SocialPsychologyLectureNotes1.docx PSY 2501
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Chapter One Lecture Notes 0 social psychology the study of the effects of social amp cognitive processes on the way individuals perceive in uence amp relate to others 0 social processes how others effect our thoughts feelings actions etc 0 Cognitive processes how our own perceptions amp feelings in uence our own thoughts and actions 0 Where it came from o Nazi effect on social psychology In ux of psychologists to US Questions arose about prejudice amp persuasion 0 Many principles still used today 0 Persuasion 0 Obedience o Prejudiceintergroup relations 0 Group processes 0 What do social psychologists study 0 A focus on understanding everyday social behavior and social problems 0 How people Perceive others In uence others Relate to others rewarding people for doing something they already enjoy will make them enjoy it less in the future 2 Fundamental Axioms Construction of Reality o Each person s view of reality is constructed by social amp cognitive processes Persuasiveness of Social In uence o Other people in uence most of our thoughts feelings amp behavior whether those others are present or not Thinking of how it might affect someone 3 Motivational Processes Striving for Mastery 0 People seek to understand amp predict events in the social media world to obtain rewards Seeking Connectedness 0 People seek liking support and acceptance from others that they care about Valuing quotMe and Minequot 0 People like to view themselves amp others they care about in a positive light 3 Processing Principles Conservatism o Peoples views of the world are slow to change Accessibility 0 Information that is most readily available tends to have the most impact on thoughts amp behaviors Super ciality vs Depth 0 Generally people put little effort into processing information but in some situations we may be motivated to think more carefully Prominent Research Perspectives Evolutionary Perspective 0 Evolutionary psychology a sub eld of psychology that uses principles of evolution to understand human social behavior Attempts to uncover quotultimate causationquot CrossCultural Perspective 0 Cross cultural research designed to compare and contrast people of different cultures Example social relations in collectivist vs individualist cultures Social Neuroscience Perspective 0 Social neuroscience the study of the relationship between neural amp social processes Focuses on how the social world affects the brain amp viseversa Example gender differences in neuroendocrine reactivity to stress different amygdala activity when observing white amp black faces Social Cognition Perspective 0 Social cognition the study of how people perceive remember amp interpret information about themselves or others Focuses on how we process social information Has become the most prominent perspective in social psych Chapter Two Lecture Notes RESEARCH METHODS Background 0 How do we know what we know is true 0 Personal experience 0 Logical acceptance oCultural consensusacceptance 0 Authority o Hunches or best guess Scienti c Theory amp Hypotheses Theory o An organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena Hypothesis oTestabe predictions about the conditions under which an events will occur Example evolutionary theory amp gender differences in mate selection Types of Research Basic Research 0 Intended to expand general knowledge Applied Research 0 Intended to solve practical problems Observational Method 0 A researcher observes people amp systematically records their behaviors o Example eld studies amp archival analyses o Method is suf cient if the goal is to provide description of social behavior oLimitations 0 Lack of control over variables 0 Dif cult to generalize results Correlational Method o 2 or more variables are systematically measured amp the relationship between them is assessed 0 commonly used in the form of surveys 0 suf cient if the goal is to predict social behavior andor if the variables cannot be experimentally manipulated oPositive Correlation o As one variable increases the other variable increases as well amp viseversa Positive Correlation Agg roooivo th ovior l E 5 Houzro Spool Watohinrga Violent Teflovioiorm Flour Week 0 Negative Correlation 0 As one variable increases the other variable decreases amp viseversa Ne ati ve Qorrelati rl gg P ai39 Eiahwi i l3 2 5 F Home Spent Weighing meant 39lilawisim Pr 39WEEilit Zero Correlation o No relationship at a A99 maaiwa Eahmrir r Some Correlations Hours Spent wmhaieng mount Television Per 39WEEEII Correlations Pavia1 Fe rf egt Negative It Pmsitive Relationship He39atl m mlj Relationship Moderate Micaderany Ne ative Positive Helaitinnahip Relationship Limitations 0 Cannot determine causation only tells us if variables are related 0 leY or Yle 0 3rd variable problem XZY o Example correlation between the amount of violent TV kids watch amp how aggressive they are 0 Violent TV Aggression o Aggression Violent TV 0 Violent TV Neglect Aggression The Experimental Method 0 Manipulating some variables while keeping others consistent across conditions 0 only experimentation can determine causeandeffect relationships Key Features of Experiments 0 random assignments 0 all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment 0 independent variables 0 variable that is systematically