Intro to Sociology: Ch. 11.4 and 11.5
Intro to Sociology: Ch. 11.4 and 11.5 Introduction to Sociology
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Date Created: 03/28/16
1 Introduction to Sociology SOC 101 (Section 002C) *** Notes from the Textbook: OpenStax. 2013. Introduction to Sociology Race I Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity (11.4 – 11.5 ONLY) 11.4: Intergroup Relationships o Intergroup relationships are relationships between different groups of people o Spectrum between tolerance and intolerance o Most tolerant from is pluralism No distinction between minority and majority groups (equal standing) o Genocide Genocide: the deliberate annihilation of a targeted (usually subordinate) group Intent to exterminate a group and the function of exterminating of a group, intentional or not Ex. the Holocaust, Trail of Tears o Expulsion Expulsion: when a dominant group forces a subordinate group to leave a certain area/even the country Destructive group interaction Ethnic/racial basis Ex. attack on Pearl Harbor o Segregation Segregation: the physical separation of 2 groups, particularly in a residence, but also in workplace and social functions De jure segregation – enforced by law De facto segregation – occurs without laws, but other factors Cannot be abolished by any court mandate o Pluralism Pluralism: represented by the ideal of the U.S. as a “salad bowl” A mixture of different cultures where each culture retains its own identity and yet adds to the “flavor” of the whole 2 Mutual respect on the part of all cultures, both dominant and subordinate, creating a multicultural environment of acceptance In reality – difficult goal to reach o Assimilation Assimilation: the process by which a minority individual/group takes on the characteristics of the dominant culture Function of immigration May lead to loss of minority group’s cultural identity as they become absorbed into the dominant culture No impact to majority group’s cultural identity Subordinate cultures give up their own traditions in order to conform to their new environment Four benchmarks 1) Socioeconomic status 2) Spatial concentration 3) Language assimilation – limiting employment and educational options and constraining growth in socioeconomic status 4) Intermarriage Racial and ethnic discrimination – difficult for new immigrants to fully assimilate o Amalgamation Amalgamation: the process by which a minority group and a majority group combine to form a new group “Melting pot” – each culture retains its individuality Combination of cultures resulting in a new culture entirely Achieved through intermarriage 11.5: Race and Ethnicity in the United States o Native Americans Only nonimmigrant ethnic group in the U.S. Was once a large population Early Indians migrated to this new land in search of big game to hunt Culture blossomed into an intricate web of hundreds of interconnected tribes, each with its own customs, traditions, languages, and religions The only group in the U.S. where subordination occurred purely through conquest by the dominant group 3 Culture was eroded by establishment of Indian boarding schools Purpose was to civilize Native American children and assimilate into white society Forced children to cut hair, speak English, and practice Christianity Long-term poverty, inadequate education, cultural dislocation, and high rates of unemployment Lower life expectancies than most groups o African Americans Exemplar minority group in the U.S. whose ancestors did not come here by choice Slaves = property Kidnapped from their own lands and shipped to New World Black population grew until American born blacks outnumbered those born in Africa Child of a slave was a slave Denied basic rights of citizenship (outlawed) 2005, growing trend of increased inequality with whites, especially in the areas of unemployment, insurance coverage, and incarceration o Asian Americans Represent a great diversity of cultures and backgrounds Come to the U.S. in waves; different times and reasons First Asian immigrants = Chinese Work for several years in order to earn incomes to support their families in China American West – Gold Rush Seek better economic opportunities White workers blamed Chinese migrants for taking jobs Model minority: the stereotype applied to a minority group that is seen as reaching higher educational, professional, and socioeconomic levels without protest against the majority establishment o Hispanic Americans Wide range of backgrounds and nationalities Mexican Americans form the largest Hispanic subgroup and also the oldest Migration for the need for cheap agricultural labor Cuban Americans – second largest Hispanic subgroup Avoid having assets seized by government 4 Fared better than many immigrants Model minority group within the larger Hispanic group Higher socioeconomic status and anti-Communist agenda Illegally immigrated; 3x illegal immigrants than those who arrive legally o Arab Americans Represent all religious practices Not all Arabs are Muslims, not all Muslims are Arabs Escape persecution and to make a better life 9/11 – hundreds of hate crimes were perpetuated against people who looked like they might be of Arab descent Victims of racism and prejudice Islamophobia – irrational fear of/hatred against Muslims o White Ethnic Americans Diverse backgrounds and have had a great variety of experiences Formed the second and third great waves of immigration Eastern Europeans were peasants forced into a hardscrabble existence in their native lands, political unrest, land shortages, and crop failures drove them to seek better opportunities in the U.S. Jewish people escaping pograms Anti-Jewish uprisings Settle in enclaves and establish roots German descent – largest group in country
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