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Philosophy 1400 Notes! Bundle

by: Olivia Brooksbank

Philosophy 1400 Notes! Bundle PHIL 1400

Marketplace > University of North Texas > PHIL-Philosophy > PHIL 1400 > Philosophy 1400 Notes Bundle
Olivia Brooksbank

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These notes are a bundle of everything we have covered in class so far, it is good to look at these before the next exam and the next final! Come take a look!
Contemporary Moral Issues
William Gessas
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This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by Olivia Brooksbank on Monday March 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PHIL 1400 at University of North Texas taught by William Gessas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Moral Issues in PHIL-Philosophy at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
Wednesday, February 17, 2016 Desires — actions — consequences Contemp - Intentions (Intent was good to do something) - It is the consequences that matter not the means of getting there - Aristotle: Student of Plato: virtue ethics: Living the good life through contemplative life is going to drive us toward excellence (virtue) happiness, fulfillment - Contemplation drives us toward excellence - Justice/ Temperature/ Prudence/ Wisdom - Wisdom is more important, it informs the other ones - Justice: Playing equals to equals and unequals to unequals - Temperance: Anger (there are appropriate amounts) Practice - Prudence: Practicality pragmatic nature, dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations. Practice - Intellectual and moral issues: - How do you learn virtues: society, idol - How would you learn justice: society, laws, idol (familiar with what is excepted to be just…) - Intellectual: BEST LEARNED FROM A TEACHER - You learn virtues by BEING VIRTUOUS…Practice - Courage > good - Cowards > bad - Mean in-between - Actions with no mean: murder - Emotions: hatred (malice) - No appropriate amount of adultery, theft 1 Wednesday, February 10, 2016 (Big philosophers) PHILOSOPHY Western philosophy Pre-Socratics - Began in ancient Greece - First Philosophers: Pre-Socratics - Democracy - only Land owning adult white men - Around 500 BC - Learned by memory, not writing - One good thing with this writing that we have discovered is abstraction, information outside of you, what knowledge is - This is why suddenly philosophy - Natural Philosophy: Knowledge about the existence of the world, how it works, why things happen, HOW THINGS EXIST - YOU HAVE A DIFFERENT BODY than you did when you were an infant but you are still the same person, there is an unchanging quality - Theory: WATER is everything - Stuff that underlies the universe…MASS! - The Presocratics were 6th and 5th century BCE Greek thinkers who introduced a new way of inquiring into the world and the place of human beings in it. They were recognized in antiquity as the first philosophers and scientists of the Western tradition. Socrates: - How to live the good life? HOW TO LIVE WITH MEANING… - Emotion, Love, what is a good life? A virtuous life, well remembered, fulfilling - What is the nature of excellence itself? (He did not know much) - He developed a following…PLATO (war with Sparta) Plato: - He likes Socrates, learns from him - He writes dialogue to capture the oral tradition in writing Wednesday, February 10, 2016 - Socrates death influences Plato, he writes the first of many plutonic dialogues, to immortalize Socrates and engaging in philosophy - Opens first institution of higher learning in the world, PLATOS ACADEMY - Doesn’t discriminate from any students, everyone is welcome - Best student is ARISTOTLE! Aristotle: Empiricist - Aristotle differs in thinking from PLATO - Rationalist Plato, empiricist (Sense perception of world) Aristotle - Famous, in his fame the kind of Masadonia 322 BC hears of him and says “I will employ this man to tutor my noble son” So he calls Aristotle to come up and teach his son…who was Alexander the great about his knowledge then is spread all around the world thus creating the WESTERN CIVILIZATION >____________>________>______>________>_____________________________ Presocraties Socrates Plato Aristotle Alexander the Great (Natural Phil) (The good life) ^ War with Sparta^ Notes: Philosophy 1/2216 How do we know right and wrong? - Innate - Society tells us - How we are raised - Religion - Reason - Pragmatically - SCIENCE (Gain knowledge of truth outside human biased) Can science define