manipulated dependent variables 0 variable that is measured in order to determine if it is in uenced by the independent variable EXAMPLE Violent TV amp Child Aggression randomly assign kids to watch either violent or nonviolent TV then measure aggression independent variabe watch a onehour police drama experimental condition or a onehour nonviolent program control condition dependent variabe measure aggressive responses toward other children during a play session TV amp Aggression Liebert amp Baron 1972 TV Aggresson 1 Liebert 8t Baron i1 Average duration til if ii teammate5 Pal H Hays H ritua Ellis5 lailrmlull E t lijgiui thaw No I Prim Elsiquot It New rs If H gilt Flaw Results exposure to violent TV increases violent behavior in children Experiments pros amp cons high internal validity can be relatively certain of causal relationships relatively easy to replicate low mundane realism do experiments translate to what happens in the real worldquot some causal variables can t be manipulated More Potential Problems demand characteristics 0 cues in an experiment that lead subjects to make inferences about what the experimenters desire and that therefore bias how the subjects act 0 social desirability 0 subjects may respond in ways that are socially desirable rather responding in ways that re ect their true feelings Solutions 0 cover story 0 description of study purpose given to participants that differs from real purpose deception o misleading participants about the true nature of study or what will occur in the study blind experiments 0 do not know the purpose of the study or the conditions that each participant is in Chapter 4 Lecture Notes PERCEIVING INDIVIDUALS PART ONE 0 elements of impressions o visible cues 1 physical appearance The Halo Effect quotwhat is beautiful is goodquot 0 teachers rate more attractive children as having more academic potential 0 strangers are more likely to give attractive people help when in need 0 attractive people have lower bail set in criminal cases Overt Behavior Nonverbal Behavior 0 facial expressions body language eye contact etc o frequent eye contact perception that the person is honest and likable Nonverbals amp Deception deception cues face body and voice what types of cues should we focus on when trying to tell if a person is lying o most people focus on facial cues but liars can best control those cues o the best cues are related to a person s voice high pitched tone and body movements restlessness can people be trained to pay attention to the right cues o Ekman amp O Sullivan 1991 Had police detectives US Customs CIA amp Secret Service Agents judge whether people were truthful or not Secret Service performed best 0 Trained to watch people s movements for weapons Elements of Impressions 0 Invisible factors 1 Familiarity quotThe Mere Exposure Effect the more exposure we have to a stimulus the more apt we are to like it example Moreland amp Beach had 4 females pretend to be students by attending varying number of lectures for a large college At semesters end women that students had seen more often in class were found to be more interesting intelligent and likable 2 Motivation amp Emotion our desires moods feelings etc and goals can sometimes in uence our perceptions of others Mood congruent impressions example positive mood positive impression of another and viseversa goals in uence impressions example might view a teammate more positively if your success is dependent on their performance 0 in many situations we see what we want to see 0 example in a quotdating studyquot Berscheld amp colleagues had participants watch a video of thee people having a discussion one of which would be their future date 0 3 groups of participants each expecting to date a different person in the video amp one control group not expecting to date any of them 0 results participants rated their expected date more positively compared to others since you have a different perception of them 3 Accessible Concepts recently or frequently activated concepts from memory can in uence impressions one of the most widely researched areas of impression formation in social psychology example Priming Studies common priming techniques include scrambled sentence tasks 0 visual priming word memorization The Effects of Priming oExample Higgins Roles ampJones 1977 o Participants memorized either negative reckless conceited or positive words adventurous self con dent 0 Received ambiguous description of a person named Donald 0 Measured the favorability of impressions of numbered scales 0 Results Rexeulta Higgins at al 139 SJ FEEEEH MEIE all people who formed 5 E EITWIE m1 1 r Eisq m till 5131 1 ti C l 1 ii 1 l i ri jajh39ifl39 P Ha unha W rd mem ritadi in the first study Limitations of Priming applicability Higgins amp colleagues 1977 also primed separate groups with traits such as obedient positive or disrespectful negaUve o priminig these traits did not affects perceptions because not applivable to the written description about Donald 0 awareness if rememberreminded of the prie then often no effects or the opposite is found many studies deal with priming outside of awareness show impact on behavior 0 example Bargh had subjects make sentences out of a scrambled set of words 13 given words realted to politeness 0 yield respect considerate 13 given words related to rudeness o disturb intrude bold bluntly 13 