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Final Exam Notes for English 231/237

by: l_welden

Final Exam Notes for English 231/237 English 231 and English 237

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Notes from class discussion
American Literature I: Beginnings to 1865 (Regular and Honors)
Dr. Brad Bannon
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by l_welden on Monday March 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to English 231 and English 237 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Brad Bannon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see American Literature I: Beginnings to 1865 (Regular and Honors) in Foreign Language at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

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Date Created: 03/28/16
Bio 102 Unit 3 Week 2 Notes A. Interspecific Interactions 1. An interaction between Species 2. Interspecific interactions can be classified according to the effect on the populations concerned. 1. / interactions occur when two populations in a community compete for a common resource. 2. / interactions are mutually beneficial, such as between plants and their pollinators. 3. / interactions occur when one population benefits and the other is harmed, such as in predation. B. The Ecological Niche 1. Niche: the space, environmental conditions, and resources that a species needs in order to survive and reproduce 2. If niches overlap a. 2 or more species rely on same limited resources, resulting in conpetition 3 . Competition exclusion principle: one of the competing species will be driven to extinction C. Ways Organisms fight Extincion 1. Cryptic coloration: camouflage 2. Warning coloration: brightly colored patterns to warn predators that an animal has an effective chemical defense 3. Mimicry: form of dense in which one species looks like another species 4. Herbivory defenses: plants develop spines, thorns, and chemical toxins D. Ecosystem Biotic Trophic Structure 1. Primary Consumers (Herbivores) eat plants 2. Carnivores eat consumers (above level of primary consumers) -secondary: eat primary -tertiary – eat secondary -quaternary-eat tertiary E. What is an ecosystem? 1. Complex, interwoven system of interacting components 2. Includes both community of living organisms F. Environmental Variability 1. Abiotic Factors can change over time, which change ecosystems 2. Water content, terrain, average temperature, climate/weather patterns affect ecosystems 3. Acclimation -gradual -reversible- -a physiological adjustment to an environmental change -ability is generally related to the range of environmental conditions a species naturally experiences -warm bloods can adapt better to large changes in environment - birds either migrate or puff up (air pockets are filled) -Anatomical Responses -change omn body shape or structure -reversal change, such as grow a heavier coat in the winter 4. Water -essential to all life -for terrestrial organisms, main issue is water drying out -ocean organisms—main issue is water balance - Solutions -isotonic (equal concentration) - Hypotonic (water goes into cell) - Hypertonic (water goes outside of cell) 5. Inorganic Nutrients 1. Aquatic factors -dissolved oxygen levels -salinity -currents -tides 2. Terrestrial a. Wind patterns b. Storm c. Fire --- it is destructive to put out every single fire --- Smokey bear effect ---sometimes helps both plants and animals i. Disturbance: alters the chemical or organismal components of an ecosystem - Natural to the environment - May be bad; cause emergence of unknown diseases or gives opportunity for other organisms to grow 3. Ecological Succession 1. Disturbances may cause a gradual replacement by other species 2. Secondary succession 3. Energy Flow: passage of energy through components of the ecosystem ---ultimately lost 4. Chemical Cycling: the use and reuse of chemical elements in an ecosystem G. Biomes A. Biome 1. Aquatic or terrestrial zone made up of several ecosystems B. Aquatic Biomes a. are not classified by the amount of rain they get---land (terrestrial) area is affected by the amount of rainfall b. 75 % c. Freshwater – salt concentration less than one percent a. Less than 1% b. Drinking, irrigation sanitation, industry c. Standing water (lakes/ponds) and flowing water (rivers, brooks, streams) d. Rivers and streams---bodies of water flowing in one directions, generally support different communities of organisms than lakes and pons e. Source Streams: cold, clear, swift, lower nutirents f. Downstream: warmer, turbid, slow, high nutirents d. Marine- 3% salt e. Depth and distance affect distribution of communities of pants, algae, and animals i. Photic- light available for photosynthesis ii. Aphotic -- no light, deeper iii. Benthic ---deepest --- gets energy from dead organisms that sunk to the floor (marine snow) C. Terrestrial Biomes a. Tropical Forest b. Temperate Forest i. Knoxville is a temperate forest; Smoky Mountains are a temperate rain forest c. Grassland d. Desert e. Taiga f. Tundra D. Things that affect biomes a. Sunlight i. Heated bythe direct raus of the sun, air at the equator rises, cools, forms clouds, and then rains XI. Chemical Cycling in Ecosystmes A. General Info B. Biogeochemical Cycles a. Biotic Components b. Abiotic makes up an abiotic reservoir where a chemical accumulates or is stockpiled outside of living organisms c. Can be local or global d. 3 important chemicals: carbon, phosphorous, and nitrogen e. Viruses also impact these cycles 1. Carbon: -atmospheric reservoir -cycles globally -photosynthesis -cellular respiration 2. Phosphorous Cycle -nucleic acids -phospholipids -ATP -also required as a mineral component of vertebrae and teeth 2. Nitrogen Cycle a. Amino acids and nucleotides that make up DNA/RNA b. Nitrogen is an ingredient of proteins and nucleic acids c. Nitrogen Fixation---converts gaseous N2 to nitrogen compounds that plants can assimilate ` C. Virus a. Noncellular particle that must infect a host cell b. Not living because cannot reproduce on its own c. Infects: humans, plants, animals, other viruses d. Been around for a long time e. Bacteriophages: only attacks bacteria --- conisstes of a molecule of DNA, enclosed within a structure


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