Anthro 133F Lecture Notes
Anthro 133F Lecture Notes 133F
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Anthro 133F 12715 918 PM 16 15 Eating is always a political act it s full of cultural meanings Main questions you ask in this course what does food mean to us Why does it mean to us what it does How is food produced How do we consume food What are the effects on the environment Why focus on food Food is the one thing we can t live without we need it to survive The most elementary needs for humans to live It s also incredibly complex because we have rules and meanings attached to food Food is as fundamental as to what makes us human as other symbols such as language dress art etc Has many layers of signification No biological stripped of cultural meaning relationship to food What is considered edible Very important question in all civilizations Insects are a great source of protein but they aren t considered edible by a large proportion of people Just looking at fat carbs calories doesn t tell us WHY people eat something Becomes a construction of identity What is satisfying You can have edible food but it doesn t satisfy you Eg In some cultures if you have a meal without rice you may not be satisfied What foods are considered healthy and what s not considered healthy Constantly changing 0 New widespread obsession Food status Certain cuts of meats might be highly priced because considered high status Low status is inexpensive and cheaper May be healthier by many standards 0 Eg Steak vs innards or steak vs tongue Food is almost always gendered in one way or the other Red meat vs white meat Meanings of food in ethnic identity National identity is being wrapped up in what we eatdon t eat 0 It s about what is taboo Identity status class healthiness edibility satisfaction are all at play when we eat Varies immensely from one culture to another Changes quite rapidly Food always comes wrapped in different meanings Every calorie we eat is a culturally meaningful thing Meaning is irreducible in the study and understanding of food Different stages by which something becomes food Food production is an important topic Start thinking about ecology resources technology use of pesticides chemical and organic fertilizers Question of how the food gets from the farm to the grocery stores and then to our tables Very complex system of distribution and contribution that brings food from farm to the table 0 After food leaves the farm it goes through 1020 different companies before it reaches a grocery store 0 So little of the produce you buy lasts after you purchase it because it s already a week10 days old and might have lost its nutrients by then After food is purchased goes through methods of processing before it s consumed 0 Techniques of cooking Raw food 9 highly cooked food The last stage between retail amp table is done by restaurants and not by consumers Production amp Consumption Food is an interesting way to study a range of topics such as nationalism ethnicity gender sexuality inequality class environmental issues Food is related to almost everything we do in our daily lives Raises questions about social life Reading strategies evaluate on scope organization main questions use of evidence originality and how convincing the argument is 1815 Identify assumption the author hasn t stated in the text you have to deduce or interpret the assumptions from what you re reading Looks for points of agreement disagreement strengths amp weaknesses Ask what has the author not considered What is missing The facts that are not looked at Sweetness and Power Sidney Mintz Intro Best known anthropologist on the Caribbean 0 Puerto Rico Jamaica Haiti Sweetness and Power is a historical anthropology book Doesn t deal with one country but with one commodity 9 sugar Emphasizes relations among regions of the world rather than focusing on one country Focuses on relations between what was to become of the industrialized world and its colonies What makes this book so unique It deals with some major themes of social science and our understanding of the Western world 5 major themes Capitalism 0 Immanuel Wallerstein mentions that in the time social science has been in existence the biggest question has been how did Capitalism rise in the west Rise of modernity in the west I This became a huge question Inherently comparative question I Most traditional answers to this question have focused on internal issues in the West They don t look outside 0 Overtime agriculture became more productive because of technological innovations I Released some wealth to begin the Industrial revolution I Money available to invest growth of scienti c culture Max Weber thought it was religious beliefs that leads to Capitalism 0 The rise of the aesthetic rise of capitalist class 0 Working hard and then not spending the money 0 Using savings to invest in industrial production 9 rise of capitalism in the west Karl Marx 0 Violent class relations where poor people were forced to abandon the country side and forced into the cities where they worked as underpaid industrial workers 9 turned into industrial revolution 0 Class relations inequality 0 Forcing people out of countryside and into the factories Jurgen Habermas 0 Separation of church amp state rise of a bourgeoisie to pursue it s own interest that was independent of the church could have a forum for public debate and discussion 9 capitalism All of these explanations are internal to what was happening in Europe Do not take you outside Europe to explain what was happening inside Europe Recent years efforts to revise by offering explanation to rise of Capitalism outside of Europe 0 Mintz is trying to do this Explains rise of Capitalism and relates it to the rest of the world How does he do that Mintz suggests that the modern factory which began the predominant form of industrialization had its prototype in the sugar plantations of the Caribbean I Management of time became a hallmark People would clock in and clock out Suggests that trade was a condition for the rise of Capitalism Suggests that the establishment of colonies and form of production based on slaves in the New World was crucial and undermined production of capitalism in Europe I Says slavery was central for the development of industrial revolution Mintz makes interesting arguments Talks about the importance of colonial products that were produced through slavery and labor Coffee tea sugar importance to industrial revolution through consumption Mintz addresses the question of the rise of the West Intervention lies in colonization and slavery in the rise of the West I Colonization amp slavery are essential ingredients in Industrial Revolution one of the most important arguments of the book 0 Markets 0 One major achievements of the book is that it focuses on production AND consumption I Most texts will talk about one or the other but he talks about both in the same text I Pays only little attention to distribution although he could have done a lot more with this Argument you can t study how sugar was produced without understanding how it was used I It had a lot to do with its demand changing consumption patterns changing taste amp relations among the people who were producing sugar I Study demand side to understand the supply side When and why do certain things become commodities We take for granted that certain things can be bought sold in the market and other things cannot You can buy a computerphone but you can t buy a laugh When was this the case When did something become acceptable as commodities or unacceptable D There was a time when slavery was acceptable you could sell people As some point it became completely unacceptable D Today it s okay for animals to be sold as commodities there may be time when this is no longer acceptable D Markets are regulated abstract forces that operate Markets are regulated by regimes of morality Our moral norms decide to see if something can be sold or not 0 Doesn t see the market as an abstract force 0 What does demand need Who demands Why do they demand it Sugar is a great example of this In 1600 sugar was barely consumed in Europe By 1800 s it became veg common by most people in England Went from being unknown 9 regular part of diet for people Tastes or Consumption Patterns 0 How do tastes change Suddenly or slowly 0 Book addresses how people developed a love for sugar Happened through a social process What was this process In 1650 sugar slowly began to become more than just an elite commodity By 1900 became part of the diet The demand of sugar arose remarkably in a short period of time D Lead to modern health problems Decaying teeth type II diabetes etc Revolution of demand for sugar that took place in a short period of time By 1900 sugar supplied 15 of calories became primarily a working class food D How did this happen 0 Mintz locates 5 uses of sucrose spice decorative material medicine sweetener preservative British consumption of sugar rose 25 times in just 150 years O 0 Trade 0 Two processes for why people started eating sugar I Extensification larger numbers of people who were becoming familiar with sugar on a regular basis U Take the commodity use it in new ways and new context D New meanings being conveyed D Becomes a part of everyday life U The location of this is not necessarily with the upper class I Intensification in contrast involved with more continuity with M M U More emulation Lower class copying upper class D Eg Cakes They were used in the colonization of the king as a symbol of something highly valued Then they became part of life rituals for everyone else such as a wedding cake This symbolism was the same as what it was originally intended Preserves the meaning but with different people Mintz emphasizes 2 triangles of trade I I finished goods sold to Africa African slaves brought to Americas and American sugar shipped to England He s talking about the Caribbean when he says Americas I 2 Rum from New England 9 Africa African slaves 9 Caribbean West Indies from the Caribbean molasses 9 New England to make rum D Slaves were essential commodities in both triangles Important in development of capitalism Class Relations 0 Mintz talks about the role of sugar in consumption specifically how sugar was central to consumption in the working class of England Connected to global trade and rise of evolution Sugar becomes a cheap source of calories Combined with tea and coffee becomes caffeine helps workers who are poorly paid to stay productive I Workers worked long hours a day for low wages Sugar became relatively inexpensive I Being produced by slave labor not being compensated by the wages I Because sugar was inexpensive and because it was combined with tea since it was cheaper to ship I Tea becomes central to English diet because it was hot If you had hot tea you could make a meal where you didn t need to heat up the rest of the food I Most important use of sugar after tea was for jams I Women worked long hours in the factories fuel was expensive A lot of people couldn t afford that Became easy to eat bread amp jam and you had hot tea to go along with it D Jams became central part of diet for working class D Cheap jams became main food for poor children 23 meals was bread and jam I Sugar played central role in the tea break at work in the factories I People learned how to drink tea at work and started this at home D Over time elaboration of tea D Started as an industrial food served in canteens supplying inexpensive but important calories to keep the workers working 0 Hot coco was also used 0 Even today sugar fills the calorie gap for the working class in many parts of the world 0 There was an enormous push for tea amp coffee in England I Before they were drinking alcoholic beverages I Reformers were pushing to shift from alcoholic 9 tea amp coffee I Reducing the drunkenness of workers Book deals with all these in an ethnographically rich matter How meanings spread intensification vs extensiflcation Many books that talk about single commodities which help transformed the world Mintz work is different because very few of the authors make large social scientific arguments Summary Sweetness amp Power goal make a broader argument about rise of capitalism and to make an interconnected history with Europe and the rest of the world Excavated arguments that lie in the book Some of most fundamental aspects of Capitalism can be seen through production of sugar New regimes of mortality revolution of taste role of tropical products Afford to pay workers lower wages cheaper products supplied with calories and caffeine to get job done 11315 12715 918 PM Last time he talked about 5 major themes in the book Sweetness and Power goal was to try and see the major arguments that lay behind the rise of sugar Why and how do tastes change Often taken as a given that taste was the hardest thing to change Eg If people s primary source of carbs was rice was hard to change them to eat wheat o If someone is already an adult it s difficult to drastically change what they eat and value Historically tastes have changed quite rapidly sometimes even in 1 generation Mintz documents that the taste for sugar changed dramatically quickly 0 Sugar was considered a spice in cooking moved from being a spice to becoming a large basis of peoples diets 0 15 calories of peoples diet was coming from sugar when you have these quick changes you have to ask how did this happen Mintz argument was that you need to see what consumption means to people How does the assumption of food acquire different meanings and how does it signify certain things 0 2 periods 1 when sugar was first introduced Sweetened tea molasses In 1750 sugar becomes a popular product and not an elite product 0 when sugar price falls dramatically 1850 onwards becomes a mass product Mintz locates 5 uses of sucrose spice decorative material medicine sweetener preservative Sugar as a food emerges in the late 1700s As sugar became cheaper and more plentiful it s role as a marker of distinction decreased No longer associated with the elite its symbolic significance declined As a sweetener sugar was combined with tea sugar coffee all which were tropical colonies and began growing in British colonies 0 Why were they combined with these tropical products 0 Cheap amp inexpensive source of calories and caffeine 0 Because of diet amp weather Became more English by processes of ritualization and being produced increasingly in British colonies Mintz emphasizes 2 processes 0 Extensification more people become familiar with sugar endowed with new meanings speci c to new consumer s social amp cultural position o Intensification emulation continuity with older meanings I Eg Wedding cake is intensi cation Takes existing meaning which was already there was a product you bake for high ritual occasions I Eg Eating sweet cereal in the moming extensiflcation because there was no practice of eating sweet sugar until sugar became a mass commodity I Sweetened coffee 9 extensiflcation I Tea time high tea9 both extensiflcation and intensi cation U Many things they re eating are things that would have been eaten are things from a higher class however the ritual of teatime represents extensification because it s a new use of sugar that did not eXist before New form of consumption of eating sugar that was invented but used some of the materials that were already there just eaten by people of the upper class broadening and deepening of the diffusion of taste 9 extensiflcation and intensification knowing one s place and offering forms of hospitality meanings can be spread by advertising they can be manipulated amp stimulated it was fun to eat fruit loops in the morning determined on stimulation of meaning by changing the meaning of food you can see how food amp politics are closely correlated controlling the food and controlling the meanings that food cannot Sugar s positive connotations and desirability Mintz talks about why certain things attain value and significance Think about all associations you might have with sugar Are they largely negative or positive Think of love you say sugar sweetie honey to your loved ones Often sugar is feminized Candy is a name given to girls and not to guys Connoting some hierarchy you call a child sweetie but they do not call this back Negative associations 0 Sugar daddy o honey tongue someone smooth talking but insincere 0 sugar coating I very few words that are negatively associated with sweetness much more positive words that we have that are associated with sweetness think of soumess or saltiness these usually have negative connotation Sugar has so many positive connotations Most of these come into being around the time it becomes a mass commodity Mintz answer to why people have this positive connotation for sugar is that sugar was rst used by upper class groups as a rare and precious commodity As its meaning spread and because it was associated with nobility people had positive connotations for it Problem with this argument no evidence that upper class was regarded as nobility so we cant rest argument on intensi cation has to be something else going 011 Socialization into sugar consumption Eg Nursery rhymes came out in rst half of 18th century Sahlins Feminization with sugar Talking about how some people couldn t afford food You see a lot of emphasis on food in these nursery rhymes Way to socialize children into knowingexpecting what they couldcouldn t eat You can see the large role that sugar begins to play All of these nursery rhymes were made when sugar becomes a mass product One of the biggest cultural puzzles in the study of food Why are certain foods valued How do they acquire that meaning It s a culturally historically acquired taste Sahlin uses symbolic anthropology Cultural meanings are important Production is a cultural invention not a material one Arguing there s an in nite number of cultural meanings that can be produced Food taboos Scale of proximity to humans determines which animals are edible The closer the species is to us the less edible Dogs are closets to humans they sleep in our beds have names have personalities treated as a kid Horses are in between they have names but live outside the home do not share domestic space Treated as inferior beings By contrast pigs and cattle usually don t have names that makes them edible 0 That s why pigs and cows are eaten easily Dogs are symbolically close to us Cultural reasons of why we don t eat dogs amp cats From a nutritional point of view Sahlin says its hard to defend why we eat cattle and not dogs What is valued is socially and culturally determined More people eat cheaper cuts and cheaper meat is considered inferior meat but there may be cases where cheaper food is nutritionally superior but since its eaten by lower class considered to be inferior food Why do we eat pigs and cattle without any trouble but cringe at the fact of eating dogs and horses Mary Douglas recommended reading Deciphering a Meal food consumption is always patterned patterned within the day breakfast lunch dinner late night snack have different food patterns during weekdays than weekends thanksgiving Christmas periods of fasting special meals associated with birthdays weddings etc Douglas argues there s a definite structure in all societies in the world but there s always a structure In Britain and the US there is food vs drink Both which are social 0 Drinks are not internally structured into main course second course etc 0 Meal contains contrasts hot and cold bland and spice 0 Incorporates vegetables and proteins 0 Distinction between who we offer drinks to and who you offer meals to I Might offer someone you don t know as well for tea or coffee I If you know them well invite them over for dinner Structure of a Meal 0 Minimum a 2b I The main part of the meal will be a meat a and then there are the sides 2b 9 one starch one vegetable 0 Easter Christmas A 2B I On special occasions you get a capital letter Everything is multiplied Instead of one meat dish you may have 2 Instead of 2 side dishes you may have 4 0 French Pattern C1 B1A1A2 B2 C2 Get different structure of meals in different