given neutral words participants were then told to go down the hall and nd the experimenter when nished the experimenter intentionally ignored subjects and carried on a conversation with a confederate results 0 subjects given rude words interrupted most subjects given polite words interrupted the least Accessible Concepts The Role of Expectancies our beliefs about what others quotarequot or quotmight be likequot can signi cantly in uence our impressions exampe Rosenhan 1973 had sane confederates enter a mental health facility as patients o hospital staff members failed to correctly identify them asquotsanequot o SelfFul lling Prophency o a person s expectations about another become reality by eliciting behaviors that con rm the expectation 0 example Rosenthal ampJacobson 1968 examined selfful lling prophecies in elementary school Results 9 Rosenthal Jacobson 1985le classrooms gave an intelligence test to students then randomly gave teachers names of students who were expected to bloom intellectually CHAPTER FIVE LECTURE NOTES PERCEIVING INDIVIDUALS PART TWO Cognitive Processing thinking super cial processing aka ow elaboration heuristic processing relying on accessible information to make inferences orjudgments while expending little effort in processing systematic processing aka high elaboration giving careful effortful consideration to a wide range of information relevant to a particularjudgment super cial vs systematic lt gt super cial systematic Impressions Visible Cues Overt Behavior Casua attribution a judgment about the cause of a behavior or other event Fritz Heider 1958 quotPeople are na39ive scientistsquot that try to understand other people s behavior by piecing together information Attribution was one of the most widely studied issues in social psychology during the 60 s and 70 s 0 2 Primarv TVpes Heider 1958 Internal Attribution aka Personal Attribution An inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of internal characteristics ability personality effort etc 0 External Attribution aka Situational Attribution An inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of external characteristics the task surroundings etc 0 Internal vs External 0 Example Dwight Schrute is the top salesman because Internal attribution He is determined worker intense good worker terri c External attribution All of the other salepeoples are incompetent 0 Theoretical Models of Attribution o Correspondent Inference Theory 0 Covariation Theory Correspondent Inference Theory 0 CIT Internal attributions are made by comparing what people could accomplish with the behavior they chose to perform with what could have been accomplished ith alternative actions 0 according to CIT internal attribution are most likely to be made when few quotnon common effects of hisher behavior the behavior is unexoected the role of noncommonality example a friend has accepted a job at an advertising agency in New York City 0 Why 0 Did heshe accept the job because of an interest in advertising 0 Because heshe wants to live in New York 0 Because the job pays well 1 nonrammedquot effects Few noweommon effects hl in Health l euranm Earner Teaching Gamer I39ll Meer lging 39 Waila Write Limianwaw H GEEIain Limiti Public Shame Turk HEMquot Wyoming E a i quot3mm 39 39 ii I insurance MWWEWE tim niatia Help lher Taming Lilae in New Tom a Um isie Talents duartieid Eirn Home Em JETl JLJLDD Agency Job g m l internal attribution internal Attributin Less likely More L39iil39E Eil iqf The Role of Behavioral Expectations suppose the 2 jobs are nearly identical except one pays 100K and the other 25K take the 100Kjob l behavior is uninformative otake the 25Kjob behavior is internal attribution is informative o must be crazy or must really like the work CIT vs Covariation Theory 0 Clle What information do people use to make internal attributions Covariation Theory How do people decide whether to make an internal or an external attribution Covariation Theorv Kellev 1967 3 Types of Covariation Information o Consensus across people 0 Distinctiveness across stimuli 0 Consistency across time Example Why did Jack person fall down on the sidewalk outside of Van Allen Hall stimulus o Consensus Do other people fall down on the sidewalk o Distinctiveness Has Jack fallen down only on this sidewalk or has this happened on other sidewalks also oConsistency How frequently does Jack fall down on the Van Allen sidewalk We are likely to make an internal attribution something about Jack if we see this behavior as 0 LOW in Consensus Jack is the only person who has fallen down on the Van Allen sidewalk 0 LOW in Distinctiveness Jack falls down on most sidewalks not just the Van Allen one oHIGH in Consistency Jack falls down on the Van Allen sidewalk often We are likely to make an external attribution something about sidewalk if we see this behavior as oHIGH in Consensus Most people fall on the Van Allen sidewalk not justJack 0 HIGH in Distinctiveness Jack has only fallen on the Van Allen sidewalk and not other sidewalks 0 HIGH in Consistency Jack falls on the Van Allen sidewalk often Summary of Attribution Models Correspondent Inference Theory and Covariation Theory both assume that people make casual attributions in logical rational fashion Many studies have con rmed that people often make attributions on ways predicted by these theories Attributional Biases