COM 111 Bundle 10/15-12/15
COM 111 Bundle 10/15-12/15 COM 111
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
This 30 page Bundle was uploaded by Justin Hynes on Monday March 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to COM 111 at Pace University taught by Professor Barry Morris in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communications in Journalism and Mass Communications at Pace University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
INTRO TO COMM NOTES BUNDLE 10/8 Interpersonal Communication From Attraction to DYAD Intrapersonal Communication: How one communicates with others is influenced by how one sees one’s self in relation to others. Viability testing through sharing. Opening Google Map App: they give you a number of different routes you can • Avoid Tolls • Avoid construction • Take backroads “mapping yourself through life" the meanings you attach to symbols are interior your human dictionary of meanings Meaning is created between, not within people. 1. the atom of a communication event is the pair of people. 2. it does not matter who the people are, it matters what the dynamic is between the two people. 3. the line between the two people is the smallest unit of communication R Transaction: action that’s taking place between the transference of information *conversation about giving directions* Communication dyad • The smallest unit of communication - a small group of lines in between individual people, not a group of people • The foundation of all more complex communication systems • The context , but not content of a relationship. Attraction is the original motivation to generate interaction. Factors of Motivation: • Need for affiliation: ◦ need a connection/interaction • Need for intimacy: ◦ need a deeper connection • Loneliness: ◦ can’t certify their own thoughts and feelings • Social Anxiety : ◦ can be terrifying to not know anyone in the room. find person to get to know. you create your own group. fear of talking to strangers motivates us to talk to strangers. People need to be part of something Aristotle coined the term "homopoliticus" - we like to interact What attracts you to another person? • Physical attractiveness • Common interests • Common goals • Attractive traits • Common immediate needs • Proximity ◦ the thing that most determines whether you’re going to sustain an interpersonal relationship 10/13 - Relationships Develop Through Attraction Reflexivity—Balance there is a balance between giving and taking • doms and subs • if one is a +3 and one is a -3 = 0 (zero sum game) • opposites but with relatively similar degrees • “which side you’re on" Relativity —the ratio of intensity -3 and +1 = out of balance -3 and +3 = in balance Symmetry—when both people want the same thing Complementarity —each component complements another. Sometimes the complement is a like component.(Symmetry) Other times components need to “fit”(reflexivity). When a component matches correctly, it is in complement. Uncertainty Reduction Charles Berger Early Stages consist of: • concretizing each participant’s own meanings and assumptions ◦ most people become very aware of themselves and start making assumptions about other person • Checking to see where similarities and differences exist. ◦ find some sort of common ground to see similarities and differences for reflexivity • Finding sufficient common ground on which to continue interaction ◦ find motivation to further the conversation with the person “conversation about cops not feeling comfortable around anyone else besides cops because of the stigma that comes with being a cop" “story about priest” Relationships are like Water! • When formed, they create a different functional phenomenon • they don’t just pair up • they share content • in a way, to separate them is to destroy their elements. 10/15 – INTERPERSONAL COMM (CONT’D) Phenomenal Grammar - the relationship plans itself set of presumptions that tell you how to interact in situation codes and expectations Relational Dynamics Include: • Establishing reliable shared perspectives • Establishing reliable means of “negotiation" • Establishing “original” symbolic values—shared by both but not original to either (“US” stuff) • Establishing balanced expressions of: 1 Self disclosure: sharing various information about yourself 2 Intimacy: capability to share private information about yourself 3 Trust: our song our place our…. Andrea has a monkey tail (possible bonus question) potential danger in people knowing your personal information Relationships are Phenomenally Grammared To generate a relationship is to form a distinct entity that will generate its own meanings and history. Coordinated Management of Meaning 4. Stories Told: see where we’ve been————> 5. Stories Lived: see where we are———————> INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 6. Stories Unexpressed: so where are we going?