morality? - Has science told us abortions are wrong…no - It will never tell us what to do!!!!! - Small dead child, find the wrong…you can’t, you find the wrong when you reflect among your own breast, discuss, the wrong is in us not out there, if it is not out there how do we discover it? - SCIENCE CAN ONLY DESCRIBE (OBJECTIVE) - science defines 1+1=2 FACTS - RIGHT, UNBIASED, Cannot be molded What is wrong? - unfair/ unjust - Is followed by punishment - Something you don't like - Negative consequences - Murder/rape - Adultery - Threatens the government If morality is subjective……… - Isis kills is right to them not to us If morality is Objective………… - Isis is wrong we are right - Philosophers want morality to be objective Subjective - biased - What one believes - Opinion Objective - fact - - REASON - Real truth about the matter can be proven and disproven 1+1=2 Marker is blue Blue is contained in marker not perception of individual 1+1=2 is more true, persistent marker - reality, depends on perception how we believe, cultural Injustice is wrong, why? - you wouldn't want it done to yourself - Treat as you want to be treated Notes: Philosophy 1/2216 - Equality - Wrong, it bends towards justice What philosophers believe - Reason - Objective - You cant come to right and wrong because everyone thinks differently - It is universal if it is objective - Morality - If it is objective it can be taught, communicated and comprehended Contemp: Morality: Controlling the people (society) Are people born Moral and Unmoral? - False acquisition, not as simple?… - Empathy and sympathy lack in small children (It all depends on who they are…?) - Nature vs Nurture? - Find an isolated child to find the nature when nurture is not provided… - Government: People behave Thomas Hobbes : Government - The State of Nature : pre-civilized humanity - Before government…… - Contract: Make a pact…not very trustworthy, easier to disarm by saying one thing and then doing the other. - Solving the problem? - Government - How to centralize authority? GOVERNMENT STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT - Give up freedoms, for security, GOVERNMENT DIRECTS THE FLOW - Self interest, morality - people are self interested how do we make them good? — Govt. (His main concern is the problem of social and political order: how human beings can live together in peace and avoid the danger and fear of civil conflict. He poses stark alternatives: we should give our obedience to an unaccountable sovereign (a person or group empowered to decide every social and political issue). Otherwise what awaits us is a "state of nature" that closely resembles civil war – a situation of universal insecurity, where all have reason to fear violent death and where rewarding human cooperation is all but impossible.) RELEVENCE OF RELIGION TO MORALITY - JOHN ARTHUR Friday, February 5, 2016 Relativism Moral issues - Your morality and culture is relevant depending on environment and upbringing - Morality: views depend on the upbringing that you have had, culture. (how parents raised you, where you went to school, what your parents believe, friends, environment) - The pen is moving the marker is moving, EVERYTHING AROUND YOU IS MOVING - YOU ARE ALWAYS THE CENTER OF EVERYTHING (EINSTINEAN RELATIVITY) - Ethics depends on your perspective - Step outside of your moral compass to truly understand what is right and wrong - IDEOLOGY: It is a system of beliefs that inform our view of the world Example: communism - Equality, community greater than individual - Michael Perry: Morality = ideology - What is Hitlers Ideology: World domination, superiority, there can be superiority Culture now: Individual freedom, acceptance, tolerance, social harmony…These are individualistic, enable to support success of individual to support themselves Morality: Human rights - what is it that everyone ought be afforded: education, equality, morality Most fundimental right: LIFE YOU SHOULDN'T BE DEPRIVED OF YOUR LIFE!!! WHY????? WHERE DOES VALUE COME FROM WE ARE VALUABLE BECAUSE WE CAN…FEEL!! WE HAVE THESE RIGHTS BECAUSE WE ARE HUMAN, NOT BECAUSE WE ARE ALIVE IDEA OF THE SOUL (religion) - there is a part of you that has been hand crafted by god that when you die, there is a piece of life that lives on in the afterlife, god LITERALLY crafted you BOOM good! (Religious position) INTELLECT (NOT CREATED EQUAL) - Are we created equal though…? No… WE hold these Truths to be SELF EVIDENT that all men are created EQUAL (EVIDENT BY OUR REASONING, born with rights because we are presumed