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This page Bundle was uploaded by Josiah on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PS 324 at University of Oregon taught by Mehmet Celebi in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see European Politics in Political Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
European Union Why Europe destroyed and exhausted Never again Jean Monnet 0 An ambitious French Bureaucrat first head of head of planning Department 0 quotThere will be no peace in Europe if the states are reconstituted on the basis of national sovereigntyThe countries of Europe are too small to guarantee their peoples the necessary prosperity and social development The European states must constitute themselves into a federationquot MonnetSchumann Plan 0 Start quotEuropean Integrationquot in a few crucial policy areas in a few countries Abolish the reasons of the conflict The United States of Europe will follow 0 Trust in quotspill over effectsquot Europeanization o Deepening more policies fall within jurisdiction of the EU 0 Enlargement EU39s borders keep extending 0 European identity Presumably people would identify themselves as Europeans rather than members of individual nationalities First 6 members 0 French West Germany Italy The Netherlands Belgium Luxemburg 1973 enlargement 0 Ireland Denmark UK France didn39t what England in it for a time 1986 enlargement 0 Greece Spain Portugal they were dictatorships until then 1989 enlargement o Unification of Germany 1995 enlargement 0 Sweden Finland Austria didn39t want to pick a side during the Cold War 2004 enlargement Cyprus Malta Hungry Poland and 7 others 2007 amp 2013 enlargement 0 Bulgaria Croatia and one other Candidate Countries 0 Iceland Turkey rest of Yugoslavia Starting point1952 o ECSC quotEuropean Coal and Steel Communityquot 0 Full and equal access to Resources 0 Common regulating authority 1957 Rome Treaty 0 EuratomRegulates Nuclear Energy 0 Monnet thought that it will be one of the main pillars in the Atomic age Never became very important narrow policy area 0 EECCommon Market 0 Free movement of labor capital and goods Institutional Framework 0 Painfully complicated 0 Know these 0 European Commission is the bureaucraticexecutive force behind everything 0 Everything important should go through the European Council made of National Governments to turn into legislation 0 Popularly elected European Parliament39s importance increases gradually in legislation 0 European Court ofJustice became a key institution in the last decades pushing to further integration As Monnet Predicted o It inevitably spilled over other policy areas 0 CAP Common Agriculture Policy 0 Subsidizing Farmers French in particular 0 Transportation 0 Fishing 0 AntiTrust 0 Statistics But Not entirely a story of success 0 States keep some core policy areas 0 Defense 0 Security 0 Social Policy 0 Foreign Policies 197039s Economic Hardships o The slow collapse of the Welfare Capitalism 0 Petroleum Shocksstagflation 0 Nothing much going on the European Integration Front 198039s 0 NeoLiberalism replaces Keynesianism as the Economic Orthodoxy quotFree markets always perform better Regulations are harmful for economic performancequot 0 EU needs more free trade 1986 Single European Act 0 New Dynamism Jacques DelorsAnother French planning Bureaucrat this time a member of Socialist Party 0 Made an extremely detailed and elaborate plan to realize a single market not for only goods but also capital 0 The Triumph of Bureaucracy 1992 Maastricht Treaty 0 Establishes the EU under its current name Creates tools for policy cooperation even in areas that falls outside of EU39s jurisdiction Amsterdam and nice treaties follow the same direction 0 The more ambitious project was the Euro but the Euro is not for everyone Maastricht Criteria 0 Average inflation rates in the 3 EU member states with the lowest inflation plus 15 o The ratio government deficit relative to GDP must not exceed 3 o The ratio of government debt relative to GDP at market prices must not exceed 60 0 Greece had difficulties in meeting these requirements has been accepted to Eurozone anyway 0 Major countries including Germany did not obey those rules starting early 200039s Democratic Deficit 0 Very complex opaque decision making processes 0 Little involvement by elected representatives Bureaucratic initiatives Growing nationalist backlash Rise of the far right The EU39s decisions are made without direct mandate from the people 0 The Constitution Fiasco 2005 Elites thought