places Douglas argues that today the meaning of a meal is found in repeated analogies Distinguishes order separates it from disorder Formal analogy that multiplies means She says that most people prepare food like this without realizing the structure they re following 12715 918 PM 120 15 Food and Identity On the exam the emphasis will be on concepts Will not focus on minor details Will be about how well have you understood the arguments that have been made on the text Outline of Lecture Five How ethnic and national identity is constructed through food Saw 2 approaches between Mintz and Sahlins on how food acquires certain meaning Mintz meaning comes through intensi cation and extensif1cation His approach is historical He s interested in asking how sugar acquires new meanings How do old meanings acquire new signi cance Scholars such as Sahlins and Douglas have a different approach They re trying to explain how meanings are constructed 0 To see if an item is edible is by how close it is to humans 0 The animals inside the home vs those outside animals that have names vs unnamed animals who are not seen as part of a family I l explanation of how and why things acquire value I meaning that the food acquired has to do with certain distinctions that humans make between animals that live inside vs outside I thinking about constructional meaning through opposition outside vs inside named vs unnamed it doesn t tell us a few important things how new meanings come to be constructed doesn t tell us how new products come to be incorporated if you have a category of things that can be had on Friday vs things that cannot Doesn t tell us how these oppositions change over time Doesn t have an explanation for why they change over time Today we can have a certain set of oppositions that differ from the past with different set of oppositions Think about use of oppositional pairs and how it operates when thinking about constructing identity Ochs Article How food defines identity What one eats how one eats when and with whom What one eats We know that specific foods ingredients are associated with ethnicnational groups One of the most fundamental ways to define identity is what we eat and what we will not eat Eg An area in India Cooking with vinegar is associated with Christians whereas cooking with another spice is associated with Hindus Another location if you added salt to rice then they could tell if you truly converted to Christianity In many cultures you can t combine milk and seafood clashing categories All comes down to what is considered edible and what is m what you cannot eat and shouldn t eat In Banghol India there was a great famine where millions of people died People didn t have enough rice to eat and rice was the main crop There was a lot of cattle there but to them eating cows was taboo Pork is not eaten by Muslim and Jews cows are not eaten by Hindus How one eats how food is prepared Difference between ethnic groups and how food is shared In some cultures food is eaten from the same plate Idea in the West everyone who sits at the same table should eat the same food this is a modern idea Not sharing food important sign of difference or distinction Eg In India there are elaborate rules on sharing or notsharing National and ethnic differences are constructed around a meal Meals may be divided into courses Indian food is all served at the same time Last time we talked about a2B structure Every society has an order but their orders can be very different It s not always the case that sweet dishes are eaten last eg One part of India you give the guests the sweets first There is nothing natural about the order that we have this is a purely arbitrary way of dividing the meal Whether food is mixed or kept separate on the plate Whether you use utensils your hands chop sticks big variation across cultures in this regard 0 Japanese food chop sticks Thai spoons Indian fingers 0 Highly elaborated system of utensils associated with high cuisine in the west 0 How to use the proper knife at the proper time is just as important as what you re eating 0 Preparation of food is important how food is cooked and prepared I Fried boiled grilled broiled etc I Associated with the techniques of cooking Who cooks the food important with gender identity also important with national identity Notions of culture built into who cancannot cook particular types of food When one eats amp with whom Many of us eat breakfast on the go eat on our desks with family All of this helps de ne national and ethnical identity How one prepares how one eats it when and with whom All of these things are equally important in helping identify identity 12215 Bestor s book talks about the differences between what he has to say and what author s we have read have to say Will do a comparison between him and the others Summary of what we did last time o Talked about how food def1nes identity 0 Conduct with regard to food defines persons and groups What one eats when and with whom guided with understanding of ones identity in society 0 Notion of sitting at a table is an index of equality 9 you are represented equal amp have a voice I In many cultures they don t sit at a table to eat I Becomes part of a lexicon of how they talk about other things such as gender inequality etc Taste of necessitytaste of freedom Concept that comes up in Och s article borrowed it from Bourdieu o Bourdieu says 2 principles organize taste I Taste of necessity preferences that arise as adaptations to the deprivation of necessary goods Eg a preference for nourishing foods that gives strength to the body I Taste of luxuryfreedom indicates the distance from necessity and freedom of choice Applies to things such as aesthetics table manners etc Bourdieu is NOT arguing that the taste of necessity is genetically built in instead he accepts Sahlin s point that taste is culturally mediated o The taste of necessitylS a cultural category In any given culture some foods are considered nourishing and strengthgiving 0 But what is considered as these categories varies throughout cultures 0 Many people in India don t feel that they ve eaten until they ve had rice If you give them a meal that does not include any rice at all they don t feel like they ve been satis ed Ochs et al are not opposing American vs Italian family to say American family is only concerned about necessity and Italian about taste of freedom 0 RATHER they see both of these in both cases Interested in how emphasis is placed on different things I Eg getting the children to eat the vegetables in those families Americans say eat the veggies they re good for you Italians say eat the veggies they re tasty o Ochs et al makes the point if you keep telling the children to eat it because they re good for you they re more likely to reject the veggies American families bribe the children if they eat the veggies they can get dessert as a reward I Relationship between what s necessary and what s tasty Not opposed Both taste of necessity and taste of luxury are culturally structured Tampopo 0 Themes 0 Class Identity I The scene where the street people knew which wine was good I They were talking knowledgeably about the kinds of dishes made in different restaurants how the restaurants change over time I One of the street people takes the little boy in to make an omelet He was a very good cook another way the film thinks about the relationship between class and identity I Saying that there s no relation between class position and cultural sophistication Might have people who are poor but they have a great deal of cosmopolitanism and sophistication Ethnic identityNational identity I Elaboration of noodles as a kind of fine very subtle form of cooking You don t just throw noodles into a pot of water Finely elaborated cuisine I The whole quest of the film is to make the best bowl of Ramen This is a complicated process only a well trained cook can do this well I There is a scene where an older woman is teaching younger women how to eat spaghetti with proper etiquette She emphasizes not to make a single sound while eating A white Western man across the restaurant is slurping on his food This lady was teaching the young women is that there s a certain etiquette of eating western food Effort to teach people a new culture skill 0 Gender identity I All the men were teaching Tampopo how to make the noodles Tampopo seems to conform to gender ideals The womanwho s the cook is taught to cook by men who probably haven t cooked much themselves Guru becomes the trainer for Tampopo I Film reinforces certain gender stereotypes who is able to do the cooking I The master says I never thought a woman would be a good noodle cook I All the other noodle chefs in the film were all men She was the only female chef Who was the primary audience for this lm Young middleclass audience in Japan 0 The film is making fun of what it sees as the narrowmindedness of Japanese middle class After the Japanese boom people are well off but not entirely cosmopolitan Using food as needling and entertaining at the same time Scene with the fancy restaurant menu is in French so they all order the same thing 0 The assistant is the one who knows the most about French food and shows up the senior executives Big hierarchical differences seen here I He shows them up by knowing what to order and knowing which Chef prepared which dish He is the most cosmopolitan at the table I Creates hierarchy between French cuisine highest status and Japanese cuisine Dying mother cooks the last meal the film is reinforcing gender stereotypes The wife s purpose is to cook Despite the fact that Tampopo s establishment isn t doing well in the beginning of the film she refuses the mans offer to move to Paris with him 0 She works hard and by the end of the film she is running her own business defies some of the gender stereotypes At the end they all go their own ways Social aspects of food consumption are all highlighted in the film 0 Genre of film played on the Western Everything from the truck Guru arrived in to the scene where they have the fight in the beginning o Tampopo has been called the noodle western came from Spaghetti Westerns Louis Althusser Obento boxes that mothers prepare for children who are going to preschool in Japan Allison uses a concept from Althusser Althusser is trying to explain why do working class people consent to their own exploitation o If you agree to work for somebody you are producing surplus value 0 If you choose to work you are only hired by a business person if they make more money by hiring you than what they have to pay in wages Unlike Western Marxists Althusser refuses the idea that workers are duped people don t consent to their own expectations 0 He argues that the reason why Westemadvanced capitalist societies are so successful is not because of the police or army He says what s interesting is how rarely the police amp army are used in the working class in the West 0 We learn through schooling through sports teams churches associations that we have if a good subject is the person who conforms to the existing order ISA ideological state apparatus people do this ideological work all by themselves instead of seeing it as something imposed on them by others 0 Eg of ISA in America we are all individuals and we can achieve anything we want That success is up to us our abilities how willing we are to work hard 0 Failure to achieve equality is explained by their personal things they weren t working hard enough weren t willing to do extra stuff other people do I Shortcoming lies in us not in society I This is a powerful ISA Althusser says from the moment we re born we are placed in an ISA Allison says that the obentos is where both child and mother are being disciplined in that process 0 Child is taught values of being part of the group If you don t finish your obento box the whole class is not allowed to go outside and play 0 Mother is being policed by what she is putting into the obento box Did she put in enough effort I Huge amount of labor on the mother Food has to look good and be food that the kid wants to eat This is ISA producing the mother and child as a good subject Bestor Tsukiji The Fish Market at the Center of the World His book is about a problem we re all familiar with 0 Most people are not aware of where our food comes from In recent years there s been a movement to consume food that s grown locally 0 People assume better information about farming conditions but there s another reason people prefer local food I They believe if it was not transferred as far 9 lower carbon footprint We can t assume this though because it could be grown in green houses that are heated with fossil fuels Most tomatoes are grown in Maine because land is cheap in Maine but they have to be heated continuously with fossil fuels believe local food is fresher and more nutritious I Huge reason that if you eat fruits and vegetables within the first week they are more nutritious how fast they get from field 9 plate depends on transportation systems fish is essential part of Japanese daily diet little of it is harvested locally almost all seafood comes from complex market in Tsukiji I giant marketplace where 50000 people come to buy seafood I the king of fish sold is Tuna Comparison Mintz and Bestor Mintz O O O O Bestor O 0 We learned about production and a lot about consumption We do not learn much about distribution and supply We don t learn about the chains of sugar once it reaches a market in England We want to know about distribution networks because the chain that links farm 9 table the longer the chain is the more changes that something will happen from the product reaching the plate Most fish is deepsea harvested It was caught somewhere in the middle of the ocean by the time the chef got to shore it might have been 2 weeks old All the fish is frozen I Refrigeration technologies have improved Fish are now being found further and further from coastlines With so many intermediaries it takes time to go from one warehouse to another A lot of fruits are delivered to the markets raw because they know there will be 10 days of distribution and don t want the fruits to spoil Conclusion Bourdieu both culturally constructed concepts Ramen in Tampopo necessity and freedom operate simultaneously 0 Gender identity class identity national identity Tampopo amp Allison draw focus on gender identity 12715 918 PM 12715 Short lm Fish is our life 1100 family sellers at Tsujkiji sh comes from ports around Japan price runs from 5000 to 25000 for one sh Japan food is so simple simplicity of sh Sellers have to wake up very early 2 or 3 am Today they buy huge amounts of sh then freeze it Japanese cooking is an art Globalization and Food Question of what have you seen in the lm that was different than the book In the lm we didn t see how the marketplace came to be They distinguish sh from meat Very industrial place chainsaws people building heavy and dangerous machinery Not a marketplace in the sense where we would think of a grocery store There is a part of Tsukiji like that the outer part but the movie focuses on the inner part From the lm you see it s a very masculine work place The men are saying there aren t women present but there is a woman present in the lm Despite that it s still a masculine place They have analogies between the sh and women The skin of the sh should be like the skin of a woman J oking about how you want the pretty sh out in front like beautiful women You see a lot of sexist jokes and analogies gures of speech behavior etc You don t get as much of a sense of that from reading the book All the sh being sold has to go through 7 auction houses There are 1100 wholesellers but only 7 auction houses so the sellers have to purchase sh from these auction houses The people who bring in the sh and sell the sh are small businesses You see morality amp the market place come together Ethics of selling and ethics of buying Comparing sh to other foods talking about sh being essential to national identity amp Japanese cuisine Talks about how French cuisine uses heavy sauces but in Japan the food is very simple Yet in Tampopo we see that the noodles are not so simple very elaborate There is a selfconstruction of Japanese identity that s happening Recap of last lecture Taste of luxury vs taste of freedom are both culturally structured concept Focused on the three identities in Tampopo Tampopo and Allison draw ideas on gender identity Mintz tried to denaturalize demand Difference between Mintz and Bestor Mintz deals with something new sugar whereas sh was central to Japanese culture This book is an excellent example of ethnographic research Market vs marketplace Mintz denaturalize demand He shows that demand is profoundly shaped by history and culture Similarly Bestor takes the idea of the market demonstrates the market as an abstract entity does all types of work all by itself Shows relationship between this abstract entity called the market and the actual marketplaces He s trying to tell us the market operates through places like Tsukiji Distinct places that have a location culture all familiar with other markets Argues that markets only work through marketplaces Wall street has it s own cultural course and so does Tsukiji All markets and institutions are culturally embedded based on system of meanings that are produced by that marketplace Hand signals differ in different marketplaces has an effect on the market that s produce Bestor s focus explain system of means Why does it matter the marketplace is Tsujkiji and not something else Located in Japan in uences what the market becomes Why does Bestor focus on a marketplace for an ethnography It s important not just for the economic value of goods exchanged but for m is exchanged Seafood is symbolically central to Japanese culture Comparison Bestor and Sahlins Douglas Bestor provides structural analysis of dolphin vs carp BUT Rejects idea that meaning of food is derived from preexisting cultural system 0 System of oppositions which comes from structuralism that Sahlins and Douglas uses 0 Douglas food vs drink people who can be invited for dinner vs drinks 0 Bestor wants to argue against this says these ways of analyzing why we value certain types of foods does not pay attention to how this system of meanings is generated and reproduced over time 0 Doesn t tell us how we get the systems in the rst place Doesn t tell us why they continue to be used over and over again 0 Hard to explain why some foods may drop in value and others rise in value 0 The place where Bestor extends the argument is by saying the meaning of cuisine nd expression not only in consumption but in the marketplace o Harvesting sh may make something rare more plentiful or there may be a collapse in certain types of sh 0 It s not just about supply and demand 0 Supply is determined by a system of meanings 0 Social interactions in the marketplace are determined by the meaning of cuisine What type of sh are considered a delicacy might determine the price of that sh Examines system of meaning within marketplace not just in consumption 0 Bestor s book you get a description of what type of seafood are eaten at what time of the year 0 Prices re ect what is coming into season Asks why we consider dolphins to be special humanlike but we don t think of carp as the same way He says carp are highly valued in J apan considered family treasures extremely expensive Completely different evaluation of dolphin in Sahlins this would be like dogs to us vs carp like dogs in Japan In Japanese system they do not see why dolphins and whales should be priced over tuna this leads to many misunderstandings We see arguments around whales Whales are loveable animals to us but not so much with the Japanese Criticism of eating habits eating of whales etc are seen as criticism of a nation because food is so closely tied to national identity How are the meanings of food formed disseminated circulated Think about Mintz He does not tell us how did the new meanings that were associated with sugar circulated Example was the nursery rhymes Whole sociology to how meanings spread