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Intro to Sociology: Ch. 11.4 and 11.5

by: Michelle Chang

Intro to Sociology: Ch. 11.4 and 11.5 Introduction to Sociology

Michelle Chang

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Notes on chapter 11.4 and 11.5
Introduction to Sociology
Jeremiah Bohr
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Michelle Chang on Monday March 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Introduction to Sociology at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Jeremiah Bohr in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Social Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.

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Date Created: 03/28/16
1 Introduction to Sociology SOC 101 (Section 002C) *** Notes from the Textbook: OpenStax. 2013. Introduction to Sociology Race I Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity (11.4 – 11.5 ONLY)  11.4: Intergroup Relationships o Intergroup relationships are relationships between different groups of people o Spectrum between tolerance and intolerance o Most tolerant from is pluralism  No distinction between minority and majority groups (equal standing) o Genocide  Genocide: the deliberate annihilation of a targeted (usually subordinate) group  Intent to exterminate a group and the function of exterminating of a group, intentional or not  Ex. the Holocaust, Trail of Tears o Expulsion  Expulsion: when a dominant group forces a subordinate group to leave a certain area/even the country  Destructive group interaction  Ethnic/racial basis  Ex. attack on Pearl Harbor o Segregation  Segregation: the physical separation of 2 groups, particularly in a residence, but also in workplace and social functions  De jure segregation – enforced by law  De facto segregation – occurs without laws, but other factors  Cannot be abolished by any court mandate o Pluralism  Pluralism: represented by the ideal of the U.S. as a “salad bowl”  A mixture of different cultures where each culture retains its own identity and yet adds to the “flavor” of the whole 2  Mutual respect on the part of all cultures, both dominant and subordinate, creating a multicultural environment of acceptance  In reality – difficult goal to reach o Assimilation  Assimilation: the process by which a minority individual/group takes on the characteristics of the dominant culture  Function of immigration  May lead to loss of minority group’s cultural identity as they become absorbed into the dominant culture  No impact to majority group’s cultural identity  Subordinate cultures give up their own traditions in order to conform to their new environment  Four benchmarks 1) Socioeconomic status 2) Spatial concentration 3) Language assimilation – limiting employment and educational options and constraining growth in socioeconomic status 4) Intermarriage  Racial and ethnic discrimination – difficult for new immigrants to fully assimilate o Amalgamation  Amalgamation: the process by which a minority group and a majority group combine to form a new group  “Melting pot” – each culture retains its individuality  Combination of cultures resulting in a new culture entirely  Achieved through intermarriage  11.5: Race and Ethnicity in the United States o Native Americans  Only nonimmigrant ethnic group in the U.S.  Was once a large population  Early Indians migrated to this new land in search of big game to hunt  Culture blossomed into an intricate web of hundreds of interconnected tribes, each with its own customs, traditions, languages, and religions  The only group in the U.S. where subordination occurred purely through conquest by the dominant group 3  Culture was eroded by establishment of Indian boarding schools  Purpose was to civilize Native American children and assimilate into white society  Forced children to cut hair, speak English, and practice Christianity  Long-term poverty, inadequate education, cultural dislocation, and high rates of unemployment  Lower life expectancies than most groups o African Americans  Exemplar minority group in the U.S. whose ancestors did not come here by choice  Slaves = property  Kidnapped from their own lands and shipped to New World  Black population grew until American born blacks outnumbered those born in Africa  Child of a slave was a slave  Denied basic rights of citizenship (outlawed)  2005, growing trend of increased inequality with whites, especially in the areas of unemployment, insurance coverage, and incarceration o Asian Americans  Represent a great diversity of cultures and backgrounds  Come to the U.S. in waves; different times and reasons  First Asian immigrants = Chinese  Work for several years in order to earn incomes to support their families in China  American West – Gold Rush  Seek better economic opportunities  White workers blamed Chinese migrants for taking jobs  Model minority: the stereotype applied to a minority group that is seen as reaching higher educational, professional, and socioeconomic levels without protest against the majority establishment o Hispanic Americans  Wide range of backgrounds and nationalities  Mexican Americans form the largest Hispanic subgroup and also the oldest  Migration for the need for cheap agricultural labor  Cuban Americans – second largest Hispanic subgroup  Avoid having assets seized by government 4  Fared better than many immigrants  Model minority group within the larger Hispanic group  Higher socioeconomic status and anti-Communist agenda  Illegally immigrated; 3x illegal immigrants than those who arrive legally o Arab Americans  Represent all religious practices  Not all Arabs are Muslims, not all Muslims are Arabs  Escape persecution and to make a better life  9/11 – hundreds of hate crimes were perpetuated against people who looked like they might be of Arab descent  Victims of racism and prejudice  Islamophobia – irrational fear of/hatred against Muslims o White Ethnic Americans  Diverse backgrounds and have had a great variety of experiences  Formed the second and third great waves of immigration  Eastern Europeans were peasants forced into a hardscrabble existence in their native lands, political unrest, land shortages, and crop failures drove them to seek better opportunities in the U.S.  Jewish people escaping pograms  Anti-Jewish uprisings  Settle in enclaves and establish roots  German descent – largest group in country


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