that it is time for a symbolic step towards a quotUnited States of Europequot and solve the democratic deficit problem A European Constitution Instead of a new Treaty Symbolic changes Promote a PanEuropean Identity Simplify decisionmaking Refused in referendums Almost the same document got accepted renamed as Lisbon Treaty Constitution failed because conservatives nationalist and some socialists in countries combined together and blocked it By 200039s the momentum was lost Starting in 2007 the economic crisis occurs 0 WinWin Situation Greece had access to tons of credits did not have any policy tool to encourage savings Germany had tons of surplus export goods and money needed stable markets Germany39s economy relies on other countries buying their goods this is why they need Greece Italy and Spain Germans sell German goods to periphery countries periphery countries pay for these goods using credit from core European countries Peripheral countries grows and rise their income levels core countries have unrestricted access to market for their surplus Splendid Right 0 MacroEconomic Balance Inflation rise bubbles build up and in Greece governmental Deficit goes out of control The ND has the fabulous idea to postpone the crisis until the elections through creative accounting 0 The Course of Events 2007 Lehman Brothers declares bankruptcy financial panic everywhere Europe is affected but does well compared to US BUT credit becomes more scarce 2009 Just after the elections the new PASOK government discovers that the old government used ltltcreative accountinggtgt methods to comply with the Eurozone39s requirements Strong Eurozone Economies Germany chief among them are slow and reluctant to solve the problem The crisis spreads to other countries PIIGS Portugal Italy Ireland Greece Spain 0 EndGame It was good for everybody as long as it lasted Now no one want to share the blame or the consequences 0 Expansion of the Crisis Ireland Consumer Credits and Property Markets Portugal Government Debt 0 Evaded the crisis until now but Spain Housing Bubble Italy Public Finances o The German response 0 Merkel has been very unwilling to intervene worsening the crisis 0 When Germany intervened it asked for very unpopular austerity measures destabilizing countries in trouble 0 Eventually they had to bailout as any Eurozone defaults would destabilize the entire region39s economy 0 Political Problems 0 Competitiveness Argument Leave Euro isn39t so good if you look at the industrialist situation 0 Moral Hazard Greek Fraud Germany shouldn39t help because other countries committed a moral hazard o Stereotype of the Siesta the idea southern Europeans don39t work as hard isn39t true 0 German Constitutional Court threatened to decide against the bailout of Greece as unconstitutional o Syriza o Radical left SYRIZA started to capitalize on the collapse of the trust on Mainstream parties 0 Campaigned on an antiausterity platform 0 Gained the January 2015 elections 0 Could not cross the Rubicon despite the referendum ofJune 2015 0 Passed the austerity measures that EU wanted to get the credit it needed 0 Had to call early elections won it narrowly o Europe39s new crisis Greek Crisis at the refrigerator for now But the debt is unsustainable in the long run Refugee Crisis Some 250000500000 refugees coming mainly from Syria Uncoordinated response a number of countries reinstating border controls Germany again assumes leadership but fails to lead German Politics After WWII was Divided In Ruins Humiliated but nowadays is United Economic Leader Stable o What made the miracle possible Institutions and Policies encouraging stability and negotiations between parties 1 Nonaggressive yet active Foreign Policy 2 Coordinated ExportOriented Market Economy 3 Stable Political Institutions Have good relationships with everybody 1950198039s 0 Four Pillars 1 European Integration 0 Durable Peace 0 Good relations with other European Countries 2 Good Transatlantic relations 0 Kept good relations with the US until 200039s and tried to make them happy 0 Vehemently opposed to George W Bush39s Iraq Policy 0 Got better with Obama Administration 3 Ostpolitik Reunification and good relations with eastern European countries 0 Starting 1969 West Germany tried to influence rather than fight with Eastern Germany 0 Germany try to build good relations with its eastern neighbors actively supported their bid for EU membership o Interdependence with Russia Russia is one of the biggest markets and major energy provider 0 Other western European countries thought