how they circulate why do people start thinking of them as commonplace One way it happens in Japan is through popular culture magazines TV shows lms books comic books Eg Iron Chef on food network There s a huge amount of culture material that talks about how to prepare and consume sh creating distinctions to what is superiorinferior what they should shouldn t be consuming We have a huge popular culture devoted to food and gender which we didn t have 20 years ago In Japan this whole network of popular culture is much older they used to show Tsukiji in comic books Allison says there were magazines that show how to create elaborate obentos Meanings circulate for what is tasty pricey A lot of discussion of how to prepare food how to eat food especially of sh in the Japanese case Bestor tells us that what makes sh different is that it spoils easily like fruits and vegetables Different from commodities such as sugar our pepper Timing is very important How you get the sh to the market and in what shape it is is important for sh especially if you re going to eat this raw Refrigeration allows an elongation of the time between when the sh is caught and when it s eaten Temporality of eating raw sh has changed through refrigeration It s texture doesn t change Huge advances in technology How else does temporality matter Focuses on ritual calendar and seasonality Determine the demands of sh Weekends and paydays mean more sh wedding seasons increase demand in lobster festival imagery connected to weddings different holidays and festivals First catch of the season is sold at high prices seasonality may be linked to different stages of the same sh Called by different names because the taste of the sh changes Bestor tells us about demand and how its connection to how and when sh are eaten If sh was eaten only at lunch time or if lunch was the main meal of the day it would have implications for when Tsukiji opens for business and when work is done Rhythms of household structure rhythms of the marketplace Summary Markets are culturally embedded Bestor agrees with Sahlins no reason why some types of sh have higher values than other Bestor differs that we have to pay attention to how system of meanings is reproduced over time through people of markets and consumers Anthro 133F Discussion Notes 12715 611 PM 11315 Discussion Production History amp spread of sugar production Slavery s relationship to sugar production Colonialism and its role in sugar production Plantations as factories Consumption Shift in use of sugar from spice 5 uses9 food Shifts in taste correlate with meaning Extensiflcation amp intensi cation Where does he start with the production He s focusing on the consumption of the west Europeans ends up narrowing focus by looking at British empire because they are powerful In his tracing of the production he traces the evolution of how Europe has an idea of what sugar is very early in time Tracing the shift in how that item was used then and how that completely shifts during 170018005 He points out different places sugar is produced Mediterranean 9 Atlantic island Then he talks about the moment of colonization and colonial powers is moving try to grab territory Ends with sugar production of the new world under British empire If we are thinking about Globalization how does Mintz present this What is Prof Gupta s argument about globalization Different parts of the world linked to each other through trade This is not a new concept If you think about the world globalization what do you think of Money recent power spread of ideas in uence imperialism centrality of the West When we think about globalization the central player in all of this is The West That is how we re understanding everything that is going on Gupta says that globalization is process observed from somewhere by someone 0 He s saying if you look at it as a poor class member in the colonies then how do you understand globalization Would it be something new or something that s always been in play 0 These trade networks have always been there 0 How does looking at the moment of food help us understand what was going on in this time period We talk about globalization in terms of money but with money you are also looking at people you re understanding it through the movement of people The whole point of what Mintz amp Gupta are saying this idea of the west as being the central player is RECENT What is this book about Sugar as a commodity 9 CAPITALISM Understanding capitalism by not just looking at Europe We tend to identify our self with some type of ethnicity If we think about our identities geographically in a certain place globalization being new is coming from the idea that the nation state came rst and then came globalization This multicultural approach is not looking at what can happen Not only looking at physical movement of sugar also looking at ideas that travel along with is Capitalism Globalization 0 Coreperiphery Taste amp meaning making morality understanding how capitalism as a system has its roots in processes of colonialism and modi cation tied to human beings Slavery was a big part of this Together these make ideas about how we think about sugar and sweet things 12715 611 PM 12014 Discussion construction of national identity difference between national discourses socialization through food food as an instrument of control politics and food Ochs Article Italian and American families how they ate discussion around food Themes food as Nutrition Material good Reward American Pleasure Italian Bourdieu Taste of necessity what is principally good for your body strength providing food that you need taste of luxuryfreedom the way that you talk about food is more in terms of what your likesdislikes are What you are able to afford and how much you enjoy consuming that Element of desirability You need to have access to this kind of food You re consuming what you want because you like it All of these practices have meaning meaning that goes beyond what is right and what is wrong Tendency to think that in the Ochs article that you have American food habits that are overwhelmed with task of necessity You need to eat food because they re food for you Discussion of avor was lacking was all predominantly about nutritional content How does Mintz tie in identity and consumption into this Why was sugar so great What so fabulous about it One commodity to increase someone s calorie intake without producing more meat or growing more crops Giving workers bread and jam giving enough calories to sustain factories Consumption patterns are completely changing Consumption changing Affordability to a working class to the factory workers Capitalism is linked to this as well Notion of time is shifting not only within the factory but affecting a lot of what s going on inside the house as well Eating slice of bread with jam is quick and then you can go back to making money at work Ties back into creating an identity Creating a solid English identity but also tying it to proliferation of capitalism Industrial revolution modernization You are able to partake in these consumption practices that point to modernity Mintz is showing a historical trajectory of modernity and food practices that makes your personal identity come into play Bourdieu focuses on how culture is something being produced it is not static He thinks a lot about what is changing between different strata of society He also talks about everything we embody is a signif1er of the class position that we inhabit See what identity means to us What this article is doing is showing you how looking at the use of language what is said during these conversations how those are important in producing this narrative on what it means to consume what kinds of food Allison s article many layers of meaning to the obentos box 0 Child Mother State National identity Repressive state apparatus State authority is put forward to you by force Being forced to adhere to a state authority Ideological state apparatus Obentos fall under this Conforming through habit Expectation of citizens Initiation of socialization This article is about the education system 9 ideological state apparatus Being linked to what you are like as a student Is about how behaviors are produced how the state exerts control over those behaviors If we think about her big message in terms of these themes National identity Politics and food eating is a political act Go back to Mintz politics in Mintz how do you see this being played out Think about consumption the fact that you have coffee and tea available 12715 747 PM 12714 Tampopo Hierarchy By being in this position of power you need to have a social or culture capital 0 Class 0 Gender identity 0 The knowledge she learns to cook the noodles is coming from men 0 Precision amp simplicity of Japanese cuisine Think back to Allison article what it means to be a mother How does that labor define your position as a mother How does this define your position as a Japanese woman 0 Age 0 National identity practice of how to eat the noodle how to talk about the noodle Linking back to the Ochs article Etiquette class Tsujkiji How is he talking about market Distinction between market and marketplace 0 Market abstracted Pg 20 he says markets are ambiguous Anytime we think about the market we can focus on this abstracted quality Thinking about it with the wheel of economics 0 Marketplace talking about a specific time and specific geographic location transactions social factors cultural meaning motivated by a wide variety of factors 0 He s denaturalizing the market At the end of the day the market functions in the marketplace Morality Festivalsholiday Cuisine habits I These three are cultural categories Seasonality Industrialization You have meanings that are affecting the way in which the market place funcUons Mintz talks about meaning he s giving us a historical analysis of this new consumption practice Looks at how it goes from a rarity to something that has overtaken our existence Bestor is not trying to understand how this new commodity comes into being looking at something that has long ties and meaning to a particular culture Sahlins says that the act of eating is socially and culturally constructed Edible vs inedible foods TsukUi markets our reflection of culture Japanese identity Thinking through the concept of economics Importance of place Regional practices Influence of mass media Importance of time 12715 747 PM 12715 747 PM 12715 747 PM 2215 441 PM 12915 Recap Bestor Central argument of Bestor is that markets only exist through marketplaces o The distinctive culture of marketplaces help give meaning to the commodities sold there Comparing Bestor to Sahlins and Douglas 0 Bestor agrees with Sahlins and other structuralists that there is no inherent reason for tuna to be valued more than dolphins in Japan and for dolphins to be valued more than carp in the US 0 Bestor s critique of the use of structured oppositions is that it does not allow one to explain historical changes in how a certain sh is valued His own position leaves open the possibility that decreasing supply because of over fishing or a sudden increase in supply because of new technology of harvesting might in uence the value of any particular sh but not completely determine it More than Mintz Bestor discusses how meanings are circulated and disseminated through popular culture Bestor describes how essential time and temporality are to Tsukiji The rhythms or work depend upon the rhythms of consumption seasonality refrigeration and events like holidays festivals and weddings Sahlins and Douglas had meanings derived from preexisting cultural systems 0 There was always a given system of oppositions that gave meaning to something and Bestor argues and says that it historically changes over time is not always given to us this is what he meant by reiects idea that meaning of food is derived from preexisting cultural system Midterm 9 36 multiple choice 25 points each 2 short answer questions 5 points each Material for the midterm will be until Tuesdays lecture Make sure you know the names of the authors the questions might refer to names of the author book or film Food and Gender Identity In sweetness and power for example Mintz talks about how gender relationships in the family intersected working conditions Women were already working long hours in the factories sometimes they were too poor to afford food so bread and jam became substitute Sahlins talks about how food is gendered masculinity associated with red meat whereas femininity is associated with white meat and salads 0 Huge difference in food ads Allison also touches on gender identity deals with how gender identity is constructed in terms of women s relationship to their children The mothers who are required to make elaborate obento boxes for their children are being molded and shaped into particular gender identities o Shaped by the apparatus of schooling by the school teachers judgment of mothers and children 0 Peculiar requirements of having to produce this obento box for the child 0 Alison says that this has implications for Japanese women careers I She knows some women who had to give up their careers because the obligations for producing the perfect obento box were too high 0 Bestor tells us that Japanese women go shopping for fresh food every afternoon 0 The fish has to be in neighborhood markets by noon 0 What we don t realize in Bestor s but we saw in fish is our life how macho the environment is I Comparisons made between fish and woman s skin regret that more women do not work in the market although we see this in the film and Bestor says women do work in market I Marks Tsujkiji as a masculine place but masculinity is not constructed in the same way as it is in the US I When we see the executives going to fancy restaurant in Tampopo they re not eating steak they re eating fish This would have been considered feminine food in US but not in J apan 0 Red meat 9 men eat in the US but may not be the same in other parts of the world 0 Gender is always implicated in the categories you use to classify food 0 Classification in itself is a cultural enterprise 0 The moment we classify something means you re already using cultural categories Fasting and Feasting Bynum Holy feast and holy fast Reading helps us thinking about modification of definition that came from Ochs et al One important access of identity construction evolves by whether one eats at all or not By not eating this can also be a form of identity construction 0 How can starvingfasting be considered a form of identity 0 Turns out that fasting is very important in most cultures around the world 0 What does it mean to fast 0 In many parts of the world people fast partially or completely for one day or more 0 Most fasts involve giving up food for most of the day or just eating one meal in the day Some fast may involve not eating particular kinds of food 0 Some fasts you can eat or drink from sunrise to sunset eg Ramadan I Sacrifice as a way of devotion I Fasting for protest is about denial and the denial itself is a protest Religious reasons to health concerns and everything in between In India most adults fast one day out of the week women are more likely to fast than men Purpose of fasting cleanse the body but also cleanse the soul Eating is something we do to survive If we control the urge to eat we are controlling desire Controlling desire lies at the basis of attaining a higher state of spirituality 0000 Focusing of controlling desire is very important Desire begins with eating food Image shows the extreme of people who want to achieve a higher spiritual state In the article we saw something similar with women in Medieval Europe Eating that desire for food eating food in excess was a form of lust When we think of lust today we think about sexual desire exclusively Very few of us associate lust with food or the desire to eat a lot glutteny In the Medieval world the control over food and lust in the desire of food were considered to be essential Fasting became very important form of renunciation Sharing one s food with a stranger was a mark of sincerity Fasting and feasting is at the heart of Christian tradition In medieval Europe food preparation and distribution was associated mostly with women Food consumption was associated mostly with men Women cook and serve men eat Biden argues that food was the one resource that women controlled by fasting or charity they could control their own agency 0 Women not only cooked the food they were responsible for distributing the food When women were considered a property of husband or father having control of own body was a goal The function of food providing control was not the meaning of food Fasting eating and feeding all meant suffering Suffering meant redemption If you fasted you attained redemption Control of foods was also a means to control bisexuality o This connection to the body is a connection that various scenes in Tampopo bring out well How ingesting food is such an important way that we eat food Political fasting The person who did more for this form of denial to the body was Gandhi He employed fasting and the struggle against colonial goal in India against the British If he felt that British government had done some wrong things he would go into fast and then the government would give in because if he died they would have a bigger problem Form of civil disobedience Individual creates a whole movement around the fact that he she might die Only works if you have political visibility Gandhi used his technique very effectively towards the British Also used it where it was not against the British but when Hindus and Muslims were killing each other Protest the actions of his fellow citizens This happened because he already had such great political stature Fasting until death to protest the practices or the policies of a government that you disagree with is a very important political strategy that is used even now in many parts of the world Fasting is very visible some people do it as a group Done on campuses Effective is done correctly About the relationship to food which is so essential and denying that essential relationship Mary Douglas Purity amp Danger Shows how identity is defied by what one does not eat Distinction between food fit to be eaten and not to be eaten Douglas talks about taboo Prohibitions of Leviticus Leviticus l certain animals are rejected for being un t for the table 2 meat separated from blood before cooking 3 milk is completely separated from meat many elaborate rules about what isis not allowed creatures that cross over the animals that cross boundaries are considered not t why is blood separated from meat Blood belongs to God alone blood is in our life Sometimes these rules are implicit in cultures will react with disgusthorror in the prospect of eating something It s a set of categories that you ve grown up with that you maymay not be conscious about Most meateating cultures in the world tend to use small amounts of meat 21215 1240 PM 21015 Food ethnography Go look at some site or institution that deals with food 0 Farmers market ethnic food market soup kitchen food bank Do a mini ethnography 67 pages double spaced 15001800 words at the end or beginning make sure to write down the word count talk about what the ethnography consists of Bestor s book is an excellent example of an ethnography gives you a good example of how one does ethnographic research and gives insight on ethnographic methods most important thing is to describe the place and people in such a manner that somebody who has not been there can actually visualize what s going on make sure you say who worked when where why describe places describe people report from all your senses Not just what you saw but what you heard what you touched what you smelled Incorporate everything What you tasted is ne too if you re reporting a place where you re eating something it has to be something that enables the reader to imagine the world that you re evoking in the ethnography visualize the scene people smells sound tastes from your writing means that the writing