equal…) We may not be equal but we can all serve a purpose Friday, February 5, 2016 Are we born with intellect? Born with natural talent grow with effort, BORN CAPACITY IS MY LIMIT Human rights depend on some equality, people aren't born equal, born different, economics, capacity, likelihood to succeed, poor is not equal, handicapped not equal…. It isn't your fault.,, It is still criticizing the position that we are not equal We all have capacity for something…even if someone is better than someone else. Monday, February 1, 2016 Does morality depend on religion? Religion - Religion: A belief…afterlife, supernatural, higher Power, BEYOND REASON - If there was no morality would their be religion?… - Belief in the supernatural: RELIGION - Morality: Defining Right and Wrong (not always possible) subjective…no real definition - John Arthur: Understanding right or wrong, eval. the behavior of others = morality - What elements of our moral code are Religious: Stealing, murder, rape, adultery, fornication - Why do we need rules?-Need order , peace, understanding - Why religion informs morality : 1. Provides motivation (to do the right thing) 2. Morality is too complex (for the human mind to understand) scripture helps comprehension (religion, higher authority) Divine command theory: Actions are right because they are commanded by god IS IT RIGHT CAUSE GOD? OR IS IT RIGHT CAUSE IT IS RIGHT? - It is wrong because God knows - God has a good reason for doing what he does, but if he does why are we asking him - Both answers are unsatisfactory to divine command theory 1 Monday, February 1, 2016 Morality Moral ISOLATION - Every culture develops their own morality and it would be wrong of us to judge their morality from our own position - Why judge other cultures? We cant because we are an outsider we have no right - You aren't in them so you cannot judge - Relative/subjective — out window, up t personal customs and norms - Objective — facts - Other culture is different about school and work, education had different value than working in other cultures - Cultural construction: thin people are what culture constructs as beautiful, shaved legs, other cultures women cover up, have parts cut - OPPRESSION: Some cases there is choice others there is not - Why do women cover themselves? - Religion cultural preferences 2 Notes: Relationship between morality, 1/27/16 right and wrong, one zone self interest Self Interest: - Relationship - It is in your interest to be moral “honesty is the beast policy” - Cheating on a test: Long Term (no because you miss out on learning opportunity), short term (yes) passing the test for the time being) Punishment: RISK VS REWARD: Cheating - Risk = high Pirating movies online - Risk = low, punishment = high, the gain you receive is more important than the risk of being caught If you gain a lot, the risk is much higher GUILT: Feeling bad, morality differs FEAR: (Enforce morality upon someone…) - Shame (shunned by someone) - God (religion, afterlife consequence) Focusing on FEAR, SHAME, and GOD… - COERCION: To compel someone often by force (god) - Heaven and Hell - a weapon leveled at you by god, “do good or go to hell” - Are you a coward? ^^^^^^^^^ - If you are coerced into doing something it is less meaningful….(religion) - RELIGION ISAFORM OF FEAR…… - OOOORRRR people want to be christ like, it’s not coercion at that point…right thing to do Why are people bad???? or good???? There is no good or bad, we were raised to believe what is good and bad. When people act out of the norm it is simply not what we were raised to believe, it doesn't make what that person is doing bad necessarily. What if you are not caught? - Find a form of punishment which is inescapable - Make people think that it is always in the best interest for good morals What can you do to make inescapable punishment? (SOLUTION) - Guilt, feeling guilty for not doing the right thing - BUT WHAT IF SOMEONE DOESNT FEEL GUILT? IT DIFFERS… - God, if you aren't moral bad things will happen (hell) good (heaven) depends on beliefs Example: Drug Use - The gain is high to sell for money - The risk is high if being caught - Using the drug is pleasing in the short run for the high - Not good in the long run because it is bad for your health Monday, January 25, 2016 Title: Source of morality (right and wrong) Subject: Contemporary Moral issues David Hume: - What is the main gist of his argument?