All The Notes For Test
All The Notes For Test MUS 1030
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Popular in Music
This 26 page Bundle was uploaded by Ivana Notetaker on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MUS 1030 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Luke C Freeman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music in Music at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Introduction to Music Music 1030 Western Classical Music Music in the Classical Period Age of Reason: The Enlightenment Voltaire The Philosophical Letters, 1734 Candide, 1759 Rosseau The Social Contract, 1762 Human reasoning (rather than divine inspiration or historical authority) became valued as a source of power and knowledge. Time Line (1720/30’s 1825) Revolution changed political systems, social order 1775 American Revolution begins 1789 French Revolution begins Significant advances in science and ideas 1752 Benjamin Franklin’s electricity discoveries 1796 Edward Jenner discovers smallpox vaccination Industrial Revolution: mass production possible 1760’s James Hargreaves's spinning jenny 1790’s Eli Whitney’s cotton gin Rococo vs. Neoclassicism The Swing JeanHonore Fragonard (French, 1776) Death of Socrates JacquesLouis David (French, 1787) Elements of Classical Music: Balance, Clarity, & Delicacy Baroque Harmony Polarity of melody and bass (basso continuo) Long melodies Texture: polyphony & homophony Genres: Concerto, opera, fugue, cantata, oratorio Classical Harmony Melody & accompaniment no basso continuo) Melody: paired phrases FORM Texture: homophony Genres: Concerto, opera, symphony, string quartet The Elements of Music FORM How music is organized and structured BINARY FORM Two sections, each repeated, with contrasting material Example: Mozart, Piano Sonata in D Major, Mvt. III TERNARY FORM 3 sections, with the final section being a repeat of the first Example: Tchaikovsky, Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy from The Nutcracker ballet THEME AND VARIATIONS Theme and Variations: Theme is stated then repeated and changed in some way in each following section Example: Aaron Copland, Appalachian Spring (ballet): Simple Gifts A – Theme presented by clarinet, with strings & piano accompanying A1 – Woodwinds, accompanied by strings A2 – Strings, accompanied by piano and harp A3 – Strings, quickly, accompanied by woodwinds Mid18th century Orchestra • 1216 strings: violins, violas, cello, basses • Pairs of flutes, oboes, bassoons, & horns • Harpsichord (until late 18th century) • In Late 18th century, addition of: • Pair of clarinets • Pair of trumpets • Timpani THE CLASSICAL SYMPHONY: The Mannheim School & Orchestra Johann Stamitz (17171757) Bohemian composer, conductor, & violinist Pioneer of the Mannheim school INNOVATIONS: standardized bowings Rehearsals “Mannheim roller” More use of winds (oboes, horns) 4movement form Franz Joseph Haydn (17321809) Austrian composer, singer, violinist (Papa Haydn) “Father of the Symphony” “Father of the String Quartet” Prince Esterházy Patronage Friends with Mozart, taught Beethoven London Years (179192, 179495) Listening Examples: Haydn Symphonies “Farewell” Symphony no. 45 in F# minor 4 th movement (1772) Instrumentation: Woodwinds: 2 oboes and a bassoon Brass: 2 horns Strings (1st & 2nd violins, violas, cellos, and double basses) Tempo: Presto, then Adagio Form: Sonataallegro form Meter: 2/2 meter (cut time), then ⅜ “Surprise” Symphony no. 94 in G Major 2 nd movement (1791) Instrumentation Woodwinds: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, and 2 bassoons Brass: 2 horns and 2 trumpets Strings (1st & 2nd violins, violas, cellos, and double basses) Percussion: timpani Tempo: Andante tempo Form: Theme and variations form Meter: Duple Meter On Spotify, Unit 2: Classical Listen to the opening theme played staccato and for the “surprise.” The String Quartet 18th Century Chamber Music 2 Violins, Viola, and Cello Listening Examples: Haydn String Quartets String Quartet Op. 33 no. 2, “The Joke” 4 th movement (1781) On Spotify, Unit 