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Soc 102 exam 1 notes

by: Amanda Sanders

Soc 102 exam 1 notes Soc 102

Amanda Sanders
GPA 3.77
Social Problems
Rebekah Torcasso

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Social Problems
Rebekah Torcasso
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Popular in Sociology

This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Amanda Sanders on Monday January 26, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Soc 102 at Washington State University taught by Rebekah Torcasso in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 187 views. For similar materials see Social Problems in Sociology at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 01/26/15
Micro bio 101 Exam 1 notes 827014 39 chapter 1 disease causing microbes less than 1 of microbes cause disease Every life form has microbes Normal ora bacteria interaction bacteria that live in or on you Applications Where microbes are used blue jeans stone washing trichoderma cotton Glucormacetobacter Debleaching mushroom peroxidase indigo E Coli Plastic bacterial polyhydroxalkanate foods production Wine beer cheese ect allergic reaction microbe transmission biotechnology the use of microbes to produce foods and chemicals in centuries old composting energy Fungi mold diseases antibiotics cancer treatments viruses types measles enters through lungs and transmits to the skin Can39t get by touching skin Rabies west Nile and malaria transmitted through mosquitoes transmission vaccines algae toxins in lakes such as red tide 8292014 Microscopy history 1665 Robert Hook 1st to observe cells thus named cells or little boxes 1673 Anton van Leeuwenhoek develop brass microscope and lenses Light microscope bright field microscopy all light passing through specimen observed dark field microscopy only light refracted by specimen observed phase contrast microscopy uses phase of light waves Prokaryotic cells Shapes coccus round shape to them bacillus rod shape always longer than wide Vibrio curve shape Spirillum spiral wave pattern spirochete spiral corkscrew shape chains cell divides into one plane diplococcus two grouped together Packets cell divides into two or more planes perpendicular to one another clusters cell divides into several planes at random Structures glycocalyx proteinsugar structure external coating Function protection attachment bile film slime layer loose slimy structure receptor function Streptococcus mutants normal ora organisms Slime Layers Teeth coating in the morning is an example the can enter the blood supply during teeth cleaning they can get into your capillaries and could possibly get to 0 our heart artificial joints can also be attached if they get into your blood supply River rocks bacteria algae is a slime layer also 39 capsule Dense packed together structure ex Streptococcus pneumonia lungs pneumonia ex Bacillus anthrax Structures 39 Fimbriae proteinsugar dense structure attachment to host cells examples 0 E Coli GI tract produce cytotoxins Gonorrhea STD 39 Pilus protein sugar loose structure attachment to host cells 0 Ex E Coli GI tract produce and release cytotoxins 39 Flagellum protein structure function 0 motilityruntumble taxis has to do with motility chemo taxis 39 photo taxis 0 Movement toward food or light stimuli 39 away heat light or antibiotics stimuli 39 Anchor attachment 39 ex heobacter pylori 39 stomach ulcers 39 move through tissue 0 ex Listeria travel to fetus kills fetus 39 Cell wall tell shape of bacteria 39 3 types 39 gram positive cell wall 0 gram negative cell wall 39 atypical cell wall 0 1884 Hans Christian Gram Developed the quotGramquot stain 39 Based on cell wall anatomy 39 gram positive cell wall ex Staphylococcus aureus 0 thick peptidoglycan layer 39 protein sugar structure 0 Is a series of Gleeman rods held together by tetra peptide chains 39 very sensitive to 39 heating 39 acid 39 penicillin 39 Gram Negative cell stains pink ex E coli 39 thin peptidoglycan layer 0 LPS lipopolysaccharide Lipid A 0 if cell dies it releases an endotoxin that causes quot full body shut downquot and destroys heart liver and kidneys hard to treat can39t use antibiotics kill cell it kills you 0 Atypical 39 Acidfast cell