accepting eastern European countries was bad but not Germany 4 Pacifism 0 German Army is massconscript and technologically advanced major weapon exporter 0 Without support from NATO the German Army is paralyzed and cannot fight in conventional wars 0 No operational abilities no independent command structure no longrange air force 0 Only participates in popular multilateral humanitarian operations Bosnia KosovoAfghanistan 0 Despite being big and having advanced technological tools it has no power to act on its own 0 Doesn39t want to fight wars that they think have no reasoning o ReUnification 1990 O Other western European countries attempted to discourage unification 0 They thought Germany would become too powerful 0 Only because Germany likes to keep good relations with everyone they diplomatically overcame western European countries 0 Economy 0 German Economic Model Coordinated Market Economy or Corporatism Labor Capitol and the State all sit down to discuss polices Interdependent Capital and Labor 0 US Liberal Market Economy vs German Coordinated Market Economy Content of skills LMEgeneral CMEspecificg Skill level LMElow to high CMEaverage to high Bargaining LMEindividual CMEcolective Labor Markets LMEflexible CMErigid gt Class mobility Finance LMEequity markets CMEbanks 0 Result 0 Politics LME Workers and firms assume high turnover does not invest on each other easy to find new jobs and found new corporations CME Workers and firms assume stability invest on each other solve problems through negotiations 0 Establishment of German Institutions German institutions has been shaped by the allies to ensure that it never attempt to dominate Europe militarily again USSR created a Communist East Germany ruled by Socialist Unity Party under the control of Moscow Western Allies imposed a highly decentralized system 0 Federalism o Antitrust and anticartel legislation 0 A complex electoral systems that favors centrist parties 0 Restrictions over the army39s strength 0 Strong constitutional court to keep governments in check 0 Result 0 Checks and Balances Federalism 0 According to the basic law the states hold the authority if it is not otherwise stated in the basic law 0 Yet many important issues are in practice resolved through a complex bargaining process 0 The boundaries between federal and quotlanderquot jurisdiction still unclear despite 2006 reform 0 Strong constitutional court keeping the government in check 0 Highly institutionalized stable political parties 0 Parliamentary Regime Despite being a parliamentary regime similar to the American presidentialism when it comes to checks and balances 0 German Electoral System Very complicated Mixedmember proportional representation Makes it difficult for a political party to get the majority of the seats in the parliament Encourages tactical voting allowing people to vote both for their first and second choices 0 Gives centrist political parties have more power 0 The Party System Up to 198039s 0 Conservative CDUCSU 0 Liberal FDP 0 Social Democratic SPD Between 1949 and 1969 all governments were led by CDU and Konrad Adeauner Between 196982 all governments were led by SPD FDP was almost always one of the coalition partners The 1968 student protest has shaped the politics of the younger generations 0 No more obsessed with stability 0 Strongly antiauthoritarian o Disillusioned with all three parties 0 Interested in issues such as antimilitarism gender equality and environment In 198039s the voice of the new generation became the Green Party and entrenched itself within the system rather than remaining an antisystem power 199039s 0 SPD CDU and FDP merged with their Eastern European counterparts o A new political force the reformed SUP changed its name to Party for Democratic Socialism Die Linke 0 As the SPD moved rightwards in its economic policies the left wing of the party left SPD and merged with PDS 201039s two new singleissue additions o AfD AntiEuro Single Currency 0 Pirate Party Internet Now the party system is much more crowded making coalition building more difficult But CDUCSU seems to be more strong than ever For how long Overall both stable and flexible s facing some new challenges 0 Future Challenges The party system is transforming young voters are once again disillusioned and looking for new alternatives 0 Economic gap between East and West still persists Most important both elites and the people cannot decide whether being the economic leader of the EU is a burden or a blessing
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