2: Classical Listen for the “joke” at the end of the movement String Quartet Op. 76, no. 3 “Emperor” 2 nd movement (1797) On Spotify, Unit 2: Classical Theme and variations form Became the German national anthem Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (17561791) •Austrian composer, keyboardist, & violinist •Touring child prodigy (1760s) •Lived in Vienna freelancing for most of life •Poor money manager, lavish lifestyle •Died at 35, 600+ compositions Featured Listening: Symphony no. 40 in G Minor, 1st movement (1788) by W.A. Mozart SonataAllegro Form: An expanded ternary form (A) Main Theme presented (B) Development of main theme (B) On Spotify 3:39 (A’) Return of main theme (A’) On Spotify 4:46 Invention of the Piano 18th century Fortepiano Oldest surviving Cristofori piano Made by Cristofori in 1720 Bartolomeo Cristofori (16551731) • Invented in 1700 • First piano had 4 octaves The Classical Concerto Baroque concerto grosso fell into disuse Solo concerto developed Violin and piano were the favorite solo instruments of composers Each movement allows the soloist to be featured, especially with a cadenza Like the Baroque concerto, they are typically 3 movements Featured Listening: Piano Concerto no. 23 in A Major, 1st movement, K. 488 by W.A. Mozart 18th Century Opera Opera seria • Italian serious opera • Deletion of comedy, dance, and subplots • Purpose: “to enlighten and instruct” Opera buffa • Italian comic opera • Began as short comic intermezzos between acts of opera seria • The Marriage of Figaro, 1780s by Mozart Singspiel • German comic opera with spoken dialogue • Die Zauberflöte (“The Magic Flute”), 1791 by Mozart Featured Listening: “Non so più cosa con” (“I Don’t Know Who I Am Anymore”) from The Marriage of Figaro (1786) by Mozart Opera Buffa “Trouser/Pants” Role = Cherubino sung by mezzo soprano Featured Listening: “Hell’s vengeance boils in my heart” (Queen of the Night aria) from The Magic Flute (1791) by Mozart Singspiel opera The Queen of Night gives her daughter, Pamina, a dagger to kill her abductor, Sarastro Ludwig van Beethoven (17701827) • German composer and pianist • Studied with Haydn, possibly met and studied with Mozart • Started to go deaf c.1802, was almost completely deaf by the end of his life. Beethoven’s Compositional Process Sketchbooks Conversation Books Beethoven’s Symphony no. 5 (180408) Cyclic Form Music motif (or theme) heard in all movements of a piece First introduced by Beethoven Used later by many Romantic composers Introduction to Music Music 1030 Western Classical Music Music in the Baroque Era Baroque Period (1600 1720s/30’s) Religion Recovery of Roman Catholic Church CounterReformation Rome becomes cultural center of Europe Government/Economy Absolute monarchs Louis of France, George of England Fredrick the Great of Prussia Merchants/nobles/courts Poorworkers No middle class Baroque Art and Architecture Ornate, G Intricate, Detailed Motion, Action Lots of People Contrast Dramatic, Violent Focus on: Power and glory of the church Elements of Baroque Music Sound Timbre Keyboard instruments Orchestral instruments Dramatic, virtuosic singing Texture Polyphony & Homophony Melody Ornamentation Rhythm Strong recurring beat Other Contrast Harmony Majorminor keys More important than melody Basso Continuo Cello or bassoon Harpsichord, organ and or lute The Birth of Opera Began in Italy, circa 1600 Florentine camerata Castrato Italy, mid16th century until well into 18th century 1870outlawed Baroque Opera Vocal Styles Recitative Aria Speechlike, served as dialogue Song, focus of operas Rhythm flexible, based on text Can stand alone outside of the opera Limited accompaniment (Just basso continuo) Large accompaniment (full orchestra) Henry Purcell (16561695) Dido and Aeneas (1689) Considered first English opera PLOT: adapted from Virgil’s Aeneid Dido (Queen of Carthage) Aeneas (shipwrecked Trojan soldier) Ground Bass: Repeating bass melody Listening Example: “Thy Hand, Belinda” (recitative) & “When I am Laid in Earth” (aria) From Ddio and Aeneas, Act III by Henry