has to be done in a manner that it s neutral yet provocative No strong judgments built into the writing don t say as soon as I walked into the market I noticed an awful smell This doesn t tell you anything about what it smelt like Find descriptors adjectives words to help imagine what the place is like Goal is write in the neutral tone Don t make judgments about it Don t say as soon as I went there it seemed familiar like my childhood but our childhood is different than the reader s childhood What will the reader need to know to imagine what it s like In bestor s work you see rich descriptive messages that help us describe what tsujiki is like But by reading it you can imagine what it s like That is the most important thing for you to remember make sure you observe carefully and then you write your report in a manner that it s not strongly subjective but so the reader can imagine the situation you re describing In bestor s book he doesn t restrict himself to what he could see hear and touch Participant observation is very important Bestor used maps historical archives there might be other materials you can collect to locate the material you re describing better Bestor used interview with people who have been going to the market for many years The perspective of what the market is will vary from person to person and you need to make sure you re not representing the views of one person as the way one person looks at the market as a whole Always locate the view of the market from who said it EX May nd systematic differences between vendors and markets People who come regularly Male vs female customers According to race nationality you may find people looking at it in different ways depending on conditions If you interview someone must contextualize who they are the tone etc If you do interviews have some sense of who it is that you interviewed Say something about them based on what you know Bestor s case idea was to think about how market places function in markets Was trying to think systematically and carefully Observing for a purpose Helps you to figure out what to do with the data Make sure to validate your data you do this by crosschecking If you interview someone about a topic when was this market first established or interviewing him or her about the history or function of the market You crossvalidate by asking different people about the same event Gain different perspectives Different people see different things They might give you completely different stories Then you collect different stories and piece it all together Maintain the effect that they re different perspectives of the same event Look for discrepancies in what people say and what they do For example people may say they eat healthy food and then you actually write and down and see difference between what you think you do and what you actually do When you interview you tell them you say you do this but I saw you do this When you ask people why do you do X they always have a culturally rehearsed script They give you a reason which is much like the exercises when you ask people to tell you about themselves Methods for food ethnography Visit and revisit the same place until what we learn through repeated observations is really solid Not something you can do in this project but if you can go to the farmer s market or ethnic food market more than once that s helpful If you can only go once that s fine too You can see if your last visit atypical or exactly the same thing that repeats itself every week Always make notes at the site while you re there take a small notebook Write down things that strike you write it out as completely as you can when you get home Timing is important The sooner you write it all out the better it is In 24 hours you will loose 80 of what you saw Collect brochures if they have any take photos record interviews diff kinds of data can give you different insights Get wellrounded sample of informants try to talk to vendors customers organizers mothers with babies older people people with different ethnicities see if there are any systematic differences in what they say Try to get as many diverse sources as possible 21216 Central themes of Bordo s work are linked to Bynum s piece Issues of control over women s bodies in patriarchal cultures Bynum says that women almost always prepare food and watch men eat 0 Considered dangerous form of lust gluttony was considered to be one of the deadly sins Eat drink man woman What was the central theme of the lm Kinship relations relations between the patriarch and the daughters relationship between dinner event and the announcements Relationship between food and relation Partly about the Sunday dinner but also about how the old man expresses love for his daughters it s by cooking for them He puts love into the food Sunday meal is the ritual of a family but the daughters experience it as a form of torture They don t want to do that they want to do other things The meals are where major announcements are made the family acts out the kinship ties 0 Also a place where con icts occur becomes a dysfunctional event The film shows how the daughters leave the house one by one first the youngest then the oldest and then the middle one doesn t leave but the father leaves the house The surprise of the film is his engagement and marriage to the younger woman The fact that he lost his taste 9 the fact that he is losing touch with the people he loves one way of symbolizing that is saying he looses his sense of taste He rediscovers his sense of taste 9 about the changes of his own status He reestablishes the connections that are most important to him as well as new ones that are important Symbolizes his rebirth A lot of the scenes involving him shows repetitive movement Shows that he had a very xed set routine He was bored he had lost his love of life was just going through the motions When he recovers his sense of taste it s when he reconnects and his life changes Gender relations in the film the daughters are all shown as respectful of the dad they listen to what their dad has to say but they all rebel at some point Middle daughter especially cares for his wellbeing Dad is the patriarch in the family especially with the mother not being there but the con ict between the father and daughters is shown as being central they don t always go along with what he wants They do things on their own Why does the film spend so much time showing him cooking There s a lot of loving caring attention to the food itself He s not articulate about his affection but the way he does it is through the food Film gives you a sense of this highly elaborated careful cooking that he s doing for a family meal this is a meal he s preparing just for his daughters Susan Bordo Unbearable Weight Talks about the cultivation to a cool relationship with food What s a hot relationship to food The idea is not to create food but not to reject it You should neither like it nor hate it if you do then it would be a hot relationship and would imply that you re obsessed about it The cool relationship to food is to eat without deep desire and without apparent consequence Bordo argues that this is the idealed gendered image about one s relationship to food in US culture She thinks there s something wrong about this Images and appearances control This relationship to food is mediated by body image If the ideal body image is supposed to be a size 0 as opposed to size 12 then it has implications for food intake How much food will a women eat and what kind of food depends upon that Is central as a way of controlling shaping mediating women s relationship to food How do cultural ideals of the body come about Where do they come from Where do we get the idea that body image should be like the person on the left or right in the ppt Normative ideas of the best body vary enormously across cultures What is considered to be an ideal type of body in Japan and India is very different from the ideal type of body in the US Ideal body types vary immensely even within the same culture Huge change from Marilyn Monroe image to Angelina Jolie image Body image types keep changing over time and at no time can most men or women conform to the ideal body image that exists Therefore it becomes a source of dissatisfaction with your own self since you can t be the ideal body type Why Because we come in different shapes and sizes When we have a normative body type that s considered ideal it acts as a source of constraint frustration makes you unhappy when being in your own body Ideals of male body images very muscular a lot of upper body strength but there are other body types the yoga master who is lean and thin and emphasis is on muscles in the core You can have different body images Can argue that the yoga master has a healthier body than our former governor but the point is that there are many different body types When we have a cultural ideal where one body type is a normative ideal it creates problems with everybody We don t have a range of different body types that one might aspire There are different images of beauty tend to be constructed in a very particular way Will not match the body types of the majority of the population What s a healthy body You should aspire to have a healthy body type The point is not to look like the movie stars Bordo says here s the paradox almost all of us who can afford to be eating well are dieting most of the time Dieting is a form of fasting Trying to starve ourselves eat less than we should Says this has to do with the role of images and appearances Tremendous and incapacitating pressure on women Stresses control of eating What one eats how one eats how much one eats How does one reconcile these body images with what you re consuming Bordo says eat and consume but only in small quantities Consume more and more but only in small quantities This is a class example of the con icting pressures of having people to consume more and at the same time asking them to consume less because you have to fit this ideal body type It doesn t work the same way for men They are exerted to have hearty appetites whether they are food or sexual appetites There s a big gender difference in our relationship to food In the mainstream ideology Con ict set up with the need to consume more and the need to maintain a slim body Bordo argues that this leads to eating disorders Contradiction between these opposite messages Helen in late capitalism what becomes important is that we should control our own lives We are the masters of our own things You get to choose and you get to control We have to make our own decisions and live at the consequences of our own decisions One place where women do have control is over the consumption of food Spheres where you have complete control over your life for women is food He s taking from Bordo that body image or thinness is gendered Gendered difference and gender inequalities Big difference between being thin and being healthy You have to ask why is there so much emphasis on being thin and so little emphasis on being healthy Most athletes are not thin They have bodies that are extremely fit but they are not thin To be healthy you need to do certain things that have nothing to do about your body forming to this ideal form of thinness Important to have a healthy relationship to food eat a diverse range of things When people move from huntergatherers to settled agricultures we lost a huge amount of diversity in our diet Currently our diets are far less diverse than our HG ancestors Try to eat a diverse set of things don t get stuck with whatever it is we feel Bordo says that this notion that the body image should be a certain kind is one of the most negative in uences that is operating in the contemporary world especially on women The notion that one has to conform to a certain body image Different from having a healthy body Moderation is the key Vegetarianism amp Veganism Contrast Singer from Chapple s work Singer on speciesim all animals are equal Importance of suffering and of sentience Problem s with singer s approach Shramanic view difference between Hindu Buddhist and Jain beliefs Reincarnation and nonviolence Coetzee s Elizabeth Costello There are arguments for vegetarianism and veganism that come out of philosophical positions When you ask people why they are vegetarianism or vegan they will give you very different reasons The questions of what we eat becomes a big discussion in popular texts What we read for today are two contrasting arguments on vegetarianism Singer s arguments for veganism depends on the radical argument that all species are equal In western thought and everyday life we assume the opposite Assume humans are better than other species We think there s something different about us than in other species We think humans are superior to other species we have the right to decide how to treat other species In the most benevolent form this might mean that we should look over other species paternalistic care of other species Stewardship that come out of readings from the bible Humans were giving the responsibility of looking after the earth we are responsible of being good stewards to the earth At the other extreme it may mean that we have the right to treat animals as we choose Singer argues that it adds a court for the great majority of human beings the most direct form is at many times we eat them and cook them He argues this isn t true people have dogs and cats but most people in urban industrial contexts the only contact we have in nonhuman animals is the need We regard them with a means with our own end If an animal suffers for our eating pleasure so be it because we enjoy eating the animals Singer argues that the position that other species are seeing to exist to benefit humans is a form of speciesim it s like racism but towards other species He says it s philosophically indefensible why Singer acknowledges there are differences between humans and other animals NOT saying that nonhuman animals are just as intelligent smart and intelligent There ARE differences between humans and animals there are fundamental biological differences The fact of difference is NOT enough to argue about the inequality Draws upon Bentham who argued that it s not the faculty of reason it s not a persons ability to reason but the creatures ability to suffer that we should focus on The capacity for suffering andor enjoyment or happiness is the whiter characteristic that gives a being the right to consideration Is that creature capable of suffering Capable of enjoyment or happiness If the answer is yes Bentham argues we should treat them equally If a being is not capable of suffering then we can t take this into account Sentience for any being that can experience pain or pleasure we have to treat it as being equally important as the pain or pleasure that a human would experience In Betham and singer s view 9 nonsentient beings Singer argues that we have to connect suffering of killing with the suffering of animals all different forms of suffering we have to take into account Bentham takes the notion that any being who can suffer should be treated equally with any other being that can suffer You cannot in ict suffering on another being for your own pleasure Logic of Argument Negative argument why humans should not eat animals Suffering 1 animals raised in inhumane conditions 2 sacrificed for human consumption Argument for veganism Paradox of which life to save Primarily a negative argument here s a reason why you should not kill animals Arguments hinges on suffering of animals Suffering on animal in inhumane conditions Suffering of animal that s suffering for our consumption 0 Singer argues against both of them the whole animal rights movement comes out of singers work 0 You might say if you re going to kill the animal if you re raising it as livestock then why should you care how it s raised Why does it matter the conditions in which animals are raised 0 If you take the same analogy with humans and you look at capital punishment they place a great deal of emphasis on how it happens we have elaborate rulings on the most humane way to kill a person 0 Similar logic should apply to nonhuman animals 0 We should be clear that there s a rational for treating animals Argument for veganism Singer is also arguing for veganism You could also argue that this argument about causing suffering to animals by taking away their products does not support vegetarianism because what if the animal died naturally Then you didn t kill the animal it just happened to die So that by itself does not lead to an argument that we should all be vegan When we consume those products we are not causing that animal to suffer Argument that the suffering of any other species is equal to humans leads to the paradox if there s a re and a person and a dog you would save the person On one hand it s very extreme but there s some interesting issues that is raises Shramanic view Very different view for not killing animals for food Main in Jain Buddhist and Hindu traditions Do not eat another animal because it is not different from you 9 when you die you can be reborn as a cow goat or pig and your position in interchangeable with its position Makes the eating of animals a form of cannibalism because it could be your grandmother you re eating when you eat the pig Notion of equality of the interchangeability across species Buddhists do not consider earth and water to be living Ahimsa nonviolence Buddhism places conditions on eating meat Jain beliefs Reincarnation Nonviolence To live is to practice violence you want to minimize the amount of violence They only eat stuff that falls but they will not break the plant or pull it by its roots Try to minimize the violence The less you do the better off you are Life is precious in all its forms so you don t want to kill anything that lives Utilitarianism Meat environmentally unfriendly Inefficient means of producing food for the world A utilitarian argument for vegetarianism Eating meat is heavily intensive in terms of energy use water use and all our resources Summary First talked about relationship between food and gender Cool relationship to food Bordo shows us this is mediated by body images Notions of body and health are arbitrary Tell women to consume more but in smaller quantities Differs from men Health and body image vegetarianism One from Singer and one from eastern religions Singer speciesim and treating animals equally It s a moral argument for how we should act Singers argument is negative Shamanic connects veganism to religion 21215 1251 PM 21014 Eat Drink Man Woman Critique of tradition 0 Gender roles Food as a role of communication Bringing together announcements at the dinner table This story is turning gender roles upside down thinking about gender in terms of generation Gender role and generations are being tied together when looking at relationship between father and daughters The announcements are changing family structure a source of conflict Direct correlation between losing daughters and losing taste His loss of taste is symbolically representative of his unhappiness of everything that s going wrong with his life Different ways in which food is playing out The beginning conversation is Wu talking to his gf about how to cook the meal He was going to make an announcement in the beginning but doesn t happen until the very end Food is used as a distraction Looking at ideas of gender generational relationship as well How it comes together around food Bordo article Gender differences through images Women and food habits how they are viewed and how they view themselves Media idea restrictions Control mastery She s interested in how the idea of the idea comes to be Why are we focusing on a particular form of beauty that is being transformed globally Not just centered within a central construct She s looking at ads ISA 9 control mastery Circulation of ideas Advertising III 0 Thin muscular beauty Diet 0 Cooking 0 Containment ties into consumption If you think about capitalism a lot of the moving forth of ideas like ideologies are coming from an economic