Psychology 103 Psych 103
C of C
Popular in Intro to Phsychological Science
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 28 page Bundle was uploaded by Conner Caraman on Monday March 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 103 at College of Charleston taught by Silvia Hanna in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to Phsychological Science in Psychlogy at College of Charleston.
Reviews for Psychology 103
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/28/16
Thursday, April 14, y Chapter 4:Sensation and Perception The Doorway to Psychology Sensation: a simple awareness due to the stimulation of a sense organ Perception:is the organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation. Transduction:sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into neural signals sent to the central nervous system. Psychophysics Evoked memories and emotions intertwine with what you are hearing,seeing,and smelling, making your perception of an event truly unique. Psychophysics: methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer’s sensitivity to the stimulus. An psychophysics experiment would be seeing whether or not the subject saw the flash of light, the psychophysicist then relates the measured stimulus, such as the brightness of the stimulus such as the brightness of the light flash to each observers yes or no response. Measuring Thresholds Absolute threshold: the minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus. For example the typical human can see a candles flame from 30 miles away on a clear dark night this is the absolute threshold. Just noticeable difference (JND): the minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected. Weber’s Law: the just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity. Signal detection theory: the response to a stimulus depends both on a persons sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person’s response criterion. 1 Thursday, April 14, y Sensory Adaptation Sensory Adaptation: sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions. Vision: More Than Meets the Eye Visual Acuity: the ability to see fine detail. Sensing Light the length of a light wave determines the hue the amplitude of a light wave determines its brightness the purity of the is what humans see as saturation. The Human Eye Retina: the light sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball. Accommodation: the process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina. if the eyeball is too long images are focused on the front of the retina leading to nearsightedness(MYOPIA). If the eyeball is too short the images are focused behind the retina this results in farsightedness(HYPEROPIA). Phototransduction in the Retina Cones: detects color and operates under normal daylight conditions and allows us to focus on fine detail. Rods: become active only under low light conditions for night vision. Fovea: an area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at all. 2 Thursday, April 14, y The high concentration of cones in the fovea directly affects visual acuity and explains why objects in your peripheral vision aren't so clear. The retina is thick with cells. The inner most level are the photoreceptor cells(Rods and Cones) The middle layer holds bipolar cells, which collect neural signals from the rods and cones are transmit them to the outermost layer of the retina. The outer most layer of the retina is where the retinal ganglion cells(RCGs) organize the signals and send them to the brain. the bundled RCGs form the optic nerve that leaves the eye through the retina called the blind spot. Receptive Feilds A Particular RGC will respond to light falling inhere within a small patch, called the Receptive Field: the region of the sensory surface that when stimulated causes a change in the firing rate of that neuron. Most receptive fields contain a center excitatory zone surrounded by a doughnut shaped inhibitory zone called the oncenter cell. or the vise versa a inhibitory zone surrounded by an excitatory zone. The doughnut shaped region represent the retina. Perceiving Color Visible spectrum: rainbow of hues and accompanying wavelengths RED has a long wave length, GREEN has a medium wave length, BLUE has a short wave length. Color Blindness: genetic disorder in which one of the cone types is missing. The Visual Brian The optic nerve comes from both eyes and to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) located in the thalamus. 3 Thursday, April 14, y From there the visual signals travel to the back of the brain, to the area V1: part of the occipital lobe that contains the primary visual cortex. 3050 areas of the brain responsible for vision located mainly in the occipital and temporal lobe. Representing Objects and Faces in the Brian Modular view: that specialized brain areas, or modules, detect and represent faces or houses or even body parts. Perceptual consistency: even as aspects of sensory signals change perception remains consistent. Principles of Perceptual Organization Gesalt perceptual grouping rules that govern how features and regions of things fit together: 1. Simplicity: the simplest explanation is usually the best. The visual system tends to select the most likely interpretation. 