Chapter 2 Notes/Study Guide for Exam
Chapter 2 Notes/Study Guide for Exam NUTR 4334 Community Nutrition
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Chelsy Ethridge on Monday January 26, 2015. The Bundle belongs to NUTR 4334 Community Nutrition at University of Houston taught by Tracey Ledoux in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 338 views. For similar materials see Community Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 01/26/15
Ch 2 Assessing Community Resources Before you can develop a community nutrition intervention you need to do a community needs assessment This is going to help you identify the resources the barriers to treatment the problems that need to be treated and how to identify the target populations The Community Needs Assessment is the process of evaluating the health and nutritional status of the community determining what the community s health and nutritional needs are and identifying places where those needs are not being met the gap in services Other names for the Community Needs Assessment Health Education Planning Asset Mapping Community Analysis and Diagnosis Asset Mapping A community assessment that documents existing assets and resources a community inventory of groups and group assets including associations business cultural religious fraternal private and nonpro t organizations colleges hospitals social service agencies and public institutions libraries schools recreation departments that are a fundamental part of community life and that can be mobilized for community improvement and problem solving The Community Needs Assessment may include one or more of the following actions You are going to identify and evaluate existing resources example a community is de cient in Calcium intake then you want to identify all of the existing resources that are available to individuals in that community to help increase their calcium intake Whether or not there are educational programs hospital resources grocery stores or supplements available in the community If these established resources aren t working you need to modify these programs Remember not all resources are available or accessible to every member of the population For example some people may be able to afford 200 diabetes prevention counseling session every month while others will not Evaluate nutrition status of the community Nutrition status refers to a population or individual s health as in uenced by the intake and utilization of nutrients and nonnutrients We are speaking about the average intake of a particular nutrient the average ability of individuals to utilize those nutrients and nonnutrients preservatives arti cial colorings etc As a whole is the community getting a lack of vitamin D andor calcium intake or do they have a high level of sodium intake Identify the needs of the community What is the problem Which nutrients is the population de cient in Which nutrients is this population over consuming Are they taking in too much saturated fat or salt Are they not getting enough ber Helps you develop an intervention centered around those problems A Community Nutrition Needs Assessment Does the Following Things 1 Describes the nutritionrelated problems that exist in the community lack of intake of ber fruit and vegetables too much fatsalt in diet 2 Indicates the felt or perceived needs of the community and its desire for a solution Community members harbor the consequences of the nutrition problem and if they are not concerned about it they will not participate in an intervention or a program aimed at xing that problem Maybe the intervention needs to heighten awareness about the harmful effects of fat and get the community interested in even making any changes 3 Establishes priorities and identi es resources that exist to deal with the problem A higher priority item will be something the affects a larger percent of the population Identify problems based on severity and how widespread it is A de ciency in vitamin D is more important than an overconsumption of fat if more people have the vitamin D de ciency Triggers for Community Needs Assessment 1 Outdated or missing data about health and nutritional status of community Updated obesity reports at the national and local level are issued each year If they were issued every 5 years that wouldn t be a good indication of how the health and nutritional status of a community was progressing or declining Would need to be updated 2 Mandate from state or federal agencies Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program provides money to lowincome families to purchase foods State or federal agencies may mandate a community needs assessment to see how affective that program is among the participants involved 3 Research Findings For example a large portion of the population may be vitamin D de cient so the community will need to be looked at in regards to vitamin D intake precursors to de ciency resources and barriers to treatment etc 4 Community Awareness the obesity issue drives what researchers are interested in studying Community needs assessment becomes more important when there is a greater concern win the community 5 Availability of funds When the state says they will give you X amount of dollars to research water consumption trends within your community you will most likely conduct a community assessment because it is being funded Steps in Community Needs Assessment lengthy process 1 De ne the Nutritional Problem Changes in the demographic pro le of the community may signal a nutritional problem If you suddenly see a community where there is an in ux of immigrants from a different region there may a de ciency in data about the nutritional status of that population There are obviously some potential reasons for the nutritional problems there This population may have different diets preferences or customs related to diet What is the nutrition status of this population and what can we do to help Ex obesity lowbirth weight infants inadequate food intake of immigrants and poor quality of diets of high school students 2 Set Parameters of the Assessment You want to DEFINE community changes for each assessment and throughout assessment De ning the target population and your geographic community It may change for each assessment that you do and throughout the assessment as well Determine the PURPOSE of the assessment For example determine whether existing resources and programs meet community nutrition needs ID groups who are at nutrition risk inform ways existing programs should be tailored for existing populations ID the community or target population s most critical nutritional needs and set priorities among them ID the factors that contribute to a nutritional problem win the community or target population Determine whether existing resources and programs meet the community s or target population s nutritional needs Provide baseline info for developing action plans to address the community s or target populations nutritional needs and for evaluating the program Plan actions to improve the community s or target population s nutritional status using methods that are feasible and focus on established health priorities Tailor a program to a speci c population De ne TARGET POPULATION may change as the assessment progresses Set GOALS which are broad statements about what activity is expected to accomplish Set OBJECTIVES which are speci c outcomes amp activities use strong action verbs amp determine the type of data collected Goal example determine hydration status of adolescent males in Houston Objective example conduct 