—> EXCHANGE THEORY. THIQBAUT AND KELLEY • Basic Cost/Benefit Analysis. People seek relationships in which reward is high and cost is low. • The comparison level of attractiveness SOCIAL PENETRATION THEORY. ALTMAN AND TAYLOR • Relationships mature as the process of more and deeper levels of intimacy. • The quality of the relationship is relative to the quality of self- disclosure. Interpersonal Needs Theory. William Shutz. FIRO: Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation. • Relationships develop around the urgency to tend to specific needs. ◦ Affection—the desire to express or receive love 1 affection in any other context ◦ Inclusion—The desire to be in the company of others 1 doesn’t mean i don’t like it when i’m left out, it means person who feels better when he’s a part of a group and likes to be around other people. ◦ Control—the desire to influence the events and people around us. William Shutz Came out of family dynamics, not interpersonal. Age of 3 or 4, child in a family has measured the parental roles in family small child looks at figures who are dominant in dynamic which and what ratio the status balance of that relationship is e.g. mother and father mark, in his or her mind, the high status person take after the winning parent, it can be a grandmother or older sibling as well Shutz synthesizes down all the elements of interpersonal communication into three terms INTERPERSONAL CURRENCIES: • Direct Relational Statements • Positive Verbal Statements • Self-Disclosure • Listening • Nonverbal Expressiveness • Touch • Sexuality • Aggression • Gifts, Money, Food, Etc. • Service • Time • Access Relationship Lifecycle • Initiating • Experimenting ◦ these two steps = attraction • Intensifying ◦ primarily about figuring out how to talk to one another = common ground • Integrating ◦ start to look for terms of relationship: friendship, companion, boyfriend, etc. • Bonding ◦ development of relationship = manifests into one unit …. “us/we” • Circumscribing ◦ intense relationship - in any tight relationship, you want to carve out personal space • Stagnating ◦ the evolution of the relationship has ceased . 1 you can either redefine the relationship and go back to intensifying phase or….. 2 you go so far in your circumscription to when you have nothing in common 3 their relationship will no longer exist • Avoiding • Terminating ◦ relationship is over 10/22 – CONFLICT Dyads are prone to conflict, because of their two primary dynamics work at cross purposes. Dynamic One: The Establishment of Common Ground • Sharing symbolic and operational values • Creating content and value specific to the dyad Conflict is a Matter of Perception Ruptures in Perceived Common Ground Lead to Incompatible Goals Process of decisions and actions: 7. Perceived incompatibility 8. Selections of approach 9. Management of cross-purpose approaches Dynamic Two: Status • One member of the dyad can only gain status at the expense of the other. • The status motive underlines all other interactions. Interpersonal Status -Dynamics of Status: -Currency of Status -Zero-Sum -Deference - Dynamite -Agenda Setting - Immunity from Rules Dyadic Power Theory—N.E. Dubar Moderate power leads to “controlling” communication Power Currencies: • Resource Currency • Expertise Currency • Social Network Currency • Personal Currency - your own personal talent • Intimacy Currency - ex. passive aggression The Myth of “Relational Trajectory" Most simple models of relationship development assume that as the relationship develops communication improves Initiating, experimenting, intensifying…. etc. Experiences tells us that this is not the case The Me Vs. We Can Lead To: • Wee!!! - this is great • Gee!!! - this is i guess good • or Yeee!!! - omg what have i done Social Influence: • Primary Goals—Outcomes 1 (fix the relationship) • Secondary Goals—Identity and Interaction 1 (need to have a clear sense of who i am separate from the relationship and need to know how to demonstrate that) • Relational Resource Goals—sounding board support 1 (is there somebody outside the relationship that you can bring in to help) • Personal Resource Goals—protecting territory 1 (you trying to protect who you are as a person) • Arousal Goals—Stress defenses. 