2. Closure: fill in the missing elements of a visual scene. Allows us to perceive edges that are separated by gaps. 3. Continuity: Edges or contours that have the same orientation have “good continuation” 4. Similarity: Regions that are similar in color, lightness, shape or texture are perceived to belong in the same object. 5. Proximity: Objects that are close together are most likely are grouped together. 6. Common Fate: Elements of a visual image that move together are perceived as one moving part 4 Thursday, April 14, y Perceiving Depth and Size Monocular depth cues: aspects of a scene that yield information about depth when viewed with only one eye. 1. Linear perspective: parallel lines seem to converge as they racede into the distance. 7. Texture gradient: more or lessuniformaly patterned surface because the size of the patterned elements and the distance between them becomes smaller as the surface receded from the observer. 8. Reletive height in the image: this depends on the field of vison, objects that are closer seem lower in your visual field while faraway objects are higher. Binocular disparity: the difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides information about depth. Illusions: mindbugs in which our perception differs from reality. Perceiving Motion Waterfall illusion: how if you stare at the downward rush of a waterfall for several seconds you'll experience an upward motion aftereffect. Apparent motion: the perception of movement os a result of alternating signals appearing in rapid succession. Audition:More than Meets the Ear Pitch: how High or Low a sound is Loudness: a sounds intensity. Timbre: a listeners experience of sound quality or resonance. The Human Ear The human ear is divided into 3 parts. 5 Thursday, April 14, y 1. The Outer Ear collects the sound waves The outer most visible part of the ear is called the pinna. The auditory canal The eardrum An airtight flap of skin that vibrates in response to sound sound waves gathered by the pinna and channeled into the cannel. 2.The Mid Ear a tiny air filled chamber behind the eardrum ossicles are the three smallest bone in the body; called the hammer, an and stirrup. 3. The Inner Ear contains the spiral shaped cochlea it is a fluid filled tube that is the organ of auditory tranduction, Basilar membrane os a structure in the inner ear that undersea when you vibrations from the ossicles reach the cochlear fluid. Hair cells specialized auditory receptor neurons embedded the basilar membrane. Perceiving Pitch Our ears have two mechanisms to encode sound wave frequency, one for high frequency, one for low frequency. The place code: is used mainly for high frequencies is active when the cochlea encodes different frequencies at different locations along the basilar membrane. Temporal Code: registers low frequencies via the firing rate of actions potentials entering the auditory nerve, The Body Senses: More Than Skin Deep Haptic perception: active exploration of the environs by touching and grasping objects with our hands. 6 Thursday, April 14, y Touch There are four types of receptors located under the skin’s service. Thermoreceptors are nerve fibers that sense cold and warmth Pain Referred pain: sensory information from internal and external areas converge on the and nerve cells in the spinal cord. gatecontrol theory: signals arriving from pain receptors in the body can be stopped or gated by interneurons in the spinal cord via feedback from two directions. the midbrain has a region called the periaqueductal gray (PAG) can send inhibitory signals to neurons in the spinal cord that then can suppress pain signals tho the brain thereby modulating the experience of pain during high stress situation Body Position, Movement, and Balance vestibular system: the three fluidfilled semicircular canals and adjacent organs located next to the cochlea. The vestibular system controls balance. The Chemical Senses: Adding Flavor Olfaction(smell) and gustation(taste) respond to the molecular structure of substances floating into the nasal cavity as you inhale or dissolving in saliva. Smell and taste combine to produce flavor Smell Olfactory receptor neurons(ORNs): receptor cells that inmate the sense of smell 7 Thursday, April 14, y Olfactory bulb: a brian structure located above the nasal cavity beneath the frontal lobes. Pheromones: biochemical odorants emitted by other members of their species that can affect the animals behavior or physiology. Taste taste buds: the organ of taste transduction buds fairly evenly distributed over the tongue, roof of the mouth, and the upper throat. 5,00010,000 taste buds 350 different types of olfactory receptors, but the taste system contains five main types of receptors. 8 Thursday, April 14, y Chapter 5 Memory Memory Memory: is the ability to store and retrieve information over time. Encoding: the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory. Storage: the process of maintaining information in memory over time. Retrieval: process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored. Encoding: Transforming Perceptions into Memories Memories are made by combining information we already have in our brains with new information that comes in through our senses. Memories are constructed not recorded. Elaborate Coding Elaborate encoding: the process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory. Semantic judgments requires the participants to think about the meaning of the words. Rhyme judgements require the participants to think about the sound of the words Visual judgement requires the participants to think about the appearance of the words Visual Imagery Encoding Visual imagery encoding: a form of categorization that involves storing new information by converting it into mental pictures. 