… Morality is formed by emotion, not reason - Conscious decision > Reasoning - Unconscious decision > Emotion (Gut feeling) - (Reason cannot tell what’s right or wrong) Law = Reason - Reasoning: Equal - Emotion: differentiates upon the person Does reason trump emotion? > yes - Hume: “You will always be subject to feelings, if feelings are mistaken reasoning immediately takes over.” - Realization: Not what you thought it was, no longer scared then reason IMMEDIATELY takes over, you are relieved (Dream, tiger example) - You act entirely by the effects of things, this makes you feel a certain way then reason comes in to where you can make sense of the feelings. IS/OUGHT FALLACY (should/shouldn’t) - “Just because something is…doesn’t mean that it ought or should” Example: Animals kill animals, its natural it doesn't mean it is good. Descriptive >>>> Value (Normative) (You can inform someone, but you can’t make it true to them.) - Vegetables contain vitamins - Descriptive (describing vitamins) - Children should eat veggies cause they will be strong (Normative, value judgement) Monday, January 25, 2016 Example: IS/OUGHT Conclusion: Don’t eat pigs… Why? Descriptive: 1. pigs are dirty 2. You shouldn't eat dirty things 3. Therefore you shouldn't eat pigs Naturalistic: 1. Pigs are dirty 2. Dirty food makes you unhealthy 3. therefore you shouldn’t eat ______________________________________________________________________ Feelings - Aren't real existence Reason - Physical real existence • Only when you take your own emotions that you feel discuss • It is true that you feel wrongness however it is emotion not reason • Disgust lies in you not the object • Not quality in objects, however perception in the mind - Religion doesn't come from emotion or reason…. Objective criteria upon which the world can be judged Utilitarianism Monday, February 29, 2016 Ethical theory developed by: Jeremy Bentham. Morality Moral thought on these… Why? Because we can make sense of Humans 1. Humans 2. Trees 3. Dirt 4. Whales 5. God 6. Angels Utilitarianism - The greatest good for the greatest number of people John Stuart Mill - Was an english philosopher political economist, feminist, and civil servant. He was an influential contributor to social theory, political theory and political economy. He has been called the most influential english speaking philosopher tof the nineteenth century. Mills conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual opposition to unlimited state control. Jeremy Bentham - Idea about ethics and morality which diverge from the overweighing influence of Kant before it. He thinks of moral consider-ability… How philosophers view it: Kant: Moral weight is based on if you can reason or not… - God, Angels > Humans > Whales, trees, dirt Bentham (And Mill): Moral weight is based on whether it can suffer…to feel pain 3 key: 1. Actions are to be judged solely by consequences nothing else matters 2. What is good and what is bad in consequences, when judging consequences, the only thing that makes the amount of happiness or unhappiness created 3. Everyone’s happiness counts the same shared happiness shared utility 1 Utilitarianism Monday, February 29, 2016 Different types of pleasure! 1. Simple pleasures: Chocolate, coffee, wine, ice-cream, nice breeze, plants 2. Superior pleasures: Love, passing a class, social status well, stability ______________________________________________________________________ Notes: 3/7/16 
 1. Utilitarianism = Godless Doctrine 2. Insufficient Time for calculation “Yes in a perfect world you would always be able to calculate perfect happiness…” 3. The issue of Justice (Tension) Rights: 1. Legal rights: State says you have rights 2. Moral rights: Given by nature, by birth (Higher than LEGAL law) 3. Everybody getting what they deserve 4. Unjust to break faith 5. Impartial RIGHTS reside with the injured person 2 Friday, February 19, 2016 Virtue Ethics (Kant) moral contemp - Virtue does not equal good character - What is genuinely right and wrong in an objective sense - How can we know right and wrong when writing laws… - Is virtue ethics demanding? Immanuel Kant: - Loved routine - Same routine his whole life same place same time, space and time are terms of sensitivity - Duty toward logic - Duty toward ethics > DUTY BASED LOGIC - Duty: responsibility - Misuse of Ought VIRTUE - HAPPY ONLY ONE THING CONSIDERED GOOD OR BAD = GOOD WILL (INTENTIONS) Only thing that matters is the intent…fulfilling my duty Intent: ONLY THING WE CAN ANALYZE WHICH IS GOOD OR BAD Intent is good consequences are bad…still good because of intent Categorical Imperative: Act only according to that maxim ( by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal LAW Only do things in which you are sure that everyone should do at all times 1. Create a Maxim (generalized state of action) 2. Universalize (Everyone does this thing at all times) 3. Social Chaos (see if there is inherent contradictions) 
