Week 7; Day 20-21- Chapter 9 + 16.
Week 7; Day 20-21- Chapter 9 + 16. Biology 233
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BIOLOGY 105 - C09C Lecture
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Becca LeBoeuf on Monday March 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Biology 233 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Teri Shors in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Microbiology survey in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Week 7 Day 20: Microbe In The News: ● Spring Break Precautions: ○ Contaminated beaches and hot tops. ○ What bacteria lurk in sand? Brackish water? ○ Watch the video clips to find out! Chapter 9 Bacterial Diseases (and some of chapter 16): Gastrointestinal Diseases: Foodborne And Waterborne Bacterial Diseases: ● Food Intoxication (Food Poisoning): ingestion of bacterial toxins (with or without the microbe being present). ● Foodborne Infection: bacteria multiply in the intestinal tract, senterotoxin and may invade cells of the intestinal tract. ○ Enterotoxins cause symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and possible bloody stools. The Ten Commandments For Reducing The Risk Of Foodborne And Waterborne Infections: 1. Wash hands frequently, particularly after using the bathroom and after changing a baby’s diaper. 2. Cook raw beef and poultry products thoroughly. 3. Avoid unpasteurized milk and juices and any food made from unpasteurized milk. 4. Properly wash food utensils, cutting boards, and raw fruits and vegetables. 5. Beware of “doubledippers.” 6. Avoid eating at disreputable joints. 7. Avoid food and drinks sold by street vendors, particularly when traveling abroad. 8. Frequently wash kitchen sponges in the dishwasher. 9. Do not share eating utensils, water bottles, or other such items. 10. Do not swim in contaminated waters. Top Ten Riskiest Foods Regulated By The FDA: 1. Leafy Greens. → Outbreaks: 363 *KNOW FOR TEST* 2. Eggs. → Outbreaks: 352 *KNOW FOR TEST* 3. Tuna. → Outbreaks: 268 4. Oysters. → Outbreaks: 132 *KNOW FOR TEST* 5. Potatoes. → Outbreaks: 108 6. Cheese. → Outbreaks: 83 7. Ice Cream. → Outbreaks: 74 8. Tomatoes. → Outbreaks: 31 9. Sprouts. → Outbreaks: 31 10. Berries. → Outbreaks: 25 Food Intoxication (Food Poisoning): ● Botulism is caused by the deadly botulinum neurotoxlostridium botulinum a g+ sporeforming bacillus, found in soil. ○ Improperly homecanned string beans, peppers, asparagus, sausage, cured pork and ham, smoked fish, and canned salmon. ○ Therapy: antitoxin and mechanical ventilation. ○ Botox: remove wrinkles, reduce muscle overactivity. ● Clostridium perfringensfood poisoning, when spores, contaminate meat, poultry, and beans. Day 21: Microbes In The News: bacteria on ocean beaches. ● E. Coli. ● Staphylococcus aureus. ● Enterococcus. ● Streptococcus faecalis. Brackish water pathogen in Florida: ● Vibrio vulnificus (flesh eating bacterium). Vance Salisbury: ● Flesh eating survivor web page. Started GI bacterial infections (as we study bacterial infections caused by different pathogens; KNOW GRAM RX AND SHAPE, DISEASE SYMPTOMS, PREVENTION, TREATMENT, HALLMARKS OF PATHOGEN). Botulism is caused by an exotoxin in improperly canned foods. ● Clostridium botulinum:G+ endospore forming anaerobic rod ● Makes an exotoxin which is a neurotoxin. ● Spores also found in fish, birds, barnyard animals, and soil. ● Symptoms : blurred vision, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, labored breathing, flaccid paralysis of limbs. ● May be used as bioterrorist weapon. ● Treatment: antibiotics of no value, patient needs antitoxin (antibodies). ● In U.S.: about 110 cases/year (8% mortality). ● Infant botulism is most common (endospores are in honey, this is why you should not give infants honey). ● Botox (botulism toxin type A): used to treat crosseye, some cosmetic uses (temporary removal of facial wrinkles and frown lines). Botulism Outbreaks In U.S. Prisons Associated With Drinking Pruno (Prison Wine): ● November, 2012: 8 inmates, Florence, AZ prison. ● August, 