.7 Liters (11 cups) daily  20% found in food we eat Popular Beverages  caloric beverages (soft drinks, fruit drinks)  coffee, tea, ect.  Alcohol= diuretic  Bottled water How does the body Regulate Water Balance? IN: a majority comes from fluid, some from food, and a little made from metabolism OUT: skin persipitation, lung respiration, urine, then feces are the way its excreted. We lose about 2800 mL a day. Regulation:  The body Regulates blood volume and pressure to signal our body and say if it should retain water  The pituitary gland releases ADH that tells the kidneys to hold onto water  Adrenal gland (above kidney) releases Aldosterone when they detect high blood pressure and tells the kidney to hold onto sodium Dehydration and Water toxicity  Thirst mechanism is sometimes slow and unreliable  Special populations  Water intoxication -rare but potentially fatal -hyponatremia: Low Blood Sodium Clicker Questions 1) the majority of fluid in body is where? rd Intracellular (this is 2/3 of the bodies fluid) *The younger the age, the higher the body water they have *Men vs. Women, men have higher water % Vitamis Basics  Small amounts  Organic  Give no evergy  MOST cannot be made by body  Available in a variety of foods *dairy is the only source that gives Vitamin D *Vitamin B-12 is only In animal based foods Fat Soluble (don’t like water)  Vitamins A,D,E,K  Dissolved in fats  Stored in fat tissue and liver  Higher potential for toxicity Water Soluble  B Vitamins, Vitamin C  Found freely transported in blood because they get along with water  Don’t store these  Excrete excessive amounts  Not typically toxicity  Frequently needed Digestion  Begins in stomach  Pancreatic enzymes released into Small Intestine  Fat soluble vitamins need bile to help be absorbed  Fat soluble vitamins also wont to be absorbed well if there’s not fat in the body  Fat Soluble vitamins go to the Lymphatic System before going into the blood  Water soluble vitamins can go straight into blood after the Small Intestine  The only Vitamin that gets 100% absorbed in the small intestine is Vitamin K Vitamin Status  Severe Deficiencies= rare  Vulnerable populations  Food choices and preparation *Enrichment---- when adding Vitamins and Minerals where they have been lost during processing… Typical in our green products *Fortification---- adding nutrients where they wouldn’t normally be.. (fluorine added into water. ) *5 nutrients that need to be added to grains: -Thymin, Rhyboflavin, Niacin, Colate, Iron--- All B Vitamins Many B-Vitamins Act as Coenzymes  Coenzymes are molecules that activate enzymes  B-Vitamins attach to the inactive enzyme  This helps get metabolism going Mineral Basics  Inorganic micronutrients  Yield NO energy  Plant and animal sources  Either: -Major (100 mg or more a day) - Trace (smaller amounts, like iron) *More iron deficiency globally than anything else *minerals retain chemical content/identity *they cant be easily destroyed *more stable than vitamins *can be toxic in excess amounts Many Minerals act as Cofactors  Pretty much the same thing as coenzymes but for minerals Bioavailability of nutrients  Amount of nutrients that is absorbed and available to the body  Protects us from getting to much of a possibly dangerous nutrient  Influenced by: -physiological needs -amount consumed -dietary choices -binders *calcium is only gained from dairy Mineral Status  Several deficiencies are rare  Most common= iron and iodine 1) most likely to be toxic??? Vitamin D. This is because its fat soluble 2) True or false, minerals are more likely to be durable than vitamins???? True Readings for above lecture: Water and Intro to Vitamins and Minerals Drinking water Quality and Health  Can only last 4 days without water  Average adult consumes and excretes 10 cups/day  Water can be hard, soft, natural, modified, and others Hard Vs. Soft  Hardness refeers to the amout of calcium, magnesium and sometimes iron in it  Soft water may have sodium and other minerals or chemicals, but very little calcium, magnesium or iron  To soften water; calcium and magnesium are taken out and sodium is added  Soft water may strip toxic metals from the pipes and may provide to much sodium Giardia and other Microorganisms  Water also has different levels of microorganisms  Chlorination and filtration controls bacteria levels  Giardia lamlia isn’t killed by chlorine  Most found in surface waters like mountain streams and lakes  Once drank, a giardia cyst can grow into a trophozoite in the SI  Symptoms: -diarrhea, weakness, gas, loss appetite, dehydration, cramping  Curable with prescription Overview of Vitamins  Vitamins= vital part of a healthy diet  To little can cause a nutritional disorder as well as eating to little  Either fat soluble (vitamins ADEK)  Or water soluble (All B-Vitamins and Vitamin C)  Fat Soluble Vitamins; -dissolve in fats -stored in liver and in fatty tissue -if to much, it can be harmful *the body does not stroe most vitamins except for Vitamins A, B12, and D, which are significantly stored in the liver *vitamin deficiencies can impair the intenstines absorption of food. Can reduce absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A,D,E,K. this can cause: chronic diarrhea, Crohn disease, certain pancreatic disorders


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