Fundamental Attribution Error Correspondence Bias l the tendency to overestimate the extent to which people s behavior is due to internal factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors Example Subjects read an essay about Fidel Castro that was written by a fellow student Jones amp Harris 1967 0 Essay was either written in favor of or opposed to Castro 0 Participants told that student author had a choice of topics or no choice of topics oResults Participants assumed that the author believed what heshe wrote regardless of choice 0 perti eipante told that student author had a choice of topics or no choice of topics Results ProTamra tutti 39 hi3 111 Estimate Ell may writer39s attitude itg ihl sZIH IKII ffli lilj In 39I quot 7 We tilttruce F rL i EJEUW ZH EI39L i39 ff it action of essay 3 Why do we commit the FAE o The focus of our attention is generally on the person rather than the surrounding situation Perceptual Salience information that is the focus of attention people tend to overestimate the causal role of perceptually salient information o situational causes of another s behavior may be practically invisible to us How Accurate are our impressions and attributions Under many circumstances we are not very accurate or at least not as accurate as we think we are Some studies have shown that people are more accurate when motivated But does it seem feasible to try to be accurate all of the time 0 Would likely expend too many cognitive resources 0 Another problem 0 People generally aren t aware of potential biases and biases can operate even when motivated to be accurate CHAPTER THREE THE SELF PART ONE LECTURE NOTES The Social Self 2 Components 0 SelfConcept all of an individuals knowledge about his or herquaHUes 0 Self Esteem an individual s positive or negative evaluations of himselfherself How is our selfconcept and selfesteem shaped by our social environment 0 We may often draw inferences from our thoughts feelings and behaviors o SelfPerception Theory Bem 1967 we make inferences about our attitudes by observing our own behaviors when quotinternal cuesquot are weak or ambiguous 0 Example think about how you attend church and conclude that you are religious 0 Example volunteer at a homeless shelter and conclude that you are helpful or caring Most likely to draw inferences when behavior is freely chosen andor driven by internal motivation According to SPT when people realize their behavior is caused by an external factor they do not assume that it re ects their internal feelings 0 Example if you re waiting tables over the summer for extra money you won t assume that you do it because you enjoy being on your feet all day Motivation lnternal vs External Intrinsic Motivation doing something because you want to Extrinsic Motivation doing something because it s a means to some external end The Effect of Being quotOverRewarded 0Overusti cation Effect perceiving your behavior as caused by extrinsic reasons in turn leads to underestimation of intrinsic causes of the behavior 0 quotintrinsic causesquot attitudes 0Example Pro Sports 0 Bill Russel quotI remember that the game lost some of its magical qualities for me once I thought about seriously playing for a livingwhenever I walked onto the court I began to calculate how this particular game might affect my future Thoughts of money and prestige crept into my head Over the years the professional game would turn more and more into a businessquot Research Supporting OverJustification 0 Example kids amp math games Initially played the games for an average of 20 minutes baseline level When given extra credit they averaged 25 minutes of play iereward level After reward program stopped averaged only 14 minutes of play ie no reward Resu s suits i F r f 39i u 5quot l IE F39lli gala EB 3994 k E F Bays 0 replicated the effect with kids and markers Lepper 1973 13 of kids asked to draw some pictures 13 kids told they would get a quotgood playerquot award 13 not told about reward before starting but received one afterward 0 expected reward had the lowest percentage of time spent playing with the markers 0 unexpected reward had the highest percentage of time spent playing with the markers 0 no reward given had the 2nCI highest percentage of time spent playing with the markers 0 the over justification effect has been shown many times with children amp adults 0 Amabile 1996 had adult participants write poems draw pictures or generate creative business solutions 0 These researchers consistently found that people were more creative interested and challenged when external rewards were not present o If extrinsic bene ts serve to undermine intrinsic motivation should teachers parents and employers not offer rewards Depends on how the reward is perceived o If reward comes in the form of quotspecial bonusesquot for superior performance then it can actually enhance performance The In uence of Others 0 Social comparison theory the theory that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others 0 Festinger 1954 argued that this is most likely when we are uncertain of our abilities or opinions Example Klein 1997 had participants make a series of judgments about artwork Then gave people quotfalse feedbackquot 0 12 told 60 of their answers were right 12 told 40 of answers were right 0 also told either that their scores were 20 better or 20 worse than average 0 Results