Lecture Notes (1)
Lecture Notes (1) 101
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Date Created: 01/26/15
Anthropology 01182013 What does it mean to be human 0 Bipedalism walking on two feet began 67 million years ago 0 Stone tools clothing pens wrench chairs can all be considered quottoolsquot evidence found around 25 million years ago Symbolic culture Began 40000 years ago Art letters gures numbers etc 0 Food Production Estimated around 12000 years ago Huge effect on population size 0 Globalization 30 years ago Most recent topic jobs you cancan t get people trying to leavecome here are two issues associated with globalization What is Anthropology The study of humankind across space and time What is the human condition 0 human study of 0 Anthropology is an holistic endeavor consider broadest context anthropological work takes many different approaches and is also between 2 or more societies or between 2 or more species Bio cultural approach 0 Bio cultural approach holds that the human condition is best understood as the joint product of biology culture 0 Example Why can some people digest milk as adults ands others can t 4 Fields of anthropology Cultural archaeology physical and linguistics Cultural Anthropology o The study of human behavior traditions society language The focused study of cultural practices Crosscultural comparisons of those practices 0 Observe interview travel to places with different practices 0 Objectives 0 1 Document the diversity of human practices 0 2 Possibly generalize about human behavior Linguistic Anthropology Study of human speech and language including it origins as well as it s social and cultural context 0 What parts in our body allow use to make sound Do we changeand why the way we speak in different settings 0 Language amp Culture Language amp Biology Archaeology 0 Study of human societies past and present through culture material remains ie artifacts and their context 0 They do not study dinosaurs paleontology would be the study of dinosaurs Physical Anthropology biological The study of human evolution and variation both past and current 0 Study from fossil remains and DNA Scienti c Method 0 Involves collecting empirical data facts to test the validity of hypotheses about real world phenomena 0 Testable statement potentially explaining a speci c phenomenon but requires veri cation through scienti c testing with empirical data you are actually able to test it o Set of scienti c relationships hypotheses that have withstood rigorous repeated empirical testing a theory is not a hunch or guess 0 A theory that has proven absolutely true is a scienti c law Very rare Gravity motion Aim of science 0 Not to establish the truth but to generate evermore accurate explanations of observable phenomena through rigor and falsi cation How do you quotde nequot culture 0 Religion food clothes tradition language Culture is 0 Complex whole which includes knowledge belief art law morals customs etc 0 Information transmitted from one individual to another by social learning rather than by genetic inheritance Learned shared symbolic dynamic Learned 0 Something that you pick up from others or were taught by parentselders or possibly by just observing Shared 0 Property of a group or society rather than just one individual 0 Don t have to live in the same place to share the same culture Symbolic Statues songs memorials tattoo s piercings ags etc 0 Identify with a symbol and ideas that go along with that symbol 0 A way to tell if someone is in a certain cultural group or not also a way to manipulate people in the cultural group Dynamic o It is always there being made and remade over and over dress code for example or gender roles Can lead to changes in a short or long amount of time Material Culture 0 Includes the objectstools produced and used by people Bene t of culture 0 Provides humans the behavioral plasticity to cope with rapidly changing environmental and social conditions Humans can adapt to changes more quickly than through biological adaptations alone Globalization 0 Worldwide interconnectedness evidenced by global movements is trade goods jobs nance capital infectious diseases and more human labor information 0 Rate in which we globalized has increased rapidly Key aspects of globalization Economic interconnectedness through Accelerated movements of people via Increased ability to communicate via Higher rates 01 lnterethnic contact 0 Yoga diet other things that are quotuhAmericanquot that we now have because of globalization Effects of globalization Cultural Imperialism Loss of language culture identity 0 Loss of traditional economic livelihood Loss of political autonomy Socioeconomic inequality 0 Environmental impacts of global business 0 Migration and immigration lndigenizing culture 0 Evolution 0 A change in a allele frequencies genetic structure of population through time Has been documented in labs and nature many times Happens to a population and requires time 3 PreDarwinian issues 1 The xity of species 2 Geology young earth vs deep time 3 Descent with modi cation alternative models for change in organisms Fixity of species Aristotle organized the quotgreat chain of beingquot The middle quotdarkquot ages Fuedal society with rigid class system In Europe Christian teachings were literally Species were created divinely in the image of god They were perfect and unchanging The world was quotfullquot A dynamic world 