1 (discussions need to stay discussions not turn into fights) A (by no means complete) List of Potential Sources of Conflict: • Misunderstanding ◦ Content misunderstood what you meant by ◦ Process i understand that you worried but you sounded mad not using the same set of rules as the other person how content flows • Misinterpretation did not hear what you said ("hear" doesn’t mean volume) ◦ Meaning it is impossible for you to say what you mean ◦ Intentions broke up with me over phone BECAUSE you didn’t care enough to break up with me face to face • SelfCenteredness ◦ only think about you • OtherCenteredness ◦ only think about other person and end up losing themselves • Dishonesty ◦ Not being honest vs. being dishonest Resolution of Conflict • Expect it. ◦ it’s inevitable • Confront it. ◦ easier to fix problems the smaller they are; don’t put it off • Make it “dyad property.” ◦ make argument about relationship, not about the people • Historicize it. ◦ Put it in context (compare it to other fights and compare it to other relationships) (wasn’t as bad as last time) ◦ Keep it in context (compartmentalized different issues in relationship. it shouldn’t bleed over another element) • Use external resources. ◦ (use an expert e.g. go to a counselor) 10/27 – GROUP COMMUNICATION Group Communication - A group is a collection of dyads, not a collection of people 11/3 – GOOD DISCUSSION The Problem-Solving Agenda • Define the problem • Establish criteria • Brainstorm options 1 have a period where any option can be considered 2 someone suggests it, you write it down 3 get all of the ideas out in one time 4 don’t critique 5 if you dismiss an idea, you might dismiss the person also 6 more ideas = more potential solutions 1 sometimes, you should brainstorm options first and then establish criteria • Compare & Contrast 1 you analyze the situation 2 take ideas and apply criteria 1 organize discussion in two ways 1 organize by idea 2 organize by criteria • Decide 1 you come to a specific and complete solution • Report 1 you go back to whomever put group together in first place 2 if what you’re doing is going to be controversial, put plan into effect 3 institute the problem (steps in order for plan to succeed) Leadership in Groups good content good process Strategic Communication 10. “strategic communication is purpose directed.” (286) 11. Exigency defines the problem 1 Eliminate problem 2 Adapt to problem 3 Engage opportunity Traditional Leadership General Theories of Leadership: • Innate 1 Extraversion 1 willing to lead 2 Agreeableness 1 assertively motivate people to be in the process 3 Conscientiousness 1 know how to empathize with other people 4 Emotional Stability 5 Openness to Experience Learned (Functional Theory) • Leadership is Distributed Styles appropriate to the problem/situation Group Inputs: • Task ◦ has anything to do with the problem directly ◦ data: dates, numbers, etc. • Social ◦ lubrication for group ◦ more you like being in a group, makes experience more pleasurable and efficient • Maintenance—distributed leadership content 1 comments that direct comments back to the agenda 2 talking about process, not content or social 3 making sure the group is on track Leadership is a maintenance statement. Functioning as the person who keeps the group on task. It is not a trait, it is an action Lowest number = 3 Highest number depends on group Every member of the group should be able to communicate DIRECTLY with every other member of the group. X(X-1)/2 2x - 1x/2 Most experts suggest 5 to 7 as the maximum of number of people a small group should have The number of PAIRS in a population Perspective Two: Self-Direction Groups by definition are interactive • No need for controlled flow • No need for “rules" Is a Jury a small group? Perspective Three: Small Groups have concrete goals Direct face to face Informal process Groups: Exist to solve problems Are temporary Perspective Four: Agenda-Setting Exigency: a state of affairs that makes urgent demands. Small Groups are formed to respond to Exigencies: 12. Not always urgent, but solution-oriented 13. Benefits from range of experience at the expense of concentrated attention 14. Temporary—exist until the exigency has passed Perspective Five: Life Span Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development Forming: The group comes together and gets to initially know one other and form as a group Storming: A chaotic vying for leadership and trailing of group processes Norming: Eventually agreement is reached on how the group operates (norming) Performing: The group practices its craft and becomes effective in meeting its objectives Adjourning: The processes of “uniforming” the group, that is, letting go of the group structure and moving on TUCKMAN’S STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT Two kinds of tension will develop within the process of formation: Primary Tension—the process of getting acquainted Secondary Tension—tension arising from disagreement Perspective Six: Group Values Synergy • functioning entities greater than the sum of their parts Group Identification • Group members recognize themselves as “members” of a separate entity more so than members of a dyad Group “Values" • involve being an effective group member • good information and efficiency Consequences Cohesiveness The positive association of the group members have with the group. When cohesiveness reaches a point where it begins to be counterproductive to the group. Cohesiveness is Good to a Point! • Conformity • Groupthink MANAGING NON-CONFORMITY • REASON (APPEAL TO LOGIC) • SEDUCE (GUILT APPEAL) • COERCION (THREAT APPEAL) • OSTRACISM (ABANDONMENT APPEAL) 10/29 Group Discussion is Discussion • Question of Fact—what did happen 1 question of is • Question of Conjecture—what will happen 1 Jimmy Cricket = Jesus Christ • Question of Value—what should happen 1 question of what ought to be • Question of Policy—planned action 1 question of what should be done Good Discussion: Simple • Definitional consensus • Proper focus Objective • won’t bias the list of possible responses Controversial • Containing “discussable content” • The Problem-Solving Agenda ◦ Define the problem ◦ Establish criteria ◦ ‘Brainstorm” Options ◦ Compare & Contrast ◦ Decide ◦ Report people assume they know what the problem is and that is a dangerous mistake 11/10 – FUNCTIONAL THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION • Duplicating effort was less efficient than breaking the job into smaller units and assigning them individually. A problem arose when too many people joined the group. An insufficient amount of supervision led to accidents. organized into dyads when the number of people in a group becomes too great for the kind of face to face interaction that defines small groups, structure needs to be imposed. Usually, one of the first steps in imposing that structure in Division of Labor. Division of Labor compartmentalizes the task. jury formant is the conduit that person is designated in which all communication has to pass no one expects for someone to step up and be the leader in a jury The Dynamic here is that Horizontal Pressure (stretching outward) in groups. generates Vertical Pressure—the need for Management DYNAMIC: CIRCULAR PRESSURE VERTICAL PRESSURE—the addition of a vertical layer to the organization in response to horizontal pressure— generates its own HORZONTAL PRESSURE—to add more channels of communication on its horizontal level. Etcetera, Etcetera. Productivity: to do something efficiently and proficiently functional theories are about increasing productivity in the institution they aren’t about making happy workers they are about making the institution better purpose is to not make productive workers Productivity is related to motivation Specifically task-oriented motivation Are you a person who works or a worker? What Motivates you to work? Material Reward Satisfaction Social Pressure Loyalty The Classical School: Scientific Management 15. Carrot and stick - you work toward the goal and 16. Deferred gratification - once the work is done, you were rewarded (paycheck either weekly or biweekly) 17. PEOPLE WORK TO GET REWARDED FOR THEIR WORK 18. MANAGEMENT HAS NO OTHER OBLIGATION TO THEM BUT TO PAY THEM 19. Military style top-down communication flow 1 Instruction 2 accountability 3 for workers there is no organizational reason to initiate bottom-up conversation with managers Primary theorists: • F.W. Taylor—Scientific Management, efficiency movement (T-M Studies) - look up definition • Henri Fayol—General Theory of Mgt. (used social science and philosophy to analyze the difference between management and leadership) 1 you don’t need leaders, you need managers 1 planning 2 organizing 3 commanding 4 coordinating 5 controlling HUMAN RELATIONS THEORY employees are going to work to a level that gets the job done and nothing more people are people at work Motivations include: • Remuneration - pay • Social Grounding - to be good at something Human Relation School Relations are “reciprocal" Any individual who has an affect on another individual is also affected by that individual Managers are inevitable influenced by their subordinates. That influence has to be accounted for. Social Scientists began to study the social climate of the workplace "suggestion box” “company picnics" still not about the workers, still about increasing productivity To manage people, you have to manage their social perceptions Cliques Mayo and Roethlisberger Cliques are informal networks that cut across formal boundaries people cut corners, make sure job gets done by being creative people go to lunch together and they talk about life both in terms of function and just being in the building, a clique develops (rigid set of people who interact on a daily basis that is not described by the organizational tree) the informal comm flow in organizations has a profound effect