Biology 102 notes
Biology 102 notes
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Date Created: 01/26/15
Chapter 6 What is memory Early View either you remember or you dont Case of HM Henry Molaison Removed Hippocampus No long term memory Could learn tasks but not remember he knew them Memory is not just Conscious Recall Memory The ability to store and use information Three Process in memory Encoding Transforming info into form that can be enteredretained Storage process of retaining infor in memory Retrieval process of accessing stored info Three stage model of memory Sensory memory gt Short Term gt ltLong Term Memory Sensory Memory Preserves info in original sensory form for fraction of a second Iconic Store Visual information Echoic Store Sound information Sperling 1960 Flashed letters for brief amount of times RGW DGS SGA Recalled seeing more letters than able to report 35 Cued people to which row to report Cue Tone is for certain rows people could memories the rows CapacityDuration of sensory memory Iconic Visual Memory stored all info for 51 second Echoic Memory could be stored 34 seconds Working ShortTerm Memory Holds info before sent to LTM 230 seconds Temporary place for information that is being used Reading Planning Speech Maintenance rehearsal Repeating information to yourself keeps it in memory ShortTerm Memory Limited to between 5 and 9 digits letters or chunks of information 7 2 Chunking breaking down a list of items to be remembered into smaller set of meaningful 9523184719 9523184719 Long Term Memory Information stored from 30 seconds to a lifetime What determines how long Rehearsal Frequency of Use Emotional Nature lmplicit Memory Procedural Memory of how to perform skills operation action ie riding a bike Conscious recall not necessary Priming Prior exposure aids recall Unconscious Ex Advertising Explicit Memory Conscious Recall Semantic Memory Facts and Knowledge Episodic Memory ExperiencedBased Autobiographical memory Stages of Long Term Memory 1Encoding Attending totaking in and integrating New information Mental Representations Automatic Processing Little Effort or Attention Eg TimeSpaceFrequency Effortful Processing Careful Attention and conscious effort Mnemonic devices Technique to aid memory Elaborative Rehearsal Focus on meaning of info linking it to previous knowledge to help transfer it to long term memory 2Storage Retention of memory over time Clustering organizing items into related groups Semantic Network Model lnfo in LTM as being associated in complex network of associations When you activate one concept it can spread to activate other similar concepts 3Retrieval Recovering Stored info Working Memory activated lmplicit or Explicit memory retrieval Retrieval cue Prompt that helps trigger recall of information Some info is stored but inaccessible without a cue Failures of retrieval Tip of the tongue not an all or nothing process Serial Position Effect Ability to remember the first and last items of a list better than others Memory at the neural level Long Term potentiation Strengthening of synaptic connection Chemical Structural Neurons that fire togetherwire together Tendency to better recall items at the beginning and ends of lists Encoding Specificity Principle It s easier to retrieve information when the cues match the original learning conditions Context Effect Remember better in the Same setting Mood Congruence Your mood memories consistent with that mood EncodingRetrieval Flashbulb Memories Recall of very specific detailsimages surrounding a significantrarevivid event Seem more accurate to us Actually decay like normal memories 3 Stages of memory Samar Unttm edi i nfwrmat39 n 5 Ilast Forgetting 1 Encoding 2 Decay Theory 3 Interference Theory 4 Motivated Forgetting Forgetting Inability to recall information that was previously available Forgetting Curve Hermann Ebbinghausl Tested memory of nonsense words worse over time Memory and Forgetting Worse with age Worse over time Prone to mistakes Malleable Encoding Failure We never encoded info into LTM in the first place Only made it into STM AbsentMindedness When you don t pay enough attention to the bit of info when you should be encoding it Divided attention Most common in habitual actions Decay Theory Forgetting is due to normal metabolic processes in brain over time Memory trace distinct change in brain Refresh memory or it will fade Evidence against this theory Forgetting curve Some info remembered decades after May contribute to forgetting Interference Theory When one memory competes with or replaces another memory Similarity of informationcritical Retroactive Interference A new memory interferes with old memory Proactive An old memory interferes with new memory Motivated Forgetting We forget because we are motivated to Memory is unpleasantdisturbing Suppression Occurs consciously deliberate attempt to not think about info Repression Occurs unconsciously blockedunavailable to consciousness lmperfect Memories Memory is imperfect Memories change over time Elizabeth Loftus Leading expert on distortionsfalse memories The misinformation effect Memory distortion phenomenon existing memories can be altered if person is exposed to misleading information Eye Witness Testimony 78 of 230 cases turned over by DNA evidence gt were convicted through eyewitness testimony Problems Suggestibility of memory Leading Questions Selective Attention etc False Memories False Memories memories for events that never happened but were suggested by someonesomething Eg hear a story about childhood create memory Lost in the mall People can develop false memories Recovered Memories Memories from a real event that were encoded stored but not retrieved until some later event brings them back to consciousness Uncovering repressed memories Controversial gt Suggestibility Amnesia Memory loss due to brain injury or disease Anterograde Amnesia forgetting things that happen after the eventdisease Retrograde Amnesia forgetting things that happened before the eventdisease Dementia Progressive deteriorationimpairment of memoryreasoningcognitive functions Alzheimers disease Most common type of dementia Plaques protein deposits Tangela twisted fibers Starts in hippocampus Affects many brain areas Eventual spread 810 years
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