500400 bc quotThe only that endures is changequot the world is in a constant ux AD 12251274 The world has potential to generate new but divinelyimbued life forms Young Earth In the middle ages genesis was taken so literally that actually gured out the exact day of creation to have been in 4004 BC vice chancellor of Cambridge narrowed this down to Sunday October 23 4004 BC 900am Fossil record amp discovery of extinct species In 1824 Buckland reports on megalosaurus the rst dinosaur to be scienti cally described Father of vertebrate paleontology he studied extinctions in the fossil record 17691832 yet he believed the earth to only be 6000 years old Cuvier39s catastrophism Fossils represented species that were wiped out during a series of cataclysmic events Volcanoes earthquakes oods etc Extinct species were then replace through quotspecial creationquot events Deep Time geology Natural processes such as erosion operate today as they did in the past First to study the earth rather than using a biblical approach 17971875 Rediscovered and promoted Hutton s idea of uniformitarianism Early vies of biological descent The xity of species vs o Vitaism Organisms change due to an internal drive for perfection Comte de Buffon Because environments are everchanging species must change with them in order to survive JeanBaptiste Lamarck The rst evolutionist Coined the term biology 1802 He was greatly in uence by Buffon s idea that environment in uences organisms to some extent 0 1 A will to change to perfect Stresses from environment produce strange reactions in organisms during their lifetimes leading to physical changes Changes are driven by an internal drive to perfection instilled by god in all living things 0 2 Inheritance of acquired characteristics Traits acquired by parents are inherited by offspring Lamarck was wrong on both ideas PreDarwinian summary By the early 1800 s some important things had already changed the intellectual scene 0 1 The fossil record showed that environments had been different in the past than in the present and that many species were new 0 2 Hutton and Lyell had discovered the 39deep time needed for slow processes to manifest in large changes 0 3 Some scientists believed that populations could change but the mechanism of change was still unknown Charles Darwin Father made him go to med school and then theography Darwin ended up going on a 5 year voyage around the world Became the scientist on the ship and sent data back to England He then spent decades writing his quotbig bookquot because he didn t want to release natural selection just yet Alfred Russel Wallace Forced Darwin to publish his explanation of natural selection Also came up with the idea for natural selection Natural Selection 0 1 The environment presents a carrying capacity that checks the growth of a population quotStruggle for existencequot T Malthus o 2 All populations display variation and much of this variation is found in traits that affect the ability of individuals to survive and reproduce o 3 This variation is transmitted from parents to offspring o The environment acts as a lter on variation te variation arises randomly via mutation o Organisms with higher fitness pass their traits on ot oa greater number of offspring than organisms who are less t 0 Relative measure of reproductive success what is or is not t changes depending on the environmental setting De nitionsVocab Changes in the allele frequencies of a population through time generations The emergence of new varieties of organisms through speciation A population of individuals that mate and produce viable offspring but are reproductively isolated from other populations 0 Results in new life forms but life forms are also eliminated by selection extinction O 0 An important note about speciation Evolution is not linear nor is it working towards some predetermined goal 0 The 4 forces of evolution o Mutation The ultimate source of variation 0 O O O O O 0 Only way you can get new and different alleles Copying errors induced into our genomes during mitosis and meiosis Mutation rates are very low The majority of mutations are deleterious bad Many of the rest are neutral 1 They do not affect a phenotype or 2 The traits they affect do not in uence tness Only a very small portion of mutations are actually bene cial to the organism Mutation increases diversity within and between populations Mutation alone cannot change the allele frequencies of a population very quickly a Gene Flow The movement of alleles between populations through migration and interbreeding Moving somewhere else and reproducing 0 Increases diversity within populations by introducing new alleles from outside the population BUT gene ow decreases diversity between population Drift A change in allele frequencies that is due to stochastic ie chance factors 0 0 0 0 0 The effects of drift are more pronounced in small populations Drift decreases diversity within populations and increases diversity between them it fuels speciation Sampling Error Population Bottlenecks The quotfounder effect Effect of sampling error greaterin smaller populations Drift increases differences between isolated populations 0 Natural Selection 0 In most cases selection decreases diversity within populations though in the special case of diversifying selection the opposite is true 0 Depending on the environment selection may either decrease orincrease differences between