basis 0 Consumption is huge it is prized Most important thing is the patriarchal form of control Ideology about controlling women and women s body that s dominating in patriarchal capitalist societies You are looking at patriarchy that is functioning If you think about this idea of containment or control and restriction then if you re not consuming enough to sustain life or hunger then you are going to get hungry All of these obsessive behaviors eating disorders she s linking to that Men and binging in public women are binging in private She s saying all of these things are historically constructed and have not changed since Victorian times they are constantly being reinforced Muscular and men is applying to men just as much as women She s talking about western societies where people generally have enough food to eat but you abstain from doing it Control 0 Women self 0 Men control over others Thinking about remaining hungry or told that you re supposed to be hungry Gratification comes from serving others and not yourself When you have ads with men in them there is some sort of woman preparing the food 21915 1114 AM 21715 Super Size me notes America is the fattest country People were suing McDonalds for selling food which we know isn t good for us 46 million people served daily with McDonalds 84 McDonalds packed into Manhattan city is only 12 miles by 2 miles McDonalds lures in young children they have fun playgrounds happy meals the clown These all appeal to kids Obesity overtakes smoking as the leading cause of death in the country Most heavily advertised foods are consumed the most 21915 Fast Food Schlosser Fast Food Nation Why is fast food important Downstream consequences Upstream consequences Fast food gender and class Morgan was eating almost 5000 calories a day Many of the things the lm says gives you food for thought Fast food is all over the place Due to convenience and cost you will end up eating at fast food restaurants Insensitivity portrayed throughout the lm Eric Schlosser Fast Food Nation Question that Bestor asks how does the global market of sh bring sh to Japan Today we re looking at another global industry fast food How does it get inexpensive food to the consumers Why should we look at the fast food industry to begin with First thing is that it is economically very important Multibillion dollar industry 2trillion dollars most of which is in the US think carefully about its implications fast food industries is connected to America symbolically associated with Americaness can be associated with freedom here you re free to eat with your hands You don t need to use a knife and fork unlike in France you can break the rules when you re eating fast food free to choose what you want to eat can also be associated with American imperialism farmers organized and protested against American in uence they attacked the fast food restaurant third we look at fast food because it has very large upstream and downstream consequences downstream consequences what happens at or after the point of consumption after your purchase and consume it upstream what are the consequences of fast food for the production industry farmers workers the farms themselves the distribution chain industrial production of avor Downstream consequences health of consumers Most important consequence is the health of consumers who eat these products Most fast food has very high fat content lots of sugar simple carbohydrates and opposed to complex carbs highly processed ours Use of arti cial colors and avors natural avors are manufactured derived from some other ingredient preservatives 0 all of these have a range of consequences for consumers which are not that well understood or connected 0 problem with lawsuits no simple direction you can establish with cause of cancer and these arti cial products I can t establish a direct causation 0 heart problems liver problems etc important in consequences for our generation we have grown up with fast food Morgan said when he was a child his mother always cooked meals Only went out to eat on special occasion Today most consumers grow up surrounded by fast food and becomes a part of our every day life People may not realize how much fast food they are consuming Mintzin a very short time the consumption of people changed Mintz said in a period of 100 years went from eating no sugar to it becoming important part of his diet Can say the same with fast food When Morgan was a young boy to 40 years later there has been an enormous shift Fast food accounts for a larger share now with calories then it did 40 years ago Health consequences of fast food are magni ed Fish downstream consequences Chemicals and metals in sh Fast food 9 downstream consequences Environmentalconsequences Enormous amount of packaging used in fast food industry 0 Throw away containers 0 It is all stuff that will go into landfills 0 Connected to life styles people who are eating on the run People getting food between their work shifts 0 Deals with the structure of the economy wages you pay people 0 enormous amounts of packaging waste downstream consequences unequal impacts on different consumers because it s cheap consumed more by poor people then rich people Mintz says capitalists can afford to pay less when workers had access to supply of sugar bread and jam You can make an inexpensive cold meal once people had access to inexpensive sugar In the last 3 decades before recession of 2009 the economy had relatively high rates of growth Even when the economy was doing well the real wages of working class people stagnated and the share of the poorest 50 has fallen The proportion of people in bottom 5 0 has become smaller and smaller If you look at real wages they have stagnated for people who are working Many people now want longer hours fulltime jobs with benefits have declined People often working many parttime jobs are working night shifts What this means is that the structure of the day remember what Mary Douglas says about meal types People have too little time to prepare and eat a hot meal They buy food on the guy and eat it between other things The new norm for how people eat Great implications because fast food plays a central roles in their ability to do that Upstream impacts Potatoes cattle raised for fast food Environment the land water air Affects of people who are involved in farming distribution chain technologies to preserve transport and avor food Effects on community and social structure The book fast food nation deals with all of these Technology Communities and social structure Ranchers that are raising the cattle Environmental impacts on land Degradation of the land because of fertilizer Get pollution of the ground water We are doing terrible things to the water and land because of the farming that is subsidizing or supporting fast food Intensive ways chickens are farmed high pollution of both water and air around chicken farms Similar issues around pig farms and raising cattle Danger to humans harm to animals Danger to humans caused by working conditions chicken farms slaughter houses Exposure to chemicals pesticides antibiotics People in distribution chain are affected by the monopoly power of buyers that as large grocery stores has an impact Large companies rarely grow the food themselves sometimes buy from larger corporations Exert power on produced because they exert distribution or consumption The company whether it is McDonalds or large chicken companies they specify everything the chicken farmer has to do The farmer has very little control Companies have become so large The last distributors are the controlled agricultural systems Putting out system getting all the inputs then you send the outputs to the person who s giving you the inputs Farmers market is an option people have to send the products directly Chicken farmers are small farmers sell the output to large corporations Ranchers sometimes are small farmers Potato farmers are sometimes small farmers not large corporations Point is that because distribution is so tightly controlled by a few companies very little is actually paid to the farm If you spent 150 for fries in a fast food restaurant how much do you think the farmer is being paid for those potatoes Roughly 2 cents Very little of that is going to the hands of the farmer Technologies Elaborate technologies to preserve food Transport food over long distances 21915 1119 AM 217 15 Notes on food ethnography anywhere food is distributed or consumed get a sense of the production or distribution of food super market feel free to talk to customers the more time you can spend somewhere the better see how people are interacting with one another how people are moving in space look at vendors and customers something going on organizationally Give a sense of the place that you re at in giving the description talk about certain themes we ve been talking about in class Pick a theme don t do too much Pick one element that s really sticking out to you maybe while you re spending time in the place you will notice some patterns Don t be worried about having gone in with an already identi ed problem Talk to the people who will help you expand on that theme you will talk about Your description is important but the reason you re doing it has a purpose Trying to get at some larger themes While in these places if mapping out or following people Looking at a place that has a lot of family connections Maybe you want to plot out which members of the family are doing what Take photographs and include them in the nal paper lnterviews do NOT worry about transcribing the interviews If someone makes a statement that drives a point home then include the statement but use the interview as part of your analysis Themes gender class distinctions look at the jobs people are doing try and go to places you don t frequently go to You have to notice a pattern If you see more men working than women you can ask about it You can borrow from the people we have read and discussions that authors are having Super size me Carbs meat sugar The time period is important this film was made in 2004 Taking the company that s being sued at the time McDonalds Making larger claims about that Singer Treat animals equally Principle of consideration Animals feel pain this is where we need to direct our moral compass Speciesism Consumption Exploitation Nutrition vs taste Is he saying we should not eat meat He takes examples of sexism and racism What is he talking against in how we think of equality From person to person we are all different lSt point equality isn t situated in any material inherent way he goes into 3 different reasons why equality is situated and something we experience this notion of equality is situating in Bentham if we re going to think about equality it s this idea of how we want to treat other beings he says it is a perception says that equality is a moral undertaking Bentham looks at what equality means to all sentient beings Pins this equality on pain or suffering or the ability to feel pain or suffering We need to look at how we talk about other beings other than humans If you take an infant child and compare that to an animal what is going on there He s saying that infant child and animals are pretty similar An adult has the capacity to reason which the animal does not have If we say a kid is going to grow up we can take that stage back Infant will grow into an adult If you want to talk about an antiabortion stance it s clear that the fetus should not be aborted You can keep extending this argument back Is the way in which he s making this argument of equality You can keep taking this thing back Where do you nd the lowest common denominator that refers to equality And here it s with suffering His argument is a negative argument he s promoting veganism over vegetarianism He s talking about a contemporary society when it comes to dealing with animals If we re looking at an industrialized urban society then these are his reasons for why we need to think about equality and what goes into defining this stuff Within a globalized setting he s advocating veganism His idea of equality is a moral principle that we need to think about it s coming from a specific location Chapple Nonviolence Ahimsa They don t eat anything that grows under the ground Be as nonViolent as you can in your everyday life Eating patterns of why you are or are not eating some things 22615 1021 PM 22415 Movie produce from super markets come to you via supply chains farmworker food means life memories Sometimes farmworkers don t eat They live hungry while working Coalition of Imokolee workers Exploitation of fellow farm workers Help eradicate abuse in the elds Pay one extra cent per pound this would double workers wages Farmers the undereducated under protected underfed Farmworkers are the foundation of a supply chain Supermarkets have enormous buying power they shape the system They don t want to take on the risks of actually producing food that gets to the consumers Supermarkets have cut into the farmers pro ts Unfree market monopsmy To produce more you have to push the workers to work more for fewer wages CA has more tomato workers than any other state Relies on low wageworkers Evolved into a predominantly Latino labor force Eventually they found a powerful voice for change Cesar Chavez helped created farmworkers union Wine industry is the number one agriculture in CA Cost of labor that brings you that wine is 25 cents Undocumented workers do not have full protections of the law Makes their labor cheap by denying them legal status Agriculture in our country started with slave labor Farmers were turned away when trying to talk to the CEO of Publix about wages Publix does have the power to control the market although they say it s not in their hands A family with minimum wage is still below the poverty wage 1A of the workforce in agriculture are women women are afraid to report crimes sexual harassment in the workplace but they need the income they can t lose their job slavery ring discovered in Imokolee Florida luring poor farmworkers Stuck in the back of a UHaul truck Beating them keeping them in debt forcing them to work for free This happened in 2008 Realized that they can make allies with the consumers ICW created a code of conduct Fair food program found a way for women to report sexual harassment 226 15 Everyone should be concerned about where our food comes from and who picks it Fair Food Program eliminates slavery and enables women to report sexual harassment Many companies signed on to the Fair Food Program Taco bell McD Burger King Subway Whole Foods etc Publix still refuses to join the Fair Food program or to speak with any of the workers from Imokolee Questions with the Producer How did he come to make the film and what brought him to this story Grew up in Norcal Worked on agricultural issues he saw that things were really bad in different countries Issues of inequality Most people don t think about the labor that goes into these supply chains Government is broken on the labor side 95 of us obtain food through massive food chains most farm workers are not paid by the hour they have to fill up a certain number of buckets by the hour if they don t meet this rate then they will not be hired the next day Will only cost a family 68 extra dollars per year if they were to double the wage of farmworkers We see supermarkets capitalizing that nothing is regulated in the supermarket industry WalMart is the only super market where you can buy fairfood products Food delivered to UCLA by Cisco 22615 1021 PM 224 15 why has the number of migration workers increased from Mexico to the United States Why are they leaving from wherever they are to work under these poor conditions We need to think about how we talk about categories of people Taking capitalism too far Seeing any difference in Mintz discussion of capitalism and the capitalism decreased in fast food nation Factory workers Slavery o Mintz did not go into labor practice as much as Schlosser 0 But you re still get an exploitation of a certain population that s geared towards this idea of generating profit Buying power specifically of the corporation The whole story of union started with your industrialized workplace Mintz s discussion of workers and Schlosser s discussion of workers Factory workers vs fastfood workers the difference Rise of fastfood restaurants Automobiles Giving rise to the fastfood industry Advertising appealed to children Disney wanted to escape reality all of this is going towards the future Future that hinges on technological progress Having this tied into a nationalistic agenda Certain types of people have much more power and are coming together through various industries Fast food industry becomes the largest industry in the US political power is being bought Ideas about the future modernity all of these projections about what you stand for and what you want to stand for along with the political implications The way policies are put in place to have the machines operate in the way it does Think about advertising what examples are he showing us The happy meal toys Getting the consumer the child young and keeping that consumer This is all a capitalistic enterprise If we think about labor what s happening Underpaid labor lobbyists passing these labor laws the lobbyists has a tremendous amount of power The lm thinks about what s going on in the production end Within the distribution channel Buying power de nes how the entire market functions 3315 3515 124 PM Upstream consequences Technologies fast food is built upon the development of elaborate technologies to preserve food arti cial avoring and transporting it long distances Schlosser talks about how the strawberry avor is created He argues that even natural avors can be dangerous Loss of ranching communities harm to animals Effect of fast food on societies Rancher that committed suicide The buying power is leading to the destruction of farm and ranch communities because those communities were built around notions of reciprocity and common cause These work against the interest of large distributors Large distributors have individual agreements with individual farmers and they do not let the farmers reveal info to each other Creates con ict between farmers This destroys the farmers and ranchers autonomy They are told how to raise pigs what to feed them what antibiotics to feed them what kind of food they should be given how they should be looked after More easily susceptible to diseases of various kinds Creates conditions of bad health with animals Leads to longterm ill effects on human health Given growth hormones of various kinds steroids Part of the objection that many people have for eating meat is that the animals being raised are being raised in conditions that cause them harm Opposed the cruelty to which animals are subjected They are fed things they would never otherwise eat cattle don t normally eat soy beans and corn but they are fed this Goal maximize the weight of the animals rather than treating them like animals that need food water air In the book that Curtsey has written he writes about factory farms being like concentration camps for animals That s the kind of criticism often made of the condition which animals are raised All mandated by companies that are telling the ranchers how to raise their cattle how to grow their food 2 arguments Singer makes it s a form of speciesim that we are subjecting the non human animal it experiences pain for our pleasure Second thing he says is that it s because of the bad treatment of animals in the process of raising them in the farm For someone like singer if you were to raise animals more humanely he would still be against killing the animals for our pleasure point 1 Global spread of fast food that franchises not just an American phenomenon McDonald s moves to India China Russia Using the same practices that they re using here This story is no longer just an American story In a sense the US serves as an example as to what s going to happen to other parts of the world when fast food spreads Fast food hasn t always been with us it