2012: 4 inmates, Pinal County, AZ. ● October 2011: 8 prisoners in Utah. ● May, 2005: ? inmates, California prison. ● July, 2004: 4 inmates, California state prison. Pruno: ● Made from apples, oranges, fruit cocktail, ketchup, sugar, and possible other ingredients. ● Bread provides the yeast for the pruno to fermPruno originated in (and remains largely confined to) prisons and jails, where it can be produced cheaply, easily, and discreetly. ● The concoction can be made using only a plastic bag, hot running water, and a towel or sock to conceal the pulp during fermentation. The end result has been colorfully described as a “vomitflavored winecooler,” although flavor is often not the primary objective. ● Depending on the time spent fermenting, the sugar content, and the quality of the ingredients and preparation, pruno’s alcohol content by volume can range from as low as 2 percent (equivalent to a very weak beer) to as high as 14 percent (equivalent to a strong wine). ● Pruno is popular in prisons across the country, and it is somewhat surprising that botulism caused by pruno consumption has not been previously reported. ● This lack of reporting may be due to the factotatoes are not generally used in the making of pruno; recipes for making pruno and references to pruno found on the Internet do not mention potatoes as an ingredient. ● Occasional crackdowns on making pruno in some prisons could have driven some inmates to look for alternative ingredients, including potatoes. Tetanus Produces Hyperactive Muscle Contractions: ● Clostridium tetani occurs everywhere in the environment. ● Transmission from soil via puncture. ● Produces exotoxin which is a neurotoxin. ● Symptoms : generalized muscle stiffness, hard to swallow, jaw stiffness (lockjaw). ● Treatment with sedatives, antitoxins and antibiotics. ● Immunization: DTaP children Adults Booster: Td (Toxoid vaccine) recommended every 10 years. Soilborne Diseases: ● Tetanus (lockjaw), is a noncommunicable disease, acquired by exposure to spores of Clostridium tetani, G+ bacillus. ● Tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin; the second most deadly bacterial toxin. ● Tetanus bacilli are ubiquitous and are abundant in soil. Manure, and dust. ● Spores germinate and bacilli multiply in deep, anaerobic, puncture wounds (from gunshot wounds, animal bites, etc). ● Tetanus prevents muscle relaxation, resulting in uncontrollable contraction Opisthotonos is extreme contractions in the back and rib muscles that cause the body to arch severely. ● Death occurs by suffocation. ● The number of tetanus cases in the United States is about 50 to 100 per year, absent or inadequate immunization leads to higher incidence in underdeveloped countries. ● Neonatal etanus is common in the first month of life. ○ The disease is prevalent in poor conditions when an infant is delivered under unsanitary conditions to a non immunized mother (the umbilical cord may be contaminated when cut). ○ Prevention is centered on vaccination of all women of childbearing age, improved delivery and postdelivery practices and education. Bacillus cereus Food Poisoning: ● Gram + rod. ● Chinese Restaurant Syndrome. ● Can cause nausea and vomiting and abdominal cramps and has an incubation period fo 1 to 6 hours. ● The shortincubation form is most often associaried rice that has been cooked and then held at warm temperatures for several ho. The disease is often associated with Chinese restaurants. Food Intoxication (Food Poisoning): ● Staphylococcal food poisoninis caused btaphylococcuaureu aG+ coccus. ○ Most common type of food poisoning. ○ Found in human nasal passages. ○ Heat stable enterotoxin. ■ Symptoms: abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. ■ Symptoms appear within a few hours, very severe. Foodborne and Waterborne Infection: ● Salmonellosis is caused by several species of G bacilli in the genus Salmonella. ○ Symptoms: gastroenteritis, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and possible fever.
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