population 0 Why do physical anthropologists study nonhuman primates 1 Primates share many homologous Traits that are similar between 2 species because they have gotten them from a common ancestor traits in morphology physiology and development 0 Shared similarities between human and nonhuman primates can help us understand the evolutionary roots of human morphology and human nature 0 Species can be classi ed hierarchically on the basis of traits they share due to common descent o Homologous traits are of use for reconstructing evolutionary relationships 2 On the other hand primates are very diverse physically and behaviorally Phylogeny A diagram of the evolutionary relationships among a group of species Constructed based on homologous traits The most recent common ancestoris de ned relative to a given set of organisms To see who is more closely related to whom compare the relative positions of their common ancestors Organisms that diverged from each other more recently will have more characteristics in common What is a Primate General Primate Traits 1 Erectupright posture 2 Grasping hands amp feet 0 Five exible digits nails instead of claws opposable thumbbig toe tactile pads on nger tips 3 Retention of clavicle collarbone mobile front limbs 4 Generalized heterodont different forms dentition 5 Reduced emphasis on sense of smell reduced snout most primates lack a rhinarium 6 Stereoscopic color vision fully enclosed eye orbits 7 Primate quotlife history traitsquot Small littersfew offspring per pregnancy Prolonged period of infancy amp dependency Long life span for body size Heavily dependent on learned behavior Most live in relatively large social groups 8 High level of encephalization large brains relative to body size O 0000 The evolution of primate adaptions 3 hypotheses o Basic primate traits were selected to t an adaptive niche in the trees 0 Early primates adapted to forest undergrowth where they exploited insects and small prey that required stealth and dexterity o 3 Basic primate traits were favored by selection to better harvest owering plants and fruit Survey of Nonhuman Primates 4 broad groups of Primates 0 1 lncludes Lemurs tarsiers Iorises Con ned to Madagascar tropical Africa and Asia Prosimians have the most primitive traits of all primates That s why we don t classify them with the anthropoids 39Primitive Ancestral traits 39Primitive refers to traits that have been retained from an ancestral species a 39primitive does not mean inferior or bad a example 5 digits on hands amp feet Vertical clingers and leapers o 2 Relatively small and arboreal These monkeys have prehensile tails Live mainly in tropical forests in Central and South America Many species live in large multimale multifemale social groups 0 3 Cercopithecines Most at least partly terrestrial omnivorous live in large groups baboons macaques mandrills languars velvet monkey etc Colobines arboreal colorful feed on leaves 0 4 quotGreat apesquot Chimpanzee bonobo gorilla orangutan quotLesser apesquot Gibbons an siamangs Hominins Humans and human ancestors Chimpanzee I Found in a belt along equatorial Africa a Quadrupedal knucklewalkers a Large multimale multifemale groups are 39run and defended y males that compete for status a Chimps are highly excitable and can be ferocious n Motherinfant bond is an important lifelong relationship in chimps Bonobo chimpanzees n Slightly different morphology from common chimp More linear build longer arms darker faces a Quite different behaviorally Less aggressive in general 0 Females play a larger role in group Sexuality Gorillas a Live in relatively small forested regions in equatorial Africa a Exhibit marked sexual dimorphism one sex is much larger than the other a Silverback males maintain harems of females n Gorillas are almost exclusively vegetarian n One male multifemale groups El El Knucklewalking Males defend group Orangutan El El El El Only found in the rainforest of southeast Asian Islands Borneo and Sumatra Very large cautious climbers that rarely touch the ground except when they fall Orangutans do not live in large social groups Frugivorous eat mostly fruits Arboreal or Fist Walking on Ground Sexually dimorphic quotLesserquot apes El El Gibbons and siamangs Gibbons and Siamangs are found in tropical SE Asia Pairbonded adults and offspring form social unit Most distinguishing characteristic is their mode of locomotion called brachiation o Swinging with your arms like monkey bars 0 Many species of primates are highly endangered 0 Never consider owning a primate as a pet 23 can be grouped together as Paleoanthropology The multidisciplinary pursuit seeking to reconstruct every possible bit of information concerning the dating structure behavior and ecology of our hominid relatives Geography Continental drift the movement of large tectonic plates on top of more uidlike asthenosphere Continental drift 0100mm per year Paleoclimatology Climatic conditions of the past are analyzed with oxygen isotope rations from deepsea cores Cold periods alter the ration of 016018 found in the ocean which in turn alters the ratio of foraminifera shells Dating deepsea cores 0 A number of sources Sedimentation rates Volcanic glass can be dated with KK of KAr Paleomagnetism Taphonomy The study of how fossils amp the fossil record form F055 0 the process by which organic material is replaced by minerals creating a stone copy of the organic original Why are