s a recent invention Morgan from supersize said as a child he didn t eat out much Is a demand that s created by advertising low prices for fast food Fast food gender amp class Schlosser connects fast food to social changes in the US in terms of work life and in terms of family life Fast food arises because of changes in the family and working lives It makes possible for some of those changes to happen Just like sugar made a cold meal for workers in England and allowed the factory owners to pay them less fast food functions in a similar way Compare sugar with Mintz and fast food in Schlosser Interrelationship between fast food gender class More women work outside the home in the last 40 or 50 years more women work outside the home Women are still paid 78 cents to the dollar for men for the same jobs Men get paid about 20 less across the world for working the same job 2 implications 1 women are less likely to cook after work 2 the money available to eat out is less then it would have been had the women be paid the same as men 2nd important change deals with work pressure People in fulltime jobs are working longer than they ever have before People in the US work longer hours than any other industrial country How much longer About 57 hours a week more than most Europeans We have the shortest vacation times Most people don t take their vacation time scared they might get fired In a way we are working ourselves to death We have time scarcity People don t have any time Work average of 42 hours a week then you commute to work and school If you include commute times you can add as much as 2 hours in a work day At the end of 10 12 hours you don t have a lot of energy left to start making a meal from scratch People who work fulltime are away from the house longer and have less time to make a hot meal at the end of the day Because of the structure of the economy women working outside the home Women are also still expected to do the housework If you complicate this analysis with class the situation is even worse If you work at minimum wage in CA you will take home a little more than 1000 a month If you are paid 12hr you would earn 1500 a month Take away rent a place like SF or LA what does that leave you to live on Take away car insurance and all the other essentials that you need That doesn t leave you with much A person living with minimum wage does not have enough to survive What do people do They often get a second parttime job If you have 2 jobs and you re commuting from one job to the other you re likely to stop at a place to get cheap inexpensive food to fuel yourself before you start your second job Inexpensive easy you can eat it in the car Cheap supplies a lot of calories easily available many outlets for fast food harder to get fresh fruits and vegetables Many of these places have a play area for children this is good where there aren t many options for children to go outside for example if the weather is too cold outside What makes food fast is not simply the speed which it s served It s about the connections between food and issues between health sustainability wages of people who work for the industry and the presence of additives preservatives etc If food was healthy and the workers were treated well then it would not be considered fast food It s about the connection between the food labor environment the conditions under which the food is grown ls about the entire chain of how the food gets to the fastfood restaurant The chain goes upstream and downstream Ruth Ozeki My Year of Meats Talking about the consequences of industrial power Important of media to the associations with food Dissemination of images Trace the role of the media of different readings for the class Kinds of meanings that producers in My Year of Meats associate with beef The book reads like an ethnography her father was a famous archaeologist The novel is loosely based on some of her own experiences The book is lightly fictionalized f1ctional in the ethnographic sense that she doesn t cross check facts Depictions of people in places have been selected and exaggerated a little bit She described the people in the book as she saw them The book is playful it s funny That s the author s design Take a question that Mintz asks and associates it with beef what means does beef have in Japan and how are meanings created We ve seen the meaning that sh and seafood have in Bestor s study In sh is our life we see someone say he feels guilty because he likes beef more being Japanese is linked to closely liking sh We can understand the plot of this book by looking at Bestor sh is our life etc 9 trying to get Japanese to consume more beef Promote American beef in Japan The meaning of that beef is created and manipulated to the media The book links the meanings with representations in the media A lot of it comes from the media watching food lm documentaries have given meanings of food Happens through things like novels magazines important for the meanings that food has for us Our notion of what certain things mean come from written text as well as from audioVisual texts Mintz discussion of changing notions of sugar does not have relationship to print culture or theatre he doesn t tell us the mechanisms which meanings are disseminated in society We don t understand completely from Mintz why certain tastes were propagated and why certain tastes became dominate Looking at Sahlins he mentions newspapers but the Media does not play any role in the understanding of his argument it s not through the media that we learn to not eat dog Cultural meanings in Sahlins are present But we don t know how they re made manipulated in uenced represented or changed by the media The media does a lot of work informing others about food One of the rst great food lms the rst feast is about a chef who comes from Denmark and introduces French food Helps educate others about what food is tasty Tampopo re ects on all the meanings that food has Like water for chocolate a lm how feelings and sentiments pass through the food through the body Supersize me is it healthy Is it fattening Is it nutritious Supersize me reinforces these meanings for us in a way to argue against the meanings constructed in fast food countries Feeds into our dominant ideas of the questions we always ask how many calories Is it fattening The project in supersize me counterHegemonic project but builds on the notions that we already have an idea of what s a good body and the current obsessions we have on what food is good for We see a range of different ways on which media is being represented in the text that we read How media spreads meanings Meaning of beef in the novel consists of connecting beef consumption with Americanness Telling consumers in J apan if you want to be more American consume beef Trying to promote the positive qualities of Americanness and what those qualities would be rugged manliness wholesome happy families etc The qualities being associated with beef in the documentary are independence individuality diversity etc A feeling to precisely those qualities that many people in Japan might fantasize about My year of meats she looses the point of meat being the message She finds the formats of happy families to be too rigid She does a segment on pork vegetarianism In doing so she diversifies America where Japan finds similar to themselves She goes off the message and promotes American diversity She does well by not staying on the idea that meat is the message Con ict between need to have a show that people watch and to have a show that focuses on beef She exploits the context of these 2 points she gets people to watch the show by going off the topic of beef The more she feels con icted about the enterprise of Japan becomes more skeptical of the project Brought home to her own life Book deals with gender class race Meat does not have the same meaning for people in different positions Book is good with dealing with these issues Urban and rural families Shows the meaning of meat is not the same for families in urban areas vs families in rural areas Not the same for African American vs white families Very different in diff parts of the country Meanings of Food Began by mentioning 2 upstream qualities of fast food We have seen the meanings of any food are created through processes of circulation and adoption Mass media play important role understood altered disseminated Dominant meanings can be created AND challenged through the media supersize is a good example of this The dominant meanings of food are not stable they are bound to change At one time people were shunning butter and they were eating margarine and now it s vice versa When we say something s dominant it doesn t mean everyone shares this equally 3515 My year of meats 9 mass media circulation and adoption of meanings New and existing foods We see the role of mass media and promulgating certain meaning about coffee Shows how meanings become understood altered disseminated Can be challenged through media as we ve seen in super size me Nor are the dominant meanings shared by all people Food and Class The Story of Coffee Have you ever wondered where and when do these coffee shops come from When did they first arise Coffee shops have become ubiquitous in the urban landscape of America You see them everywhere inside supermarkets airports There are big chains like Starbucks the largest chain You have a lot of independent coffee sellers who also sell gourmet coffee Before coffee was sold in Starbucks it was sold as an inexpensive drink that you picked up at gas stations diners Until the 1980s coffee was not something that you purchased as a gourmet experience People did not think of it as something that conferred distinction that you could express yourself in some way That simply wasn t the case You just bought coffee which was warmed up in the coffee pots and it was available in work places and many other places for free It was the only drink a lot of officers supplied for free to whitecollar workers How did something that was an inexpensive commodity go from this kind of situation to something that is so industrial Became a precious commodity sold by precious baristas What happened that made this in a very short period of time From the 1980s it was that one decade that brought the birth of this kind of gourmet coffee Most of us have grown up in an environment where coffee is everywhere Starbucks outlets are everywhere Has become a part of the fabric of every day life Paying 5 dollars for a cup of coffee seems to be okay How is it that coffee moved from being a mass commodity consumed by a large number of people with no status to something that began to confer a mark of distinction to those who had the cultural capital the knowledge Coffee is the world s second most valuable commodity What s the first most valuable commodity Oil petroleum After oil it s coffee Huge enormous global market Estimated that 25 million farmers grow coffee in more than 60 countries If you include all the people involved it could be more than 100 million people in addition to 25 million people growing coffee Material that has no nutritive components at all How many people drink coffee in US 100 million adults drink coffee on a regular basis 13 of the population Drink 3 cups of coffee daily US is by far the largest consumer of coffee in the world It has the size and it has the intensity As we saw in the film food chains similar to coffee 4 companies purchase 60 of the world s coffee beans Nescafe Maxwell House brand that belongs to Sara Lee 0 Tahibo Kraft foods 0 Tassimo another type Selling them in many countries of the world Starbucks does not count they re concentrated in the gourmet market Ethiopian food and coffee what s the connection Thinking about how spices travel through a few places in the world to the rest of the world Turns out Ethiopia was exporting coffee and buying spices with the money they made from the coffee We all think about mocha this is actually the name of a town in Yemen It is located across the Red Sea The name of the town where most of the coffee is exported to the rest of the world Now coffee is sold under different islands of Indonesia such as Java Mocha How did coffee get to places like Java What was the process by which coffee started being grown by Java from its origins in Ethiopia and northern Africa Coffee rst starts being sold and consumed in the Middle Eat Begins a public social life Is a place that we think of place of discussion debate and conversation Serving as a place where people gathered they talked politics The coffee houses begins in the Middle East Debate about the addictive traits of coffee you re not supposed to have addictive substances It s about losing control of yourself to a substance From there it spreads to Europe and then you get the rights of the European coffee house as an institution Argued the public sphere emerges through coffee houses in Europe Why As you get the rise of bourgeoisie the coffee provides an open space for people to gather and discuss politics and social events outside of the control of church authorities Independent sphere called the public sphere in societies in the West that is not under the control of the church or religious authorities which you can discuss matters of social and cultural life Coffee house maintains an important role in Europe the heart of civilization place to have free and open discussion about anything you wanted to have Coffee houses had a very distinctive client base which they cultivated by making them friendly towards certain kinds of decorations we used The newspaper we have are different There s a very distinctive culture of a coffee house that develops In the united states until about 1830 or the start of the 19th century coffee was still not drank extensively in the US But very similar to the story of sugar in the next 100 years 18301930 coffee went from mainly drank by elites to drank by all sectors of societies In the US children were not drinking coffee By 1930 coffee was an every day drink consumed by people across the class spectrum very poor 9 very rich people There s a coffee lobby promotes coffee drinking and they have campaigns feeling tired in the afternoon Drink some coffee Promoting coffee as an energy drink for people who start to work longer and longer hours The question is what happens to coffee between the time it becomes a mass popular drink to the 1980s when you get the first time coffee is marketed as a gourmet product Coffee needs to be put in wider context have to position coffee drinking with drinking soda soft drinks The other side of it is thinking of alcoholic beverages Things like Irish coffee you can mix the alcoholic beverage with coffee and get both at the same time Very important question because for certain segments of US drinking coffee as an alternative to drinking soft drinks became an important aspect In some sense they re competing against each other Alcoholic beverages less so Coffee you drink first thing in the morning not as likely to drink a shot of vodka first thing in the morning The pattern of eating throughout the day is very important How does the meaning of coffee change over time This is the thing Roseberry tries to talk the meaning is shaped actively in organization that are trying to shape a certain product The move it from a drink that s a cheap common drink to a drink that begins to confer distinction on its consumer You can t acquire cultural aspect in consuming coffee Moves from something you can buy relatively inexpensively to something that does end up making a difference to your budget Roseberry tells us a story where coffee consumption declines sharply after the 2nd world war By late 1980 s only 50 of population drinking coffee Not only were numbers of coffee declining but younger generations were drinking sugary soft drink beverages In 1980s new effort to sell coffee begins by recognizing that there are many different markets for selling coffee have to sell diff type of coffee to someone in the 50s rather than someone in the 20s lSt was created by policies of Reagan era secular growth of inequality in the US in the 1980s is where the process begins wages for working people begin to decline On the other side growth of welleducated elites called Yuppies 0 Was meant to label a particular segment 0 Within the Yuppies there were further distinctions Dinks One group of people to whom the marketing of gourmet coffees was directed they had the income and cultural capital to appreciate what was going on The second niche was occupied by college students They were getting their caffeine from soft drinks The coffee produced gourmet coffee that emphasized taste prestige and cultural capital that was associated with drinking highend coffee How to make a product sell is to make it appear very desirable Not just taste was being sold lifestyle and certain status was being associated with better taste With the rise of companies like Starbucks the trend begins in Seattle SF with small independent companies and then starts to grow very rapidly to become a global company Typically charge consumers 46 times for what they paid for the coffee They are making major profits They were new small independent companies that started the trend Development of a system of distribution that begins to distribute coffee is smaller batches The large coffee companies at first didn t care for highend coffee they didn t think they would be competing with them They were slow to recognizing that this was an emerging market and that companies like Starbucks would end up competing with them Now they entered that market and because of the popularity of the machine the gourmet coffee machine is the way to go and it s growing very rapidly The gourmet market has grown so large that now there s intense competition to further refine the gourmet market You get competing chains arising Some European coffee stores says that Starbucks burns the beans they don t know how to roast them properly They purchase from a very large range of producers source from many different countries and then they mix the coffees from different places to produce a certain blend In the highend there s further distinction of the taste that s emerged also about how coffee is grown and how coffee is distributed and how it is processed There s a lot of further refinement that s happening Is the coffee organic Most of it is still nonorganic fair amount of pesticides almost always the nonorganic is nonenvironment sustainable Takes a lot of nutrients from the soil Have to put in chemical fertilizers to replenish the soil ows to the water and the ground Fair trade very big point to talk about People might say they re doing fairtrade coffee Sharedgrown coffeeis grown along with other trees and crops which provide shelter from the sun and provides the soil with nutrients Roasting process the large US chains heat the beans too much roast as high temperature and this introduces avors into the coffee that are not desirable Gourmet coffee the coffee has become much stronger You can get more caffeine in a cup of coffee now then you could get from drinking soft drinks Huge amounts of caffeine in coffee If you compare the amount of caffeine from Peets or Starbucks to the amount of caffeine in an espresso it s not comparable New advertising campaigns aimed at yuppies Exclusivity Coffee was a sophisticated drink you were a person who knew what a good cup of coffee was like Coffee was often associated with effortless work you re on your laptop and have a cup of coffee New gourmet coffee shops also catered to young people who also drank soft drinks added syrups rise of the Frappuccino s If you look at the layout of the shops they have a young hip look def1nite architecture to the new coffee shops that was intended to draw in younger consumers Coffee shops offered services to younger consumers rst to jump into free WiFi Interesting association how you can get free WiFi here The music often played is not classical music music for the younger clientele Distribution chain important agreement about the supply of coffee which limited the supply