 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 All creatures other than Humans are not making choices, decisions REASON > AUTONOMY > WORTH REASON: Ability to choose gives us our inherent worth and that is what separates humans from the beasts (Kant) Reason is what makes everyone equal ______________________________________________________________________ CATEGORICAL IMPARITIVE - All who can reason is categorical imperative - Treat people as ends instead of means: - Mean: Treat for your satisfaction - End: duty to other not myself THIS IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT PRESERVES AUTONOMY (Independence) Take away choice, take away autonomy Autonomy GIVES US OUR WORTH People reason differently…only one reason? Kant thinks that reason is objective, this will get us to true knowledge DIFFERENT WAYS OF REASONING AND ATTAINING KNOWLEDGE Wednesday, February 24, 2016 KANT: Advantages: Closed system Equality, forms of infinite worth Black and white Objective Disadvantages: inflexible Conflicting duties Loop hole problem Consequences matter Difficulties with reason Reason is universal… How reason and logic are what make people so important and special, our inherent worth Computer >>>>> MUCH MORE LOGIC THAN WE ARE, Exact answers Computer doesn't make decisions, not autonomous, programed responses always reason = autonomy = worth REASON GIVES US THE ABILITY TO CHOOSE WE ARE THINKING BEINGS with ACTIONS that have been thought about first! Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Virtue Ethics (ARISTOTLE) Contemp - Happiness (TRUE): Rich life, flourishing, to live well, to look back on a fulfilled life - Virtue: The route to happiness, being virtuous - VIRTUE: EXCELLENCE Ends and Means: JOB EDUCATION Pass a test Cheat - Virtue is the means to achieving true happiness and that happiness is the END - THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF VIRTUE ETHICS IS TRUE HAPPINESS, ethics just so happens to be the route to happiness - Living ethical life is the best way to achieve happiness Intrinsically Valuable: when they are good of in and of themselves like happiness (want) Instrumentally valuable: good for some reason, or for some greater purpose (umbrella protects you from the rain) Aristotle’s lifestyles: (3 types): Ascend in quality 1. Contemplative life (philosophical life) Virtue, excellence, trying to be something greater, fulfilling, meaningful existence, make something of yourself, deeper than famous) 2. Political life (honor, glory, fame, socially, attention, Hollywood) 3. Sensual life (hedonism, concerned with day to day pleasure, weed lovers, sex) (Being virtuous helps combat life) Monday, February 8, 2016 Why are Humans valuable? Moral issues A right that I think is important: Right to a fair and speedy trial: protects citizens against unfair prosecution and imprisonment. They cannot detain you. Right to education = right to opportunity Why do people have rights? people are born with them for being a human being Secular: denoting attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis. What makes them so VALUABLE? - BECAUSE PEOPLE HAVE INHERENT DIGNITY - Where does inherent dignity come from? Born with dignity - HOW TO JUSTIFY HUMAN RIGHTS: - REASON AND CONSCIENCE: humanity, how we write preamble - RIGHT to life: government cannot mess with you - Security of person: cannot be tortured or mutilation - What institution do rights protect you from? - From the government - Inherent dignity: The author errors in only looking at one definition of respect, that which is earned. Other types of respect are due to position or existence. Respect for a person as merely being a human being is dignity: Dignity is our inherent value and worth as human beings; everyone is born with it. - Dignity: the state or quality of being worthy of honor or respect. - DIGNITY!!!! - IS TAKEN AWAY WHEN…humiliation, mutilation, embarrassment… - If you were treated like a dog you have no dignity - Everyone has reason and conscience (not religious) Enables us to write the constitution, the preamble… - FREEDOMMMMMMMM, Article 4 - no slavery bro - Foundations of our society are secular, find a secular way of describing our worth Monday, February 8, 2016


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