on how the formal comm flow goes Chester Barnard: Zones of Indifference: Unpredictability of human behavior Acceptance Theory: Capacity to lead related to willingness to follow. Difference between leadership and management Interpersonal status Likert’s Leadership Styles: • Exploitive-Authoritative • Benevolent-Authoritative • Consultative • Participant Herzberg’s Hygiene and Motivation: • Hygiene (dissatisfaction) 1 working conditions/environment 2 no satisfaction level 3 work to keep people dissatisfied 4 have to do with being distracted • Motivation (intrinsic awards) 1 What you do/how you spend your time 2 not think about where they are working is best way to keep people working 11/17 – THE ORGANIZATION AS A SYSTEM people are not machines but in every opportunity where they are allowed to behave like machines. they will so behave. dissatisfaction is NOT the opposite of satisfaction cybernetic system - organized individualized parts that generate content it’s like a mechanical brain a lot of math has a set of necessary elements Human systems as natural systems Elements share nutrients in balance closed balanced working system ex. tree gives human being O2, human being gives tree CO2 epiorganisms are in essence an ecosystem ex. pond dragonflies eat the algae frogs are going to eat the insect snake eats frog human being kills snake for skin woman falls into pond, drowns, and decomposes and algae forms complex system made up of sub-systems the “system” view is concentration on how the parts fit together to function as a whole • Interdependence • Balance • Dynamic Equilibrium (everybody doing their jobs correctly within a range of error) CLOSED VS. OPEN SYSTEM All nutrients provided Cycles nutrients from by the system. the outside. open system: customers suppliers financial markets community Open System Terms: 20. Input 1 anything that comes into the system 21. Throughput 1 creation, modification, evaluation (the process of the input) 22. Output 1 product, waste 1 waste is anything that is not product 23. Cycle Additional System Terms: Differentiation (division of labor) Negative Entropy (management) Integration (must have direct functional linkages within them) (must be able to work together) Equifinality (healthy systems can find several different ways to get to the same result) 11/19 - Public Communication we have already discussed: the world I live in the world you and i live in the world our group lives in the world we work in Now we have to discuss the world “WE” live in: • Communities, Publics, & Societies The process of using language to order reality: • Verbalizing subconscious perceptions ◦ we can give titles (shared categories) to our feelings • Thematizing ◦ placing a subject as a theme • Concretizing ◦ im afraid to be around strangers • Globalizing • Brought together by shared “conditional” goals (as opposed to task-oriented goals) ◦ e.g. (want to be entertained) ◦ goals that arise b/c of where people are and what they are • Division of labor • Recruitment ◦ recruit what you need • Alliance ◦ align yourself with another group with common needs Goal: Stability • Patterns>Habits>Customs • Customs are handed down and need to be valued (children will want to learn them) • A special role must be defined for the keepers of that knowledge • That creates status differences/problems • The customs become the community 1 nothing original left from the community when it began 2 the customs become normal because thats the way it has always been Inconveniences Stability begets self-interest • Individual interests clash • Individual interests clash with social stability The Fundamental Ratio ^ ratio between rights in a community and a person’s responsibilities to that community Publics • Clashes of interest require mediation • Patterns of mediation result in set rules • Institutions arise to enforce the rules • Institutions arise to manage the rules and regulate the enforcers • Members of communities must interact with other members who represent the institutions people who operationalize the rules and regulations to impose the laws they do have wiggle room to not impose them BUT when they do, there are very strict rules when imposing said rules people have roles, they have formal status NOT informal status Societies • The patterns of Community and Public become reified in histories and social mores • Assumptions of propriety underlay regulations • Political necessities become embodied in different social groups (e.g. classes, sub-cultures) • Political Units (publics) take on aesthetic values Cultures Artifact - product of a production system. • Communities accumulate artifacts • Communities set aside functions for people who create artifacts that house the social aesthetics • Classes arise whose work it is to judge the relative values of artifacts • Classes arise whose work is to impress upon the members of the community the importance recognizing, appreciating and extolling the virtues of those artifacts 12/1 – POLITICAL COMMUNICATION Homo-Politicus (Aristotle) - The political animal • Consciousness - The awareness of and capacity to reflect on our surroundings We attach symbolic and emotional value to places... 