24hour dietary recalls with HS adolescent males at a speci c HS Collect Data very important to identify the purpose goals and objectives of your needs assessment because that will drive everything else that you do This includes the sources of data that you pull from There are a lot of sources of data for a community needs assessment Some are already in existence E Existing Data Existing data includes many health and nutrition data published in periodicals such as the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics American Journal of Public Health Public Health Repots etc Some are NEW Data In some situations data related to the target population are not readily available so one must choose a method for collecting them Ex state health department mortality stats gov t agencies local hospitals and clinics phonebook and secondary data ex university research center data Some of the methods used to collect data about target populations include nutrition surveys health risk appraisals screening tools focus groups interviews w key informants and direct assessment techniques National Weight Control Registry tracks people who have lost a signi cant amount of weight through tracking their eating habits exercise habits psychosocial variables etc May ask this university research center for this data so you don t have to go out and conduct research yourself 2 Different Types of Data 1 Qualitative data Think Linguistics From observations and interviews or focus groups with key informants community members who harbor information and stakeholders community members who hold power Identify these people by talking to community members healthcare providers and dietitians Subjective information about the buying purchases of consumers at a grocery store Key informants are people that are quotin the knowquot These are parents Stakeholder has vested interest in the problem you are trying to identify These are school administrators who can make changes in the school lunch program In assessment of college students eating behaviors college students would be key informants because they know how they eat Stakeholders would be college administrators because they have the power to change the menu in cafeterias etc 2 Quantitative data Think Numbers From vital statistics ex birth death and marriage rates hospital records health surveys ex infant mortality rates census data age gender labor force characteristics births deaths housing characteristics 3 Collect Data about certain topics Organizational power and structures Demographic data win community and population ex age gender SES marital status living arrangements amp trends income of adolescent males across x number of years Community health ex use of healthcare resources and databases Existing services and programs Examples yellow pages Google phonebook is one of the best sources Where would you turn for help to x this problem Environmental conditions what are the barriers to the nutrition problem what perpetuates the nutrition problem ex billboards and advertising may be promoting some of the foods that you want to decrease or increase the intake of food availability Socioeconomic conditions if you are looking at a community w higher income there are probably a larger number of people who can afford things Background conditions history among community member will drive future behaviors Ex diabetes in Native American population History between Native Americans and the United States government shows that the US government has promoted the food behavior and is responsible for the increase in diabetes in the Native American culture An assessment team learned that the Bureau of Indian Affairs implemented policies that inadvertently created competition among tribes for money for health care services This unexpected situation may result in less money being distributed to tribal communities to pay for expensive medical services an outcome that may affect the target population s health and nutritional status National policy affects the eligibility for food assistance programs minimum wage levels and the distribution of commodity foods all factors that may in uence the target population s health and nutritional status What are the agricultural practices in our country High fructose corn syrup bc of an overabundance of corn affects our nutritional intakes Target population collect as much data about your target population as you can Analyze and Interpret Data Merge Date Use mapping tools to view the data benchmarks example compare fruit and vegetable intake to what it is suppose to be Make diagnosis from data Summarize problem determine key points Share Finding of Assessment Results are useful to other agencies and organizations who may have an interest in this Ex if you research child nutrition schools may be interested as well as hospitals and other organizations with the authority to change things related to the matter Prevents duplication of effort sharing information prevents people from researching the same thing that you did Sharing your material helps others learn from your materials and continue research Enables more than one agency to address problem helps agencies come together to tackle this problem together Be sure key stakeholders are informed before release of information because stakeholders have much authority in how to solve these problems and address them If you release information about the target population without their consent it can create ill will Set Priorities results will help you set priorities for solving nutritional problems Which health outcome is most important The nutritionist in the community is asking quotGiven the several nutritional problems and needs of the target population where should my organization direct its efforts to achieve the best health outcome Which of the several nutritional problems or needs of the target population deserves immediate attention Identi es serious problems and problems with increasing frequency should be higher than rare problems or those that have minor consequences Involves who is to get what at whose expense a high income individual may be the source as well as the person who bene ts from it Set priorities as to who gets what and at what and who s expense You want the best health outcome Limited resources are going to affect decisions based on priorities Limited resources to solving a problem are going to make it a lower priority Ex obesity affects a lot of people and has moderate to serious consequences To really treat obesity effectively it would require a lot of money Because we don t have all of the resources the problem of obesity falls a little bit lower on the priority list Realistically there are never enough resources to address all public health problems and the decisions about which problems receive attention are not always rational right or fair The nal decisions about which areas to address generally re ect the community s ranking of the importance of public health problems and its assessment of the probable impact of its interventions Choose a Plan of Action share key ndings with community leaders who have in uence over the course of action that you take Advocate for change generate interest in solving the problem with the community Make information available to the community the best way to reach large numbers of people is through the MEDIA Develop new program or pilot intervention test it out before implementing it work out all problems before going widespread with the program that you develop based on your assessment
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