1 Thursday, April 14, y Numerous experiments have shown that visual imagery encoding can substantially improve memory. when you create a visual image you relate incoming information to knowledge already in memory. two different mental “placeholders” for items a visual one and a verbal one. Organizational Encoding Organizational encoding: a form of categorization that involves noticing the relationships among a series of items. example: memorize the words; peach,cow,chair, apple, table cherry, lion, couch , horse, and desk. This task can be difficult but if you organize the items into three categories—Fruit(peach, apple, cherry), animals(cow,lions, horse), and furniture( chair, couch, desk) this makes the task easier. Storage: Maintaining Memories over time Memory Storage: is the process of maintaining information in memory overtime. The memory store has three major divisions: sensory, short term, and longterm. Short term memory holds information from about 15 to 20 seconds Long term memory stores information from minutes to years or decades Sensory Storage Sensory Memory Store: the place in which sensory information is kept for a few seconds or less. there are more then one kind of sensory memory. 1. Iconic Memory: a fastdecaying store of visual information 2. Echoic Memory: a fast decaying store of auditory information. 2 Thursday, April 14, y These two sensory memory stores are a bit like doughnut shops: the products come in the sit briefly on a shelf, and then they are discarded. Short-Term Storage and Working Memory The Shortterm Memory Store: a place where non sensory information is kept for mire than a few seconds but less than a minute. We can use a trick called Rehearsal: the process of keeping information in short term memory by mentally repeating it. The way to increase storage in your short term memory is called Chunking: combining small pieces of information into large clusters or chunks. Working Memory: active maintenance of information in short term storage Long-Term Storage Longterm memory store: is a place in which information can be kept for hours, days, weeks, or years. Not everyone has the same ability to put information into longterm memory. When the hippocampal region is damaged the person can suffer from Anterograde Amnesia: the inability to transfer new information from the shortterm store into the longterm store. Some patients can also suffer from Retrograde Amnesia: the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date,usually, the date of an injury or operation. Hippocampal region acs as a kind of index that links together all of these otherwise separate bits and pieces so that we remember them as one memory. 3 Thursday, April 14, y Memories in the Brian An electrical current put on the hippocampus region can produce a stronger connection between snakes that lay along the pathway and that the strengthening lasted for hours or even weeks. This is called Longterm Potentiation(LTP): enhanced neural processing that results from the strengthening of synaptic connections. Retrieval: Bringing Memories to Mind Retrieval Cues: Reinstating the Past Retrieval Cue: external information that is associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind. Encoding Specificity Principles: states that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it hooks recreate the pacific way in which information was initially coded. an example would be a study where divers learned some words on land and some other words underwater; they recalled the words best when they were tested in the same dry or wet environment in which they had initially learned them because the environment itself served as retrieval cue. State Depemdfemt Retrieval: the tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during the encoding and retrieval. The principle of TransferAppropriate processing: states that the memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when we process information in a way that is appropriate to the retrieval cues that will be available later. Multiple Forms or Memory: How The Past Return Explicit and Implicit Explicit Memory: when people consciously or intentionally retrace past experiences. 