New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

by: Ashley-Maria Farnen

Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Biology 105

Marketplace > Indiana University of Pennsylvania > Biology > Biology 105 > Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
Ashley-Maria Farnen
GPA 3.6

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Cell Biology
75 ?




Popular in Cell Biology

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley-Maria Farnen on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Biology 105 at Indiana University of Pennsylvania taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Cell Biology in Biology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania.


Reviews for Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 11/10/15
Bio Notes 1. Chapter 3-5 – Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life a. Biological Molecules Great and Small i. Key Questions 1. How to organism use carbon atoms are decorated with functional groups to build basic molecules of life? 2. What are the categories of building block molecules? 3. What reaction link and unlink building blocks? 4. How are fatty acids, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins formed? ii. Subunits and Macromolecules 1. Sugars 2. Lipids 3. Amino Acids 4. Nucleotides 5. Polysaccharides 6. Fate and Cholesterol 7. Proteins 8. 9. DNA and RNA iii. Carbon 1. Carbon chains and rings are linked by single and double covalent bonds iv. Carbon Rings 1. Carbon rings can be flat 2. Carbon rings can be “boat” or “chair” v. Chemical Interactions or Molecules 1. Determined By: a. Shape b. Charge distribution c. Interactions with water d. Interactions with other molecules. vi. Functional Groups 1. Small groups of atoms 2. Contribute to the chemical properties of a molecules 3. Usually attached to the carbon backbone. vii. Examples of Functional Groups 1. OH – Hydroxyl 2. C=O – Carbonyl 3. COOH – Carboxyl 4. NH –2Amine 5. SH – Sulfhydryl 6. PO 4 Phosphate viii. Shape to Biomolecules 1. Lipids do not form chains of subunits 2. Proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates can form long chains 3. Carbohydrate chains may not be branches. ix. Linking Subunits to Make Macromolecules 1. Macromolecules subunits are linked by removing water – dehydrating condensation x. Breaking Macromolecules 1. Subunits are broken apart by adding water to a bond – Hydrolysis xi. Lipids 1. Contain high levels of chemical energy. 2. Do not dissolve in water 3. Have few polar functional groups 4. Major component of biological membranes xii. Fatty Acids 1. Are amphipathic – contains some polar groups 2. Saturated (no double bonds) or unsaturated (some double bonds) xiii. Health Effects 1. Saturated fats increase cholesterol levels in the blood. 2. Unsaturated fats have less effect on cholesterol levels 3. Omega – 3 fatty acids (from fish and sea weed) inhibit response in blood vessels and joints. xiv. Forming Triglycerides 1. Subunits a. Glycerol b. 3 Fatty acids 2. Linked by condensation reactions xv. Forming Phospholipids 1. Subunits a. Glycerol b. 2 Fatty acids c. “Head” with phosphate group 2. Amphipathic 3. Linked by condensation reactions. xvi. Phospholipids in Membranes 1. Amphipathic structure causes formation of a bilayer. 2. Charges groups associate with water. 3. Hydrophobic tails clump together. xvii. Glycoproteins and Glycolipids 1. Glycoproteins have short chains of sugars attached to proteins. 2. Glycolipids have short chains of sugars attached to lipids. 3. Both found on the exterior surface of cells. xviii. Polypeptides 1. Functions a. Structure and support b. Transport molecules c. Perform chemical reactions as enzymes xix. Amino Acids 1. Subunits of polypeptides 2. 20 different types 3. Structure a. Amino group b. Carboxyl (acid) group c. R group differ xx. Forming of polypeptides 1. Linked by dehydration condensation 2. Bonds are peptide bonds xxi. Protein Shapes 1. Globular – irregular shapes, non-repeating amino acid sequences 2. Fibrous – regular shapes, repeating sequences. xxii. Protein Structure 1. 4 Levels of folding a. Primary structure is sequence of amino acids 2. Secondary – coils or folds of seconds of proteins a. Alpha helix b. Beta sheet c. Stabilized by hydrogen bonds 3. Tertiary a. 3 – dimensional conformation of entire protein b. Stabilized by covalent, hydrogen and ionic bonds 4. Quaternary a. Multiple peptide chains fitted together to make 1 functional protein xxiii. Protein Folding 1. Some proteins fold spontaneously into their correct 3 – dimensional shape 2. Some proteins need chaperone proteins to fold correctly xxiv. Nucleic Acid 1. Functions a. Contains genetic information (DNA and RNA) b. Some nucleotides used for energy storage 2. Structure a. Subunits – nucleotides b. 3 – building blocks for each nucleotide i. Sugar ii. Phosphate iii. Nitrogen Base xxv. Nitrogen Base 1. 2 Types a. Pyrimidines, single sing b. Purines, 2 rings 2. Differ in fictional groups attached to the rings xxvi. Sugar and Phosphate 1. 5 Carbon Sugars a. Ribose in RNA (ribonucleic acid) b. Deoxyribose in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) 2. Phosphate groups link nucleotides together. xxvii. Formation of Nucleic Acids 1. Linked by dehydration condensation 2. Bond is called a phosphodiester linkage b. Key Concepts i. 4 Building Blocks – lipids, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides ii. Functional Groups determine chemistry iii. Dehydration reaction link small molecules iv. Protein shape is determined by R – group.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.