24. Self-consciousness - The ability to externalize our perceptions of ourselves…to consider our actions…to refer to ourselves in the abstract To Identify with and distinguish from others based on Communal Identity swimming upstream with logs • Historicality - The capacity to deliberately pattern behavior and to modify that pattern based on consideration of the past behavior of ourselves and others 1 The Smokey Mountain Storytellers Association 2 Friends of the Smokies 3 (create institutions/organizations that are like us) • The Cherokee Indian Reservation ◦ 1/2 their population ◦ out by European Plague ◦ Trail of Tears ◦ Segregated by “Jim Crow" ◦ laws Historicality leads to…. • Symbolicity - The ability to represent reality with a structure of relatively arbitrary abstractions. The ability to learn through metaphor. HOW INTERESTS BECOME PRIORITIZED • Original interests create or influence the creation of “offspring” interests • The acts of engaging in and sustaining patterns of cooperation create their own interests • The social organizations that we “join” come interests in themselves that influence our agendas with regard to other interests AGENTS OF INTEREST • Political = PI (to the c power) Personal Interests magnified in importance because they represent CITIZEN interests Protests/Vocal Support The forces that shape and regulate the interests of individuals within the collectivity Supreme Court The mechanisms through which conflicts of interest are ameliorated 12/3 – POLITICAL POWER Constitution as Narrative: The Constitution is made of instituted themes - contexts for human action • Representative Government 1 “amateur” congress members 2 Voting rights • Freedom of expression • Freedom from intrusion over 91% for encumbrance rate American Authority Rests in the Narrative Built to Manage the Inherent Weaknesses of Democracy Democratic decision-making: 25. does not provide well for the liberty and safety of the minority 26. rarely exhibits the painstaking collection of evidence and thoughtful consideration. Instead, it is too often based by emotion. 27. have trouble focusing on the long term at the expense of the immediate 28. democratic bodies tend to the extremes of flexibility—revisiting decisions either too often or not enough POWER DEFINED BY H.P. HUNTINGTON “power is the ability of one person or group to change the behavior of another person or group…The power of a state or group is hence normally estimated by measuring the resources it has at its disposal against those of the other states or groups it is trying to influence." CATEGORIES OF POLITICAL POWER • Coercion 1 the capacity to force others to behave as you wish or be visited by extremely negative outcomes • Persuasion 1 the capacity to provide for others a compelling argument that “voluntary” capitulation to your wishes benefits them. • Seduction 1 the capacity to influence others’ perceptions of their interests to the degree that they do what you want without even having to be asked 12/15 – COMMUNICATION AND FINE ART Art and Culture: Cultures develop spiritual and philosophical priorities—means of establishing quality. Aesthetics: the study of the mind and emotions in relation to the sense of beauty "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder" Many standards of beauty exist, but the primary ideal of aesthetics is FLAWLESSNESS Beauty = perfection Perfection = the absence of flaws Flawlessness: Sculpture has been seen as removing the unnecessary bits of marble. Dance is efficient motion Music is the creation of complex harmonic structures with NO wasted notes ART IS ABOUT FORM, NOT CONTENT. ART VS. CRAFT Craft is the practice of Fundamentals to their most effective and efficient ends. Art is the extension if fundamental steps into something new and irreproducible. Appreciation = informed analysis and criticism romanticism dadaism naturalism realism FINE ART VS. POPULAR ART Fine art expresses the fundamentals of a form Popular Art employs the fundamentals to create a consumer product Fine Art - “sender out" - Heterogeneous - Authoritarian Popular Art - “receiver in" - Homogeneous - Anti-authoritarian ART LASTS While aesthetic perspectives change, the notion of perfection are judged by three criteria: Timelessness Universality Uniqueness
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