4 Thursday, April 14, y “I remember….” Implicit Memory: past experiences influence later behavior and performance, even though people are not trying to recollect themselves and are not aware that they are remembering them. Implicit memories are “implied” by our actions. Procedural Memory: the gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice,”knowing how”, to do things. Priming: an enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus. Priming is associated with reduced levels od activation in the cortex. Patients with amnesia retain implicit memory, including procedural memory and priming, but lack explicit memory. So basically people with amnesia cant remember but can still be effected by subconscious memories. Semantic and Episodic Memory Semantic and Episodic memory are subclasses of explicit memory. Semantic Memory: a network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world. Facts and concepts. Episodic Memory: the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place. Memory Failures: The Seven Sins of Memory 1. Transience: forgeting what occurs with the passage of time. This occurs during the storage phase of a memory, after an expirence has been encoded and before it is retrieved. After the passage of time the quality of the memory also changes. Memories can be distorted by the interference of other memories. 5 Thursday, April 14, y Retroactive Interference: situations in which later learning impairs memory information acquired later. you can carry out the same activities at work each day, by the time friday rolls around, it may be hard to remember what you did on monday because later activities blend in with earlier ones. Proactive Interference: situations where earlier learning impairs memory for information acquired later. If you use the same parking lot each day at work, you've probably gone out to find you car and then study there confused my the memories of parking it on previous days. 2. Absentmindedness: a lapse in attention that results in memory failure. one common cause is just lack of attention. another cause is forgetting to carry out actions that we planned to do in the future. Prospective Memory: remembering to do things in the future, “remember to remember” 3. Blocking: failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it. “on the tip of my tongue” Normally occurs when trying to remember people or places. Name blocking normally results from damage to the parts of the left temporal lobe on the surface of the cortex. 4. Memory Misattribution: assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source. errors are some of the prorate causes of eyewitness misidentifications. Source Memory: recall of when, where, and how information was acquired. 5. Suggestibility: the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections. 6 Thursday, April 14, y People develop false memories in response to suggestions for some of the same reasons memory attribution occurs. 6. Bias: the distorting influence of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings o recollection of previous experiences. Consistency Bias: is the bias to recontrust the past to fit the present. Change Bias: the tendency to exaggerate differences between what we feel or believe now and what we felt or believed in the past. Egocentric Bias: the tendency to exlxafferat the change between present and past ignored to make ourselves look good in retrospect. 7. Persistence: the intrusive recollection of events that we wish er could forget. Flashbulb memories: detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events. Some memories may be to strong, strong enough that they interfere with other aspect of daily life. 7 Thursday, April 14, y Chapter 6: Learning Defining Learning: Experience that causes a permanent change Learning : some experience that results on a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner. The case of Habituation Habituation: a general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stumble results in a gradual reduction in responding. the more you hear something or see something the less likely you are to respond. Classical Conditioning: one thing leads to another. Unconditioned Stimulus: something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction to an organism. Unconditioned Response: a reflexive reaction that is reliably elected by an unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned Stimulus: a stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism. Conditioned Response: a reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but os produced by a conditioned stimulus. The Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning 1 Thursday, April 14, y Chapter 9 Emotion & Motion Emotional Experience: The feeling machine What is Emotion? Two dimensions of Emotion are mapped by their arousal and valence Emotion: A positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity The Emotional Body The JamesLange Theory: stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain. The CannonBard Theory: stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain. The twofactor theory: emotions are inferences about the causes of undifferentiated physiological arousal The Emotional Brian Appraisal: An evaluation of the emotion relevant aspects of a stimulus that is performed by the amygdala The amygdala’s job is to make very rapid appraisal of a stimulus, and thus it foes not require much information. Emotion Recognition is controlled by the amygdala. Emotion is a primitive system that prepares is to react rapidly and on the basis of little information to things that are relevant to our wellbeing and survival. 