Purcell Listen for GROUND BASS Genre: Opera The Concerto An instrumental work for One or more soloists and orchestra Concerto grosso (small group of soloists and orchestra) Solo concerto. (solo instrument & orchestra) 3 Movement Structure (fastslowfast) Antonio Vivaldi (16781741) Italian composer and violinist Wrote over 500 concertos (solo & grossi) Violin teacher and composer as a girl’s orphanage The Four Seasons 4 solo violin concertos 1 concerto (3 movements) for each season Program Music: Music that has extramusical associations Listening Example: 1st Movement of the “Spring” Solo Violin Concerto from the Four Seasons by Vivaldi Example of PROGRAM MUSIC Genre solo concerto Oratorios vs. Cantata Oratorio Cantata Chorus, soloists, and orchestra Chorus, soloists and orchestra No scenery/costumes Sacred Sacred/Secular Long (23 hours) Short (20 minutes) Latin/Vernacular Vernacular George Frideric Handel (1685 1759) German composer Played organ, harpsichord, violin, oboe 1710 visited London Later became a British citizen Messiah (1741) Oratorio SATB Chorus, Soloists, and Orchestra 3 Sections Prophecy of the Messiah’s birth Sacrifice of Jesus Redemption Listening Example: “Hallelujah” Chorus from Messiah by Handel Genre: Oratorio Keyboard Music Organ and Harpsichord Fugue a piece based on the polyphonic development of a melody (2 or more melodies heard simultaneously) Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 1750) German church composer Organists, Harpsichordist, Singer, also played several string instruments Had 20 children ( 2 married) 3 gained renown as composers Went blind in old age, but dedicated chorale prelude before his death The Little Fugue in G minor (1709) Organ fugue Beethoven’s Influence & Innovations Worked as a freelancing musician, individual patrons Increased the size of the orchestra Used timpani, trumpets, piccolo and contrabassoon Added more string players Longer, more complex notes Unity in musical Cyclic Form Mozart’s and Beethoven’s Orchestra Mozart, Symph. No 40 Beethoven’s, Symph no.5 0 One piccolo One flute Two flutes Two oboes Two oboes Two clarinets Two clarinets Two bassoons Two bassoons 0 Contrabassoons (fourth movement) Two horns Two horns 0 Two trumpets 0 Three trombones (fourth movement) 0 Timpani Five part strings Five part strings Beethoven’s Symphony no. 5 (1804 08) Cyclic Form Music motif (or theme) heard in all movements of a piece First introduced by Beethoven Used later by many Romantic composers Other Listening Selections: Human Struggle for Individual Liberty Symphony no. 3 “Eroica” 1st Movement Longer than any previous symphony Originally dedicated to Napoleon Canceled dedication when Napoleon proclaimed himself Consul for life Symphony no. 9 “Choral” 4th movement, finale Incorporates chorus into a symphony Proclaims brotherhood of humankind German poet Friedrich Schiller’s Ode to Joy Vienna in the Classical Period Joseph Haydn (Austrian, 1732 1809) Employed by Prince Esterhazy = skilled servant 104 symphonies Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Austrian, 1756 1791) Broke from court position to become freelance 40 symphonies Ludwig van Beethoven (German, 1770 1827) Worked as independent musician, individual patrons 9 symphonies Introduction to Music Music 1030 Western Classical Music Postmodernism, 1945Present Essential Questions What is music? What is noise? What is art? Electronic Music Edgar Varese (18831965) “Father of Electronic Music” Musique concrète: sounds prerecorded and manipulated Magnetic tape, synthesizers, and computers allowed composers to control every aspect of music “organized sound” Featured Listening Poème électronique (195658) Written for 1958 Brussels World’s Fair, Philips Pavilion • Taped electronic work • Electronic generators, church bells, organs, human voices, sirens • No meter Chance/Indeterminacy Music John Cage (19121992) Works by John Cage Prepared Piano Listening: Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano, Sonata V (1948) Chance/Indeterminancy/Aleatoric Music Listening: Imaginary Landscape for 