when they later rated their own skill they were not in uence by their own score but how it related to others 0 Do people also turn to others to determine their emotions Schachter 1959 found that when people were frightened into thinking they would receive electric shocks most sought out others in the same situation 0 Perhaps when people are unsure about how they feel their emotional state is actually determined by the reactions of others around them The TwoFactor Theory of Emotion According to this theory 0 The experience of emotion is based on two factors Physiological arousal Cognitive interpretation of that arousal o Seeking out others helps us interpret the arousal we are feeling as a speci c emotion quotMisery doesn t just love any kid of company it loved only miserable companyquot Schachter 1959 0 Example Schachter amp Singer 1962 injected males with epinephrine a drug that produced arousal 0 One group was told the true effects of the drug 0 One group was not told about the drug s effects 0 1 group was given a placebo 0 subjects were then left alone with a confederate who supposedly received the same injection the confederate either acted euphorically happy or displayed anger 0 results druginformed group were not signi cantly in uenced by the confederate However the druguninformed group reported more anger or happiness consistent with the confederate s behavior O CHAPTER THREE THE SELF PART TWO LECTURE NOTES Knowledge Self vs Others is selfknowledge the same as knowledge about other people yes and no ActorObserver Differences in Attribution o We tend to attribute our own behaviors to situational causes while seeing others behavior as caused by internal characteristics Especially when behaviors are negative oWhy Could be one of the following but most likely a combination o We have more situational information about ourselves than we do for others oAlso others behavior is most salient o Could also be motivated to view oneself in a positive light by explaining negative behaviors as externally caused Multiple Selves How do we formmaintain a coherent selfconcept 0 We organize information according to various roles activities and relationships we have 0 Self Complexity 0 The diversity of selfaspects people develop for various roles 0 Example You may consider yourself to be studious in school situations competitive in athletic contexts and fun when with friends The Social Self 2 components 0 Self Concept all of an individuals knowledge about their qualities 0 Self Esteem An individual s positive or negative evaluation of themselves The Need for SelfEsteem The Need to Belong we desire selfesteem because we have a primitive need to connect with others and gain approval Leary amp Baumeister oTerror Management Theorywe are biologically programmed for selfpreservation but we are always in fear of our own death Greenburg Selfesteem serves as a buffer Buffering Effects of SelfEsteem If you were to measure the selfesteem of people across the world would you nd that some groups differ 0 Men compared to women men 0 Blacks compared to whites whites o Asians compared to Hispanics asians Researchers have wondered whether low selfesteem is an issue for members or stigmatized minorities Group Differences in SelfEsteem Twenge amp Crocker 2002 measured individual selfesteem across groups 0 Results blacks reported higher selfesteem relative to whites other groups reported relatively lower selfesteem The Dark Side of High SelfEsteem Heatherton amp Vohs 2000 measured subjects selfesteem and then had them take a supposed quotintelligence testquot o 12 given easy questions and told they did better than average non egothreatening o 12 given hard questions and told they did worse than average egothreatening Heatherton amp Vohs 2000 0 after quotfalse feedbackquot then talked with another subject who did not take any test 0 Results the other subject rated the high selfesteem quotego threatenedquot people as least likeable SelfEsteem Related Biases our level of selfesteem plays a crucial role in how we adapt to our world reacting to successes failures 0 selfenhancing bias interpreting information concerning the self in a way that leads to overly positive evaluations o people generally rate themselves as quotbetter than averagequot on most positive traits amp characteristics implicit egoism a nonconscious form of selfenhancement example Pelham 2002 argue that we form positive association to the sight of our own name and are drawn to people places and things that resemble our name 0 Mike in Michigan Denise as a Dentist lke at Iowa Evaluating Personal Experiences 0 Although we all generally selfenhance success does differ across people 0 Example Linville 1985 examined selfesteem after people experienced success and failure oResults People low in selfcomplexity few aspects of the self felt better after a success and worse after a failure than people high in selfcomplexity Self Evaluation 0 Evaluation of the self also involved comparison to internal standards Selfdiscrepancy theory people evaluate themselves against interna ideal and ought standards producing certain emotional consequences 0 Ideal selves the type of person we want to be 0 Ought selves the type of person we think we should be LSelfDieeirepeney Thee fel lw i rig iredete the 1 1 H Semen Self lefeell Self Aefigeli Sheff Sagef Sellf liaEE EF HEV lifeilere f meteh