1 Thursday, April 14, y The Regulation of Emotion Emotion Regulation: the cognitive and behavioral strategies people side to influence their own emotional experience. Reappraisal: a strategy that involves changing one’s emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotionelicting stimulus. Emotional Communication: Msgs w/o Wrds Emotional expression: an observable sign of ann emotional state The human face has 46 unique movements called action units. Communicative Expression Charles Darwin publihsed a book called The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. This book talked about the evolutionary significance of emotional expression. The Universality of Expression Universality hypothesis: emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone. People are quite accurate at judging expressions of members of other cultures. The six emotions that are universal are; anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. The Cause of Effect of Expression emotional experience cause emotiona; expressions, sometimes the casual parts runs in the other direction. 2 Thursday, April 14, y The Facial feedback hypothesis: suggested that emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify. For example people fell happier when they are asked to make the sound of a long e or to hold a pencil in their on their teeth than when they are asked to make the sound of a long u or when they are asked to hold a pencil in their lips. Emotional expressions play an important role in both sending and receiving information Deceptive Expression Display rules : norms for the control of emotional expression. Following these rules requires using several techniques: 1. Intensification: involves eexaggerating the expression of one’s emotion, as when a person pretends to be more surprised by a gift then she really is. 2. Dientensification: involves muting the expression of ones emotion, as when the loser of a contest tries to look less distressed than he really is. 3. Masking: involves expresssiing one emotion while feeling another as when a poker player tries to look distressed rather than delighted as she examines a hand with four aces. 4. Neutralizing:involves feeling an emotion but displaying no expression as when judges try not to betray their leanings while layers make their arguments. 5. Morphology: certain facial muscles tend to resist conscious control and for a trained observer these so called reliable muscles are quite revealing. 6. Symmetry: sincere expressions area bit more symmetrical than insincere expressions. A slightly lopsided smile is less likely to be genuine than is a perfectly even one. 7. Duration: sincere expressions tend to last between a half a second and 5 seconds 3 Thursday, April 14, y 8. Temporal Patterning: sincere expressions appear and disappear smoothly over a few seconds, whereas insincere expressions tend to have more abrupt onsets and offsets. Motivation: Getting Moved Motivation: refers to the purpose for or cause of an action We act because our emotions move us to do so, they move us in two different ways 1. emotions provide is with information about the world 9. emotions are the objectives toward which we strive. The Function of Emotion The first function of emotion is to provide us with information about the world. Because the world influences our emotions, our emotions provide information about the world. The second function of emotion is to fine us something to strive for. The Hedonic Principle: is the notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain The Conceptualization of Motivation Instincts:the faculty of acting in such a way as to produce certain ends, without foresight of the ends and without previous education in the performance. Drives: an internal state generated state generated by departures from physiological optimality. The needs to eat and the needs to mate are among themes powerful and well studied. 4 Thursday, April 14, y Eating How does hunger arise? Gherlin: a chemical that is produced in the stomach that appears to be a signal that there the brain to switch hunger on Leptin: a chemical recreated by fat cells that tells the brain to turn the hunger off. Primary Receiver is the hypothalamus The lateral hypothalamus: receives hunger signals if this is destroyed animals will starve themselves, The ventromedial hypothalamus: receives satiety signals and when this is destroyed animals will gorge themselves. Eating Disorders Bulimia Nervosa: a disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging. They normally eat large quantities of food in a relatively short period and then take laxatives or induce vomiting. Anorexia Nervosa: an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake. People with anoriexia tend to have a distorted body image that leads to believing they are fat when they are emaciated. Obesity Obesity is defined as a body max index of 30 or greater. Obesity can result from biochemical abnormality and it seems to have a strong genetic component. 5 Thursday, April 14, y People with obesity tend to have a strong attention to food that provide that are calorically rich anf they develop an ability to store excess food energy in the form of fat Metabolism: the rate at which energy is used by the body Mating Sexual Interest sexual interest is controlled by a hormone called dihydroepiandosterone (DHEA). Estrogen levels are high during ovulation which increases females sex drive. Testosterone fuels both sexes sex drive. Sexual Activity Human Sexual Response Cycle: the stages if physiological arousal during sexual activity. Human Sexual Excitement has four phases 1. excitement phase: muscle tension and blood flow around the sexual organs, heart and blood pressure rises. 