12 radios Listening Example: 4’33” by John Cage Introduction to Music Music 1030 Western Classical Music Modern Music, 19001945 Impressionism & Symbolism: Claude Debussy PierreAuguste Renoir, Summer Landscape (1875) Claude Monet, Impression, Sunrise (1874) Symbolist Poet: Charles Baudelaire, Les fleurs du mal [Flowers of Evil] (1857) Impressionism in Music Claude Debussy (18621918) Pleasure and sensory appeal Unusual tone colors/timbres Exotic scales (pentatonic, octatonic) Ambiguous tonality Extreme chromaticism Listening Example Prélude à l’aprèsmidi d’un faune [Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun] (1894) • Genre: symphonic poem • Based on poem by Stéphane Mellarmé Primitivism & Cubism: Igor Stravinsky Henri Rousseau, Tiger in a Tropical Storm (1891) Paul Gaugin, Matamoe (1892) Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) Primitivism in Music Igor Stravinksy (18821971) Strong beat Constantly changing and unusual meters Polymeters Listening Example: Le Sacre du printemps [The Rite of Spring] (1913) • Genre: Ballet (choreography by Nijinsky) • Fertility ritual set in prehistoric Russia Expressionism: Arnold Schoenberg Edvard Munch, The Scream (1893) Arnold Schoenberg, The Red Gaze (1910) Expressionism in Music Arnold Schoenberg (18741951) Most often Chamber Music Avoiding tonality Atonality Sprechstimme (speechsinging Listening Example: “Der Mondfleck” [“Moonfleck”], no. 18 from Pierrot Lunaire [“Moonstruck Pierrot”] (1912) • Genre: Song Cycle (21 songs) • Based on poetry by Albert Giraud • Use of atonality and sprechstimme “Americanism” in Music Aaron Copland (19001990) Simpler harmonies Many “open” intervals (5ths, octaves) Broad melodies Hints of folk melodies, jazz, and blues Listening Example: Appalachian Spring (1944) • Genre: ballet (work written for and choreographed by Martha Graham) • Setting: wedding in rural 19th century Pennsylvania • Form: theme and variations • Based on “Simple Gifts,” a Shaker folk tune Introduction to Music Music 1030 Western Classical Music Music in the Romantic Period Conservative Moderation vs. Emotional Expression Classical Romantic Order, reason, serenity Strangeness, wonder, passion, eccentricity Balance Viewing life in terms of personal feelings Views life rationally Emotional extremes Restraint of emotion Elements of Romantic Music Sound: Texture = homophonic Dynamics = extremely wide ranges Timbre Bigger orchestra (close to 100) New instruments: tuba, saxophone, large percussion sections, harp Harmony: more dissonance (unstable), colorful Melody: long, complex, highly expressive Rhythm: rubato (fluctuation of tempo) Form = many new broad and expanded forms Program Music Large Works: Program Symphony Symphonic Poem/Tone Poem Ballet Small Works: Art Song Character Pieces Monumental Works Program Symphony: Berlioz Symphonic Poem/Tone Poem: Strauss Ballet: Tchaikovsky Program Symphony Hector Berlioz (18031869) Symphonie fantastique (1830) “An Episode in the Life of an Artist” 5 movements I. Reveries, Passions II. A Ball III. Scene in the Country IV. March to the Scaffold V. Dream of the Witches’ Sabbath idée fixe (fixed idea) thematic transformation Listening: 5th movement Dream of the Witches’ Sabbath Dissonant, eerie opening Transformed, distorted idée fixe and bells tolling for the dead Dies irae (“Day of Wrath”) chant Symphonic or Tone Poem Typically, a onemovement programmatic work for orchestra, often unified with a single theme. Franz Liszt 18111886 12 symphonic poems Richard Strauss 18641949 10 tone poems Listening: Don Quixote (1897) by Strauss Genre: tone poem Form: Theme and variations Theme (6:30) Cello: Don Quixote Viola: Sancho Variation 2 (10:45) Fluttertonguing Ballet Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (18401893) Listening Waltz from Sleeping Beauty Miniatures Art Song: Schubert Character Piece: Chopin Art Song (lied) Work for solo voice and piano Listening: Franz Schubert (17971828) Erlkönig (“King of the Elves”) Character Piece Short, lyric pieces, often written for solo piano or harp, with fanciful titles. Listening: Frédéric Chopin (18101849) Nocturne in Eb Major, op. 9, no. 2 (1831) 19th Century “isms” Nationalism Realism/Naturalism Exoticism Nationalism Patriotism expressed in music using elements from one’s own nation. folk songs Dances Rhythms LISTENING: The Moldau from Má Vlast (My Country),1879 •Genre: Symphonic poem •Form: Throughcomposed (one returning theme for the river) Realism & Naturalism Giacomo Puccini (18581924) Italian composer and organist • Most wellknown for his opera Romantic Opera as Modern Musical Inspiration Verdi’s Aida Plot used for 1998 musical of Aida by Elton John and Tim Rice Aida the musical begins and ends in a museum with the majority of action in ancient Egypt Puccini’s La Bohème Plot used for musical Rent (1996) by Jonathan Larson Setting for Rent is New York City and Mimi has AIDS Puccini’s Madame Butterfly Plot used for musical Miss Saigon (1989) Madame Butterfly was set in early 1900s Japan and Miss Saigon is set in Vietnam, 1975 Exoticism Georges Bizet (18381875) Fascination with cultures from the “East” New Ideas about Opera Richard Wagner(18131883) “Music Dramas” Wagner’s and Beethoven’s Orchestras Wagner, The Ring Cycle operas One piccolo • Three flutes • Three oboes • English horn • Three clarinets • Bass clarinet • Three bassoons • Eight horns • Three trumpets • Bass trumpet • Three trombones • Bass trombone • Contrabass trombone • Wagner tuba • Four timpani • Five part strings (16/16/12/12/8) • Six harps • Triangle, cymbals, glockenspiel, bass drum, tamtam, snare drum, 18 onstage anviles, onstage steerhorn Beethoven, Symph. no. 5 • One piccolo • Two flutes • Two oboes • 0 • Two clarinets • 0 • Two bassoons • Two horns • Two trumpets • 0 • Three trombones • 0 • 0 • 0 • Timpani • Five part strings Famous Opera Character: Valkyrie “The Ride of the Valkyries” from Act III of Die Walküre, by Richard Wagner Introduction to Music Music 1030 Western Classical Music Music the Middle Ages (4501450) TimeLine (4501450) 4501000 476 Fall of Roman Empire = Christian church gained power 700 Beowulf 10001300 1066 William the Conqueror invades England 1095 Crusades begin 1160 Beginning of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris 13001450 13481350 Black Death 1390 Geoffrey Chaucer writes Canterbury Tales 1450 Invention of printing press spread literacy SACRED MUSIC GREGORIAN CHANT (plainsong/plainchant) Music of Roman Catholic Church Retained elements of Jewish synagogue worship Religion = Power Monastic Life: Daily Office “Seven times a day I praise you [. . .]” – Psalm 119:164 Matins/Lauds = dawn Prime Terce Sext = noon Nones Vespers = sunset Compline = before retiring Parts of the Medieval Roman Catholic Mass Proper Ordinary Introit Kyrie Gradual Gloria Alleluia/Tract Credo Sequence Sanctus Offertory Agnus Dei Communion Ite, miss est Listening Example: Mass for Christmas Day Introit: Puer Natus Est Musical Characteristics Sound Timbre Texture? Melody Harmony Rhythm Meter Other Elements of Music: Texture Thick or Thin How many different musical lines are there? How are they interacting with each other? Are the melodies the same? Are the rhythms the same? MONOPHONY BIPHONY HETEROPHONIC POLYPHONY HOMOPHONIC Plainchant Styles Syllabic 1 note per syllable Neumatic 24 notes per syllable Melismatic 4+ notes per syllable POLYPHONY Leonin (11631190) Organum duplum (2 voices) Perotin (11901225) Organum quadruplum (3+ voices) Guillaume de Machaut French, 13001377 Musician and poet Over 150 works, sacred and secular Listening: Notre Dame Mass (1360s) 1 st polyphonic setting of Ordinary by one composer Secular (NonSacred) Music Troubadours = southern France Trouveres = northern France Minnesingers = Germany Medieval & Renaissance Instruments Consort = chamber music ensembles whole consort broken consort Bas (indoor) Haut (outdoor) Wind Instruments Crumhorn Shawm (oboe) Recorders Cornetts (Lizard – tenor) (Serpent – bass) Sackbut Rackett String Instruments Harp Lute Viol Psaltery Percussion & Other Instruments Drum/Tambor HurdyGurdy
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