of coffee to stabilize the price of coffee Much like the cartel to stabilize the price of oil In 1959 the rise of specialty coffee then this collapses The price of coffee crashes globally and goes down 13 of the price it had a few years ago Implications on small farmers The people who were hardest hit in the time where most of us joined gourmet coffee This is where questions of fair trade come in Fair trade is a system that started in small handycrafts clothing manufacturing Fair trade wanted to return more of the sale of products to the producers did this was shortening the supply chain Direct marketing they bought coffee beans directly from producers and marketed them in the US There s been a lot of confusion of fair trade In 1999 a lot of these organizations came together They said let s develop a consistent standard for fair trade Starbucks only started selling fair trade coffee after immense pressure from its consumers More of the share of the coffee cup you re drinking with fair trade goes to the producers If you order a fair trade cup it s only 10 cents more but it does make a difference to where the pro ts are going Pay a higher price for their beans Questions of organic vs inorganic sustainable vs unsustainable 3 dimensions of food that you should always pay attention to they don t always come together the fact that we have gourmet coffee says little about the effects of the coffee on the producers land and our bodies Discussion Notes 3515 124 PM Describe the ethnography and through your description link some themes together Want to see the way the observations are playing out Fast Food Nation Why fast food is important Large industry global impact Ef cient 0 Assembly linetechnology Affordable Employment 0 Exploitation Convenient 0 Lifestyle 0 Working two jobs 0 Minimum wage 0 Food preparation diet 0 Food production Immigration Gender Health Industrialization Mass production farms Upstream Community Technology Environment Downstream Chain of food being growth to food being eaten Consumers How can we think about labor in a way which is structures the economy and then affects our eating habits Health affects relates to the upstream side of things If we think about fast food as an industry how does that impact processes of production and distribution Class and gender you will see across the board Schlosser talks about how they don t have unions If we think about food chains and Schlossers fast food nation what are the dominant ideas about the current economy being brought forward Role of government in Schlosser s book Lobbyists have a large role in all this they re able to pass labor laws The fact that you have so many people working for you to ensure your interest these are the interests of the corporations The whole focus on it is on profit Think of the effects of that on farmers Think about the supply chain that goes from when it s grown to when it s being eaten Every aspect of control is being watched over by this corporation the buying power that the corporation has Thinking about idea of media There s a standard that s created some things become acceptable and others become less acceptable Fusion and diversity Gender relations with employees 31215 631 PM 31015 coffee raises a big question what does it mean to eat local People who argue that we should only eat local then maybe they should stop drinking coffee tea and stop eating chocolate The notion of the local is taken so problematically that we have to ask what s local when many of the crops today have come from somewhere else in the world even if we thought they were local Most of the staple foods of our diet are not local in the sense that they were historically there Last time we talked about coffee going from inexpensive commodity 9 gourmet food Coffee has to be handpicked There are no good techniques with machines to pick coffee Need human skill to see which are ripe and which to pick Plants get damaged by machine picking A lot of labor involved in growing and harvesting coffee they are very poorly paid Success of marketing gourmet coffee to students Yuppies Sweetening coffee to make it hybrid in the case of students Today agricultural technology stuffed and starved talks about the paradox how we have plenty of food in some places and too little in others People who have access to a lot of food vs people who don t have access to it Patel control of corporation gives us hunger in the South diabetes in the global north These are results of the same process 9 control over food system of large corporations Argues that a few corporations owns the distribution around the world He focuses on how this control of the food system the high toll this is taking on farmers and farming communities throughout the world Farmers are getting into debt in many parts of the world and committing suicide in increasing numbers Farming communities are being destroyed since large seeds are taking control over livelihoods Might have small farms operating they are controlled by the company who are selling the seed The farmer s autonomy ability to control what they grow have all been taken away In a good season they take whatever the farmers produce The risks of farming bad weather fluctuations in weather rainfall heat cold weather Will have a tremendous impact on farming Australia one of the largest exporters of wheat in the world was suffering due to 7 years of drought Effects of climate change on agriculture is so little understood in the sense that people are not conscious this will be an enormous problem we have to face Climate pushes even more pressure on farmer 9 farmer becoming unsustainable livelihood Raj Patel gives example of coffee pays the farmer less than 7 cents a pound but sold 200 times that price to the consumer Why have we ended up with a system in which a few companies control most of our food distribution Not that it s more efficient but because the system has been rigged in the form of laws natural laws Work against the interest of small farmers He s talking about national laws and international agreements We have still not fully recovered from the severe recession that hit the economy in 2008 2009 In that global recession it was estimated that 100 million people were pushed into poverty In the US itself we don t need to look at poor countries In the US approx 1 in 4 children lives in poverty today That s 25 SNAP formally known as food stamps now serves almost 50 million Americans Since eligibility for SNAP depends on if you re in 130 of poverty line as we well know the poverty line is often lower than that which allows a family to survive Minimum wage 9 below poverty line More than 17 of us lives in poverty The homeless population is estimated to be 630000 people are homeless every night in the US That s the population of SF That s what the numbers we have for homeless people in the US In any given year 3 million people in the US may be homeless Now picture a situation like this You have desperately poor people who don t have enough to eat but you have no program like SNAP That is the situation of people in most countries in the world There is no social safety net in most countries is something limited to the global North Large number of people who die due to starvation and malnutrition are those preventable with very little effort They need few resources to prevent those deaths from happening yet we fail to do anything about it We the people who can afford to pay less than a few dollars a month can afford to pay for people who can t afford to eat How many people are we talking about How many people are malnourishedstarving 1 billion roughly 16 of our planet does not get enough to eat Assume that foreign aide is a good thing and we could help these people How much is the developed world the rich countries of the world helping those people who don t have food Not just in food aide but in total foreign aide For example in the US how much do they give as a percentage of a GDP 0 We don t even give 12 If we gave 1 it would increase the amount 6fold of what we give today 1 is the target established for the past 30 years in the UN 0 Almost no country in the world gives more than 1 The UN has targets 7 GDP Only 4 countries in the world exceed that target 0 Leading the pack is Denmark Norway the Netherlands and Sweden The only 4 countries that exceed the 1 0 Where does the foreign aide go to It turns out that US foreign aide is about 24 billion 0 Guess where the foreign aide goes Foreign aide is being utilized as an instrument of military policy Not actually going to the countries with the largest number of poor people 0 Real question what is the aide being directed to Being used as instrument of state policy rather than humanitarian purposes That s always been a problem with US foreign aide Before the recession in 2009 we witnessed another interesting phenomenon that was taking food away from the plates of the poor That was the steep rise in food prices that occurred and has continued to have an impact today In 2008 food prices reached their highest levels in 30 years Price of wheat doubled price of corn went up sharply In 2007 the UN environmental program announced that for water land air plants fish stocks were in inexorable decline o What are we doing to the planet What are we doing in the way we are eating and consuming that s destroying the basis in which we re living 0 Cartoon the right Ppt the competition between food and fuel Food crops are being used as bio mass for making ethanol which is being used to drive cars in turn is leading to climate change 0 Before oil prices went down destroying water sources One way inexpensive fuel was generated was converting corn 9 ethanol Now economics is not working with oil prices being low Once the prices go out this will occur again 0 In 2006 corn prices in one year rose by 50 because of demand of ethanol production Almost 13 of us corn crop was being used for ethanol production 0 If you re growing crops for fuel that s in direct competition with land that can be used to grow food 0 Either grow food or crops that will give you fuel through bio mass 0 Land diverted from producing food to producing food and this pushed up the price of corn on international commodity markets This in term led to other bad impacts Farmers started growing corn instead of other crops If you grow the same crop over and over again you deplete the soil You need to change the crops that you ve grown Growing the same crop over and over again is called monocropping You re draining the soil of the nutrients Vicious cycle is created fertilizer pesticide treadmill You have to put more and more quantities of fertilizers and pesticides to maintain the same output until the point where it s uneconomical to grow that crop The amount of pesticides and fertilizers cost more than amount of food you re producing When competition for corn increased due to it being sold as fuel corn prices went up and this had an impact down the food chain because corn is used in basically everything Corn used as feed for livestock so price of meat went up used for processed foods Corn is central to the way we eat in the US today When the price of corn went up everything else increased in price Genetically engineered food 0 One of the hottest political debates in food in recent years has been about GMO genetically modified organisms The issue is that people on one side are arguing that given the fact that we have a lot of people to feed and the fact that we don t have that much arable land GM foods are one way we can increase the productivity of agriculture because we can breed plants in such a way so that they re less susceptible to pests One thing lost in this debate over GM food is the question of what are you modifying it for Historically plant breeding but using techniques that don t involve genetic modifications has been about genetically modifying plant Breed one plant with another with desirable prosperities The crossbred has desirable properties 0 eg in the case of wheat and rice they bread new plants that were shorter The shorter plants were less likely to fall over when there were high winds The shorter plants also had more grains per stock than the taller plants 0 Then they modified them so the plants ripened more quickly For example instead of taking 90 days if you could get a wheat plant to ripen in 60 days it dramatically shortened the amount of time it took Instead of growing 2 crops a year you could grow 3 crops a yeah Genetically modified plants has historically been something humans have always done 0 We breed plants to make this heartier tastier etc Possible by gene manipulation in the lab You can put and tie different traits into a plant You can put the gene from a fish into a plant and modify it in that way Put a gene from an insect into a plant Guptas position on this there s a difference between plants bred to resist insecticides soybeans for example It means that if you grow these round up soybeans and you spray with insecticide roundup then it will kill the weeds and not the plants If you have genetically modified tomatoes so they have a longer shelflife as you saw from the film the tomatoes are harvested green and put in a gas that makes them look red Why is that done The time you pick the tomatoes harvest them transport them by the time you get to the supermarket its been 10 days or 2 weeks old But you can t pick them ripe because then the consumer would get rotten tomatoes They said you turn off the gene that makes the tomato rot preserves the shelf life Then there were efforts to breed various kinds of things so they were more square the reason being that you could pack more of them into a box and can transport more of them On the other hand you have genetic modification that s introducing drought resistance Introducing genetic materials from plants in very resistant areas and putting them in wheat and rice You get increasing volatility If you have a plant that s genetically modified to resist bad conditions liked drought it will survive even in bad years Big difference between genetic modification so you can spray roundup vs genetic modification to have a plant that resists drought Gupta s view these are not the same thing One is being done for the motive of increasing profit of agriculture business Other done for making the plant more resilient and giving up a better source of food Two very different results or outcomes of genetic modifications 0 GMO genetically modified foods we talk about them like they re all the same But there s a big difference 0 Gupta would urge that we need to use a precautionary principle with GM products We don t know the longterm effects 0 People have tried all types of experience they introduce some micronutrients into the rice We don t know the longterm environmental effects of these technologies 0 Would be much more skeptical of a rice where they took gene from salmon fly vs taking a gene from another part of the world 0 To Gupta there s a difference between these types of modifications Much more precautionary about the kinds of freefloating experiments that people are willing to conduct on our food supply 0 Doesn t think it s an all or nothing opposition don t have to be for it or against it Almost all the food we eat today has been genetically modified by humans Has been either crossbread however none of the food has been bred with the genes of a completely different organism With gene manipulation you can introduce the gene of a completely different organism into the food Almost all the soil we get is genetically modified the same goes for corn Most of the corn sold in the US is genetically modified GM crops have different impacts may lead to reduced pesticide use and this is one of the big arguments for putting certain kinds of pesticides into the crop Instead of spraying it on the crop which is where you spray the earth and a lot of it gets in the water The argument for putting pesticides into the plant itself is that you end up using less pesticides overall and you don t end up polluting ground water and the land GM crop could lead to protein and elementenhanced crops Instead of getting flour that has things added to it you can put the genes for that in the crop itself so when you grind it into flour you ll have those properties already in it GM crops may also increase crop yield because less crops lost to insects and pests On the other hand GM seeds work because they have made farmers more dependent In the US 2 or 3 companies that cornered the markets of corn and soybeans Unlike conventional crops where farmers simply save part of their crop with GM they have terminator gene This makes it nonproductive to use as a seed the following year Farmers have to buy fresh seeds every year All been patented the companies patented the seeds They want to control how the seeds can be used GM crops also crosspollinate plants that are not GM If crops growing adjacent to GM corn it will pollinate the nonGM corn Increases control of agriculture by corporations Resulted in more control over the one area that farmers did have control over More yields if you get a good GM product like cotton More yields do not lead to lower poverty If you have micronutrient rich crops 0 There s a big difference between producing and eating 0 Producing may not actually reach the people who need to consume that 0 That is what genetically modified crops are sold on the fact that it will help pay the planet Is there any connection between how much is produced and how much people have to eat The short answer is no there s more than enough food produced today to feed all the people in the world but 1 billion do not eat it It s wasted fed to animals etc not being used to feed the people who need the food 0 Having more of that food doesn t exactly lead to the solution of ending hunger 0 Its about distribution it s about peoples ability to purchase food If you don t have a job you can t purchase food if you don t have land then you can t grow your food 0 There s a direct relationship between our action and the fact that so many people in the world don t have enough food to eat 0 People are going hungry they think there s not enough food on earth but this is not the case 0 There has been more than enough food and yet the number of people who don t have enough to eat is not decreasing 0 GM is a big controversial item What can you do 0 As an individual activist citizen and human being 0 As an individual you can change consumption patterns 0 Reduce consumption of foods produced with chemicals 0 Eat less food that is harmful and more is healthy 0 Most of what we do helps vs hurts the environment 0 Eat less resourceintensive foods 0 Many things we can do as an individual that effects the rest of the food chain 0 Eating food less harmful to you and your body 0 This is a change we can all bring about 0 You work on a 10 rule You do what you do and then make it 10 better 0 Sometimes doing what is best can be difficult but you want to say ifI can only afford to buy a little bit 10 of what I buy as organic food what would I buy first o In terms of your own health if you reduce consumption of foods with less chemicals and eat less foods that are resourceintensive take a lot of land water resources to cultivate eat food that is grown with fair wages We can all learn to cook with smaller quantities o What are foods that are resourceintensive Almost all the meat we buy For example if you take water consumption beef production takes 530 times water per pound If you ate a mostly protein heavy diet and you got 2000 calories a day you would be consuming as much water and contributing to land degradation as the equivalent of 5 people who are on a pure vegetarian diet This means that you should be thinking about how to use the resource intensive parts of the diet in a way that enhances or increases the value to your body without harming the environment 0 It might mean you should cook meat with a lot of vegetables 0 In a lot of cuisines the meat is used as flavoring for the vegetables For example most Chinese food is small parts of meat used as a flavoring agent for vegetables and rice and noodles