2. Plateau phase: The heart rate and muscle tension increase further 3. Orgasm phase: breathing becomes extremely rapid and the pelvic muscles begin a series of contractions 4. Resolution Phase: muscles relax blood pressure drops and the body returns to a resting state. Kinds of Motivation Psychologists have made entail progress by identifying several dimensions on which motivations differ. 6 Thursday, April 14, y Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Intrinsic motivation: motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding Extrinsic motivation: a motivation to take actions that kind to reward. Conscious versus Unconscious A Conscious Motivation: is a motivation of which one is aware. A Unconscious Motivation: a motivation of which a person is not aware. Approach versus Avoidance Approach motivation: motivation to experience a positive outcome. Avoidance motivation: motivation not to experience a negative outcome. 7 Thursday, April 14, y Chapter 10: Development Prenatal Development Development Psychology: the study of continuity and change across the life span. Prenatal Development starts nine months before birth. Zygote: a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes. A sperm and egg cell. Each human sperm and egg cell contain 23 chromosomes. A Germinal Stage: the stage that comes in the first two weeks of development, it begins at conception. • During the Germinal Stage the zygote migrates back down the fallopian tube and implants its self in the wall of the uterus The Embryonic Stage: a period that lasts from the second week until about the 8 week. • The zygote continues to divide and its cells begin to differentiate. The Fetal Stage: a period that lasts from the ninth week until birth. • Myelination: the formation of a fatty sheath around axons of a brain cell. Parental Environment The womb influences development from conception to the moment of birth. The Placenta: is the organ that physically links the bloodstream of the mother to the developing embryo. Teratogens: are the agents that damage the process of development • “monster makers” 1 Thursday, April 14, y Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: a developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy. • Children with FAS often have mental retardation and face learning disabilities. Tobacco is another teratogen; babies who's mothers smoke tobacco products experience lower birth weights, Infancy and Childhood: Becoming a Person Infancy: the stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 1824 months. Perceptual and Motor Development New borns have a very limited range of vision. New Borns seem to respond well to social stimuli. • They track it with their eyes and respond in surprising ways. Like facial expressions. Motor Development: ability to execute physical actions, like reaching and grasping and walking. New borns are born with a small set of Reflexes: specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of stimulus. In the first view months babies learn more sophisticated behaviors. • Cephalocaudal rule: tendency of motor skills to emerge in sequence from head to feet 2 Thursday, April 14, y • Proximodistal rule: tendency of motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center of the periphery. Cognitive Development Cognitive Development: the emergence of the ability to understand the world.Happens in four stages: Social Development Human babies need to stay closes the their mothers to survive. Human babies know how ti get their mothers to come to them rather than the other way around Children form an attachment: an emotional bond with their caregiver. 60% show a secure attachment style. 3 Thursday, April 14, y Infants keep track of the responses they get from their caregiver and create something called Internal Working Model of Attachment: a set of expectations about how the caregiver will responds when the child feels insecure. Different children are born with different Temperaments: characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity. Moral Development 4 Thursday, April 14, y Adolescence: Minding the Gap Adolescence, is the stage between adulthood and childhood, it begins with the onset of Puberty Puberty is happening earlier than eve but the movement into adulthood is later then ever. During Puberty sexual interest occurs and in some cultures sexual activity begins. Adolescents begin searching to develop their adult identities . They seek increasing autonomy from their parents. They begin to become peer oriented. Adulthood: The short happy future Gradual physical decline begins in early adults good. Older adults begin to show sigsns of declines in working memory, episodic memory, and retrival tasks. They develop straqtegey to compensate. Older people are more orientated to emotionally satisfying information. People who get married are typically happier then those who dont Parenthood is challenging. 5
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'