walls like Grampositive cell wall comprised of high concentration of hydrophobic was lipid cholesterol based 39 myolic acid ex Mycobacterium sp 39 leprosy Armadillos Tuberculosis TB ex Norcardia soil organism 39 but can infect feethands like leprosy 39 Cell Membrane 39 made of phospholipid bilayers 39 selective barrierdecides what leaves and enters 0 simple diffusion lets simple things in or out water amino acids nutrients ex 0 Facilitated diffusion door gate something with a charge or size needs more help to be let through 39 Facilitate diffusion by specific transporter certain shape let through normally needs ATP to be let through 39 Aquaporinosmosis 39 Flagellum located in cell membrane 39 energy production 39 ATPAdenosine Triphosphate 39 ATP production steps 0 1 glucose gt 38 ATP39s 1 glycolysis 39 2 Acetyl CO A 39 3 Krebs cycle 39 4 electron transport chain 0 Cytoskeleton 39 Protein structure 39 cell shape 39 cell division binary fission Cytoplasm 39 Semisolid material that 0 1 Stores nutrients minerals 5 Vitamins 0 Amino Acids 39 Carbohydrates 39 2 Location of a transcription and translation 0 protein synthesis 39 and also energy production 39 organize cellular material 39 translation and transcription occurs here at the same time 0 Inclusion Granules 39 storage of material nutrients and metals iron lead and zinc Which are eating bacteria 39 Gas Vesicles 0 small rigid structure that allows buoyancy of the cell 0 oats up or down Ribosome 0 protein synthesis 39 Bacteria 39 Small subunit 30s large subunit 50s 70s structure very sensitive to antibiotics 0 function to make protein 2 steps 0 Transcription copy DNA mRNA 39 Translation read mRNA protein 39 goes through transcription and translation at the same time 0 Protein bacteria 0 Frimbriae 39 Pili 39 capsule 39 slime layer 39 cell wall Gram 39 enzymes 39 transport proteins 39 Flagella 0 DNA 39 in a circular shape referred to a nuclide 0 Plasmid 39 extra piece of DNA can code for antibiotic resistant Nucleoid 0 DNA circular 39 protein information 39 genetic 0 Replication 0 Binary Fission 39 everything in cell doubled 0 parent cell replication of all material 2 daughter cells genetically identical 39 1248163264 etc 39 Replication time depends on organism or environment 0 EColi every 20 mins if conditions ideal 0 TB every few days 0 Endospores 39 some organisms ex Clostridium Bacillus sp 0 can produce a quotlong termquot quotrestingquot cell 0 have found in 7500 years old mud ats dust in tombs soil 0 if condition look bad limited resources 39 vegetative cell growing sporulates produce endospore READ 421 IN BOOK 0 Characteristics 39 double cell membrane 39 thicker peptidoglycan layer cell wall 39 gram positive organisms 39 resistant to heating chemical treatments and antibiotics 39 thick waxy outer coat 39 ex Clostridium Tetani tetanus 0 ex Clostridium perfringes gas gangrenes ex Clostridium botulinum botulism 39 ex Bacillus anthraces anthrax Plasmid 0 extra piece of DNA can code for antibiotic resistant 0 Endospore 0 can produce quotlong termresistingquot cell It is found in 7500 year old mud dust in tombs ConjugationSex pill sharing With other organisms via Hollow protein tube transduction involvement of virus lands of bacteria injects DNA in Water 150 lb person is approx 90 lbs of water bacteria cell 70 water essential for life water molecule is H20 3 states of water 0 liquid Water 39 solidice vaporsteam minerals in water 39 bottled water has no minerals because they were taking the minerals out water intake 39 drink water content in food water produced from metabolism water output 39 skin perspiration lung perspiration urine feces intake B output are equal lOcups function of water 1high heat capacity hydrogen bonds absorb heat abAB heat AB ABB heat 2 Break chemical bonds hydrolysis 3 Make chemical bonds condensation 4 transport system solvent hydration cell 5 pH potential hydrogen h20h oh donate and accept h to maintain pH 6 Sweat cooling skin and hair sweatsalt zinc and iron 7 Impact protection Macromolecule AKA building blocks carbohydrates proteins lipids 39 triglyceride 39 cholesterolsterol 39 phospholipids 39 minerals 5 39 Vitamins fat soluble or water soluble


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