eeeiretierieil feil ure 39le meteh eeligeti eeeli ieeleeeietmenl Guilt Ema DMAL See neee E me rreeeme nt HEAETHE LWSIFSEI lF l IySii l iSSl HEiihtE fried 39 39 Sreueel Phyeielgieeli reueel l l Lweree Sel Eefeere Leeeree Self Ee ileern Funetien Funetien Illlr39iSSS lll SSS SelfRegulationControl oselfexpression a motive for choosing behaviors that are intended to re ect and express the selfconcept o if given a choice o people prefer social situations that let them behave in a way that is consistent with their selfconcept o prefer relationships where the other person agrees with their own selfimage SelfRegulation Presentation selfpresentation a motive for choosing behaviors that are intended to elicit a desired impression of the self one common strategy o selfhandicapping creating obstacles and excuses for ourselves so that if we do poorly on a task we have ready made excuses SelfRegulation Individual Differences owe all selfexpress and present to some degree but people show stable preferences for one or the other oselfmonitoring the extent to which people are sensitive to the demands of social situations and shape their behavior accordingly o high selfmonitors tend to shape their behavior to their audience or situation o low selfmonitors tend to behave consistently across audiences and situations CHAPTER 11 LECTURE NOTES PERCEIVING GROUPS PART ONE De nitions 0 stereotype an impression of a social group that people form by associating particular characteristics with that group 0 prejudice a positive or negative evaluation of a social group and its members a discrimination any unjusti ed positive or negative behavior directed toward a social group and its members ABC Model 0 Affect Behavior Qognition Affective Prejudice attitude toward a social group and its members 0 Behavioral Discrimination behavior toward a social group and its members 0 Qogitative Stereotypes beiefs toward a social group and its members Preiudice quothotquot prejudice extreme hatred for other groups ex Nazis Ku Klux Klan quotcoldquot prejudice some groups just don t have what it takes and should be excluded from desirable positions wealth and power although examples of hot prejudice are less frequent in America both types of prejudice are still alive and well What causes prejudice a social learning explanation prejudice learned from others parents teachers peer media etc by age 5 most children have begun to develop clearcut racial attitudes Goodman 1952 o acquisition by observing and imitating elders media expression of groups norms stereotypical role representations etc Baron amp Banaji 2006 0 measured extent of whites preferences for a white vs a black stimulus person 0 quotexplicitquot survey type questions measures ex which one do you prefer is there a prejudiced personality type 0 Early explanations were in uenced by WWII the extreme prejudice and discrimination shown by Nazis Authoritarian Personality Adorno 1950 those who cannot accept their own inner con icts believe in authority and see their own inadequacies in others 0 prejudice as a means of protection from own selfdoubts ls preludice natural or unnatural according to some evolutionary psychologists animals have a strong tendency to feel more favorably toward genetically similar others and express fear and loathing toward dissimilar organisms is prejudice really the rule rather than the exception 0 perhaps most social psychologists would answer yes contemporary social psychology such phenomena result from similar social and cognitive processes that affect the rest of our lives Categorization Social Categorization process of identifying individuals as members of a social group because they share typical features of the group o people are perceived as group members rather than as individuals The quotBig 3quot Categories 0 Gender 0 Ethnicity 0 Age Many other categories and combinations can be just as in uential in some situations socioeconomic status occupation speech dialect uniforms etc 0PROS o categorization helps us master our environment it can help us deal with others efficiently and appropriately CONS o categorization makes all members of a group seem more similar to each other than if they were not categorized o categorization can also exaggerate differences between groups exampe studies show that US men are only slightly more aggressive than US women but our impressions of gender groups really overestimate this difference Stereotype Content stereotypes can be thought of as mental images 0 our stereotypes often include many different types of information 0 physical appearance 0 interests and goals 0 preferred activities 0 traits stereotypes can be positive or negative 0 example women are sensitive Asians are smart stereotypes can be accurate or inaccurate 0 example analysis of many previous studies show that many gender stereotypes accurately describe the direction of differences between male and female behavior Eaeg amp johnson1990 aggressiveness leadership style emotionality 0 many stereotypes can be entirely inaccurate as well 0 however on some level every stereotype is inaccurate when it is viewed as applying to every member of a group Measuring Stereotypes amp Prejudice as societal norms have changed people are less willing to openly endorse stereotypes or reveal prejudice modern research relies on a number of subtle methods 0 disguised questionnaires o