fossils so rare 0 Fossils are only formed if the conditions are a certain way 0 Few conditions lead to the formation of fossils Rapid burial in ne sediment Gentle burial a Lake shores small streams Correct chemical environment not acidic but rather mineralrich water 0 The fact that we have found any hominin fossils due in large part to recent faulting erosion o The fossils we nd are samples of samples of samples of the actual population of living critters Only a small part of the population of animals are going to create fossils even smaller portion of that is going to get exposed and another smaller portion of that is going to be if someone can actually identify what it is 0 Dating How old are the fossils o 2 general types of dating techniques 0 1 Place nds in a relative sequence but provide no actual dates or date range Comparing 2 or more things Examples stratigraphy biostratigraphy n Stratigraphy Makes use of the law of superposition older layers are overlain by more recent layers a More recent things are usually laid on top of the thins that came before Like a cake a Further down you go the older you are getting 0 2 Provide date estimates in years BP for geological deposits and in some cases the fossils and artifacts themselves Examples KAr ArAr radiocarbon How do we tell whether a fossil is a hominin 0 Look for characteristics of humans not present in any other primates shared derived features 0 The earliest and most universal derived feature of the hominins is our gait o Bipedalism leaves a signature on the skeleton from head to toe literally o In bipeds foramen magnum is located under rather than at rear of the skull o Bipeds have a broad basinshaped pelvis quadrupeds a tall narrow pelvis o Sshaped curvature to spine helps balance cushion head atop a biped 0 Shape and angle of femur is different in biped o The biped s foot Arch provides extra spring Toes in line Early Hominins 1 0 A Saheanthropus tchadensis Between 67 million years old biostratigraphy Shows a surprising mix of anatomical features Mix of features a Apelike ancestral traits Chimpsized brain Occipital features a Homininlike derived traits Flat face 0 Small worn canines Location of Foramen Magnum n Odd traits Massive brow ridge like much later hominins and gorillas n Habitat Wellwatered woodlands 0 B Orrorin tugenensis Found in highlands of Kenya in 2001 Dated to 6 mya Habitat Woodland amp savanna Ancestral features a Apelike incisors canines and premolars w Arms and long curved nger bones seem suited for climbing Derived Features a Thick enamel on teeth a Thigh bones more like humans than chimps n Orrorin femur looks rather Homolike 0 Long angled neck large head 0 C Ardipithecus ramidus 44 mya Ethiopia Lived in forest May be ancestral to humans A mix of ancestral and derived traits n Ancestral features Prognathic face 0 Thin tooth enamel Small brain apelike skull n Derived Features Bipedal foramen magnum toe bones pelvis Canines of intermediate size and not sharpened by lower premolar Pelvis is relatively short and broad 2 o A Australopithecus n Lived in E Africa from 42 38 mya n Ancestral features 0 Parallel tooth rows 0 Large canines Sharply receding chin n Derived features 0 Large molars with thick enamel The shapes of the knee and ankle joints indicate bipedalism n Lived in E Africa from 37 to 3 mya U Finds The Dikika Child 0 33 mya Ethiopia 3 year old probably a girl Skull with hyoid scapula and other pieces underneath o Scapula looks primitive similar to gorilla scapula n Ancestral traits Small brain 0 Only about 35 feet tall 0 Long arms curved ngers time in trees Sexually dimorphic o Males are bigger than females especially their canines Large pointed canine parallel tooth rows n Derived traits o Bipedal fm knee joint femur pelvis OO n Lived in S Africa a 3 22 mya n Slightly larger brain than Lucy In Slightly reduced dimorphism and canine size n Shorter arms straighter ngers I Shows adaptations to strong chewing U Finds o TheTaung Child 0 An adult A garhi n Discovered in 2008 at Malapa Cave S Africa a 2 mya lived in South Africa a Ancestral traits 0 Small brain 420cc 0 Australopithlike shoulderjoint Long arms a Derived traits Smaller teeth 0 Long thumb relative to ngers o B Paranthropus 25 10 mya Includes 3 species a P aethiopicus 0 Found in East Africa a P robustus Found in South Africa 0 Large face large jaw etc o Adaptation to the dry tough diet similar to boisei n P boisei 0 Found in East Africa 0 Huge teeth 0 Raymond Dart Australian anatomist Famous for 2 ideas 0 1 A africanus was a hominin a human relative o 2 A africanus was a vicious weaponwielding predator The Taung Child An unusual primate skull is discovered at Taung limeworks 1924 2 unusual features 0 1 quotHuman likequot teeth 0 2 Foramen magnum at base of skull It was apelike in other features like brain size Dart toured Europe with Tung skull but nobody accepted idea it was a human relative But there are no stone tools in S African cave sites 0 Dart argued that broken bones were tools the quotOsteodontokeraticquot culture 0 Published in 1957 book The notion of early humans as quotkiller apesquot 0 Fit with recent experience WW1 WW2 Cold War 0 Popularized by writer Robert Ardrey quotAfrican Genesisquot Lessons to be learned 1 Scientists cannot help but be in uenced to some degree by the society around them 2 On the other hand science is selfcorrecting
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