Same thing with Italian food Often get the meat to flavor the pasta vegetables 0 There s a way you can cook to use a lot less than that The dirty dozen General rule we careful with fruits and vegetables where the pesticides cannot be washed off Be very careful with berries chances are you re ingesting a lot of pesticides Fruits with thin skins An apple has 27 different chemicals Some of them come from the root of the apple so you can t wash it off If eating organic you need to make sure you wash the skin thoroughly 0 In thinskinned food the pesticides permeate the skin Lettuce and tomatoes you cannot wash off the pesticides If you had to choose which things to buy that s organic meats milk potatoes spinach grapes pears bell peppers apples peaches Clean 15 are things with less pesticides and chemicals wouldn t have to buy these organic and it d be okay More of what you can do Buy fair price goods with fair labor practices 0 Fair price coffee buy from establishments involved in fair price Make sure workers get paid for their work Reduce length of commodity chain wherever possible buy directly from producer is you can eg farmer s markets 0 When you buy from the grocery store almost none of that is getting to the farmer Participate in community supported agriculture CSA 0 They are contract between you the consumer and farms 0 They bring the produce from the farms directly to you 0 Only one link in the chain 0 Buy a share in the farm give a farmer a certain amount every month and they give you what is made on the farm Try to find the origins of your food and what condition it s grown in Whole foods will do labeling because the consumers ask for it By sampling asking questions about where does the food come from how does it grow it forces them to be a little more vigilant Recently McDonalds announces they were no longer going to buy meat with antibiotics in it Because they re such large purchasers of the meat it will make a huge difference Safety of fish ask about conditions in which fish is raised A lot of fish we eat is heavily contaminated because we have put so much mercury in the ocean that it accumulates When we eat the big fish like tuna is has huge concentration of PCP s and mercury Recommended not to eat salmon more than once a month Atlantic salmon is regularly fed with things that changes the color of the fish and they start putting antibiotics in their food in order to increase the size of the fish As consumers the more better informed you are the better your choices are going to be and the more carefully you will be able to decide 31215 What do you do if you don t live in CA and don t have access to farmers markets the whole year Can get jams jellies pickles prepared foods that farmers can make You can t get fresh vegetables and fruits in the middle of the winter In many places farmers markets shut down in the winter If you only ate things that were grown locally you would have to can your stuff or go without vegetables for a large part of the year Limits to some of what you can do Main point you can t take some of these rules and ideas in an absolute way because its hard to do and you may run into contradictory situation Last time we talked about changed you can make in the world of food around you personally People took this class because they may have concerns of health cookingeating good food interested in relationship between food and environment food and social security public health issues Junk food fast food is involved with public health and the relationship between food malnutrition and disease Last time talked about what we can do to change food environment as an individual in terms of what you consume CSA s you can eat fresh food by either shortening the food chain the number of connections between time food is grown and reaches you you could eat food that s healthier for you because it s organic or not been sprayed by pesticides and insecticides food with low carbon footprint think about food that has high carbon vs low carbon this is a reason why a lot of people want to eat local food because there s not so many chemicals used in transporting food from place where it s grown to your table or your fridge food with low water footprint is also important We end up wasting a lot of water through the food water that goes into production of the food There s rice being grown in CA you know CA is geologically a desert Its been transformed from a desert to what we see it now because we re getting water from the CO river Rice is a very waterhungry crop you should not grow rice in a desert but that s what we are doing since water is so inexpensive If you did a water footprint of rice being grown in CA it would be highly negative in the sense that it would be very high amount of water being used to grow rice We re growing in a zone where rice is not meant to be grown Also lower environmental impact by consuming smaller qualities of animal protein you can eat food that is fairer to workers and farmers by buying fair price products family farms CSA s United farm workers campaign against DairyGold products because of the way they re treating workers Have a whole bunch of campaigns they re doing Did episodes called take my job pleasequot immigration debates that the immigrants are taking away our jobs Turns out that agriculture is heavily dependent on migrant labor especially from mexico and central America One argument that anitimmigration groups make is that they re taking away our job So they made episodes that the farm workers said take my job please They would be happy if you came and took over their jobs Producer tried to go pick beans and corns they work incredibly hard for very little money Campaign to say just try it for a day Do the job of an agricultural worker for one day and then you ll realize how difficult the job is and why more people don t want to do it Today go out from the individual to thinking what you can do as a food activitist as someone who can contribute to food issues locally globally issues of hunger Don t take money more about your time involvement the work you can do Not about where you can contribute financially but in other ways Resources available on campus locally in the area you can get involved with today Institute for research on labor and employment Is an institute on campus Does research on conditions of labor mostly work in CA but the economy is not a local economy it s a global economy interconnected to other parts of the world They work closely with labor advocacy groups including farmworkers they are very involved in activist work Promoting study and labor issues Place you can go to on campus Do industrial service work and farm labor Organizations involved in food justice issues Food forward Lots of organizations that think of food and questions of race and racism Food and questions ofjustice economic equality and inequalities Number of such organizations This one is a local organization that collects fruits from peoples backyards where they often go waste and distributes them where there are no grocery stores or where food is difficult to find Food deserts places where there are no grocery stores can t find fresh foods but they have plenty of fastfood areas Places where people of color live Organizations like food forward helps serve those communities They try to get the food to places and people who don t have access to fresh fruit and vegetables Converse 9 so much food going to waste When people have fruit trees and it just falls to the ground and no one eats it it grows more than you could possibly use Organizations make the link between food going waste and people who don t have access to food Organizations that also collect food from restaurants to feed homeless You could lobby your government to be more responsible actor 9 school lunches global food market We don t have a free market in agriculture Enormous subsidies given to large companies to grown corn and soil Corporate subsidies some of the largest ones go to food corporations agribusiness You can try to stop some of these subsidies if we do then a hamburger at McDonald s would not cost less than 2 cucumbers at a supermarket Why Huge subsidies going to that food primarily corn Food banks on the west side you don t need transportation to go somewhere to help contribute there On campus there are lots of things happening that you can get involved in Healthy campus initiative An attempt being made to get campus to do the right thing in terms of promoting health across different fields Eating exercise mental health More student involvement there is the faster and better it ll happen Right now there s UCLA sustainability initiative Only 12 of sustainability goal is to reach 20 by 2020 we are moving very slowly If there were student issues it would move much faster A lot of people say they live in dorms don t have a place to grow food There s actually a community garden at UCLA You can try to grow some of your own food New initiative announced across uc campuses food initiative Concentrate and focus on food issues across the 10 campuses Whole bunch of faculty who are now involved in this point is to make some changes to what we re linking in our food supply What one might be able to do about food issues on a more global scale how can you help people you live on less than 1 a day have poor access to food In the US we spend very of our little income on food How much does the average US family spend of their income on food About 15 Partly because there are a lot of poor households that we don t count That is a relatively low average Poor people in the world spend up to 90 of their daily income on food roughly about 75 is their average Most of what they earn is spent on food They literally live from hand to mouth Book said to people to put out everything that you eat in a week Some are poor families some are rich families Interesting to compare families and see what they eat in a week Mexico look at how much soda also look at fresh fruit and vegetables In Japan a lot of fish and all packaged food very little green stuff we see Result that fresh fruit and vegetables are very expensive in japan Packaging food is extremely common Difference in the quantities look at what they re eating in Chad No sodas all wholegrain little quantity of fresh stuff desert and expensive Italian family large number of drinks also a lot of fresh fruits and vegetables bread Interesting differences Family of India large number of fruits and vegetables large number of fried foods large number of soft drinks junk food packaged food There are also class differences here How do you take your interests in food and turn it into something productive Local global for other people struggling to get enough food to eat Singer on animal rights has also an interesting essay about our obligation to the world s poor where he says that it takes very little on our part to provide food for people who don t have any If that s the case then why don t we do more of that He makes an argument that essentially all of us should be doing more for people who don t have food to eat That s what he has to say about our personal involvement and social formations to which they can contribute Powerful industry lobby that don t want you to be changing your eating habts The world is urbanizing rapidly very often poor people are living in slums urban centers no land for them to grow their own food A lot of the land is being bought by large corporations This means for poor families they ll loose access to food as well What in this course that he s been trying to do in terms of teaching us about anthropology Through emphasis of food he s tried to say some things about Anthro One reasons why we may have wondered why are there so many films novels in the class 0 Important because most of us have a relationship to food through mass media popular culture Important for us to look a popular culture critically 0 Famous anthropologist Clifford defines culture as webs of significance that we ourselves have spunquot o In this class Gupta has qualified the stuff that Clifford says View that culture is a set of shared meanings that people who live in a society possess Tried to argue in this course that culture does not consists of a set of shared meaning Differences about the meaning of foods across various stratifications Different meanings across class gender How food means something different to women and men We talked about race in my year of meats there was a lot of that The meaning of food varies by class gender class region ethncitiy immigrants status etc 0 Culture then is a shared set of partially overlapping meanings We don t need the same set of meanings but have enough that is shared so that we can disagree about what it means Allows people to live with each other but NOT the same set of meanings 0 One message to take away in the class thinking about food and relationship to culture Emphasizing globalization from the very first essay he wrote9 globalization is not a new phenomenon is a feature of everyday life It s been so long in the making especially when thinking about food Affects our life in a multitude ways we haven t realized With coffee the names of places become part of our lexicon Food illustrates better than anyting else this point of globalization being a ubiquitous part of our life what is more English than the custom of taking tea in the afternoon Tea time is constituted entirely from products grown in British colonies The potato we think of as an Eastern Europe product vodka is made from potatoes Think of Ireland being as a land of potatoes great Irish famine A lot of things potato is used in it s a new world crop and only introduced into European after Columbian exchange Soon became dominant starch Peru is the birthplace of the potato Lots of potatoes we ve never seenheard of that were grown in Peru and some exported to other parts of the world Most Italians will say pasta with red sauce perfected over 100 years but tomato not introduced to Italian after Columbian exchange may say chilies are part of India and Thailand but it s actually a newworld crop Didn t know about it until the last 400 years Not only food but a great deal of our lives were globalized worlds major religions were first source of globalization He hopes this class has led us to whenever we encounter a claim always ask for WHOM is this truequot Differences in meanings across lines of gender class race etc When you here a claim ask for whom is this true Class showed us questions about race gender etc that these are important to understanding any important phenomenon When people say as a country we don t do thisquot we need to interrogate that we Who is that we who is everyone People will say oh society says this Beware of people who are speaking in the name of society Who are you talking about Which society Which culture Precisely one of the goals of socially dominant groups is to convince you that when things can be done without saying then you know this is something that s dominant Dominance established when things done without saying 9 table manners structure of a meal why is it that women only cook When people don t have to explain why things are like that then dominance is effective 0 You can start questioning that by thinking more carefully and critically about this 0 If you have masculine and feminine food steak masculine and fish feminine then why do Japanese men like fish so much You historicize and preventative certain ideas by trying to confront other ideas in parts of the world 0 If everyone loves fast food then why do poor people eat it so much more than rich people 0 Naturalized by removing discussions of class if there s no discussion of class then we can t provoke inequality 0 Tried to show us why inequality matters in the choices we make about food who has access to what types of food 0 Gupta sees his job about if you re successful in what you re doing it ll be because he s been provocative Other ways to think about things maybe challenge ideas His job is to make you question things Final similar in structure to the midterm 60 multiple choice 2 short answers Multiple choice questions thinks of theoretical and conceptual points If there are 3 correct yet narrow answers choose the more theoretical answer more conceptual answer rather than one just about the facts Make sure to remember the authors for the books and films 31215 631 PM 3 10 15 0 Themes 0 Meaning 0 Body 0 Inequality Industrialization 0 Gender 0 Class labor Ozeki My Year of Meats Roseberry Yuppie Coffee 0 Patel Stuffed and Starved Clapp GMO political economy 0 Roseberry Lifestylestatus Tying this to a class position 0 Meaning which coffee is circulating Going from something that is very cheap to coffee as the means through which you re gaining cultural capitalism 0 Coffee drinking has become a practice primarily through the way of consuming it sweet 0 How do we see meaning be treated in My Year of Meats American beef has meaning of American life Is desirable in the Japanese culture Beef American life identity Ozeki is dealing with media We re looking at circulation of meats Focusing on beef and beef consumption the idea of what it means to be American 0 Looking at 2 versions of Americanness Start off on one idea where it s located starts by talking about a white middle class America Wholesomeness is a word that s constantly used 0 When she starts directing she s showcasing different sorts of family Along with that comes different food practices and different eating habits Can think of this in terms of class this idea of what it means to be America and why that idea still holds power and how it circulates through meateating is something we can talk more about 0 Business of identity is huge 0 Meaning Stuff and Starved 2 body My year of Meats Akiko s husband is very controlling he s conserved about what she eats Body control health circulations of ideas 0 Her bulimia 0 We see theme of body come up again and again 0 Stuffed and starved body element some of the farmers are using suicide as a way of protesting they only have their bodies to protest 0 Impact of the hunger strike 3 Inequality In Patel you see inequality in control of the food corporations and the bottleneck Corporation 9 producers consumers 9 ower Roseberry gourmet coffee is putting a divide between the classes Looking at the supply chain is about how the inequality is created and maintained Seeing who has access to what types of food They re not eating beef they might be eating chicken Processing meats being exactly the same across the world Lesbian couple and vegetarianism Dealing with identity mixing with how inequality is instituted Gender inequalities Akiko and her husband He s very controlling The show is geared towards making her a good Americanized house wife Roseberry doesn t really touch on gender Stuffed and starved you are seeing effects that are putting stress on farmers across the world The census that the government conducts does not take the fact that the women working the farms are not included in that labor Class for Yuppie Tying into a particular type of situation Inequality in Patel with the farmers and corporations The divide between urban and rural 0 My year of meats is labour Division in terms of gender with the husband and the wife 0 Bottleneck effect stuffed and starved 0 Keep thinking about practices of labour that are seen in readings before this Schlosser and food chains Think of development in terms of developed nations or undeveloped nations How does that play into in terms of what s going on In tracing out the power dynamic the point is that this is happening on a global scale and happening in several places Mexican example in Stuffed and Starved Technology becomes a big part of that story whole process of standardization Everything comes back to industrialization and development For the final there will be emphasis on comparison How are they taking arguments further how are they complimenting think about ways they build on one another they might be working counter to one another Office hours Friday 112
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