elaborate experimental cover stories o physiological measures ex facial EMG o implicit reaction time measures ex the IAT Baron amp Banaji 2006 0 also measured white subjects preferences implicitly outside of their controlawareness CHAPTER 11 LECUTRE NOTES PERCEIVING GROUPS PART TWO The Implicit Association Test IAT a convert computerbased measure derived from the speed with which people respond to pairings of concepts o ex how quickly subjects associate African American cues such as a black face with negative and positive concepts compared to the same associations with European American cues Stereotype Activation stereotypes can in uence judgments or actions only if they quotcome to mindquot but does this happen frequently often the rst thing we notice about other people are their group memberships most of the time it s the quotbig 3 stereotypes can become so well learned that their activation is automatic example Lepore amp Brown 1997 subliminally primed people with words associated with stereotypes of blacks reggae dreadlocks or nonsense syllables o then read a description of a person that contained traits aggressive athletic related to black stereotypes o results those primed with words related to blacks rated the person more stereotypically the effect was even stronger for those with high anti black prejudice automatic stereotypic in uences can go far beyond just impressions o example Payne 2001 had subjects make quick decisions as to whether an object that ashed on a screen was a weapon or a tool objects were preceded by a quick presentation of either a black or white face results subjects were more likely to misidentify a harmless tool as a weapon when it was preceded by a black compared to a white face follow up research by Correll 2002 found similar effects with quick decisions of whether to shoot people in a video simulation 0 results subjects were more likely to shoot a target person holding a tool when he was black opposed to white Stereotypes amp Cognitive Processing stereotyping is associated with super cial processing 0 as cognitive capacity decreases stereotyping increases stereotypes are often used as quotcognitive shortcutsquot or quotjudgmental heuristicsquot when people lack the motivation and ability needed to process information systematically for example increased stereotyping has been shown when people are o under time pressure Kruglanski amp Freund 1983 o experiencing intense emotions Dijker 1987 o at low circadian arousal Bodenhausen 1990 example o Bodenhausen 1990 randomly assigned quotmorning typesquot or quotevening typesquot to take a morning afternoon or evening experiement read evidence about a person accused of assault the name was either Robert Garner or Roberto Garcia results Roberto Garcia was rated more guilty than Robert Garner when at nonpreferred times of day ex low circadian arousal stereotypes are often used shortcuts however they can in uence more effortful evaluations oexample selfful lling prophencies o teachers expectations for black students are lower than those for whites regardless of abilities o in a job interview study white interviews conducted briefer interviews and sat further away from black applicants applicants then less con dent 1974 Stereotype Suppression generally attempts to avoid bias require motivation and cognitive capacity 0 one common way is to suppress stereotypic expectancies and thoughts 0 example Macrea and colleagues 1994 gave British subjects a photo of a Skinhead and asked them to write a quotday in the life ofquot paragraph o 12 of the subjects were told to avoid using any stereotypes and the remaining 12 were told nothing o results of the paragrapg writing task were not surprising those who were told to avoid stereotypes did and those who weren t did not o after paragraph writing participants wer brought into a room and told they would meet the Skinhead subjects chosen seat and distancefrom the Skinhead s chair were measured o results participants who were told to avoid stereotypes during the writing task actually chose to sit further away from the Skinhead o rebound effect suppressing stereotypic thoughts makes them more accessible in the mind and in some cases more likely to in uence future actions and thoughts Stereotvpe Change 0 we may think increased learning about others can eliminate stereotypes and prejudice contact hypothesis the theory that certain types of direct contact between groups will reduce prejudice o more contact is thought to increase the amount of stereotype inconsistent information Is Contact Enough stereotype inconsistent information is 0 often quotexplained away because stereotypic beliefs are quite strong 0 or people resort to a speci c subtype 0 subtype a narrower more speci c social group that is part of a broad social group 0 ex feminist is a subtype of the larger group women Effective Contact 0 some research suggests that increased contact can be effective if 0 it includes a large amount of stereotype inconsistent information so that it cannot be explained away 0 it involved many group members to limit subtyping o it comes from typical group members contact hypothesis 0 contact alone is not enough 0 contact requires equal status cooperative interdependence intimacy of contactacquaintance potential supportive norms authority believes one thing
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