Notes: Lectures 1 thru 7
Notes: Lectures 1 thru 7 Anatomy 2300
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Popular in Anatomy
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Anatomy 2300 01182015 Anatomy 2300 Lecture 1 January 13th went over syllabus Tu Th Hamilton Hall optional recitation 515 7 PM Online quizzes preliminaries followed by quotmaster quizquot buy gloves for cadaver lab Lecture 2 January 14th Unit 1 Overview of Body Systems and The Lower Limb Anatomy means structure 0 Study of structure of the human body Subdivisions of Anatomy 0 Gross Anatomy structures that can be seen with the naked eye 0 Embryology structures that emerge from the time of egg fertilization through 8th week in utero Neuroanatomy structure of the nervous system 0 brain spinal cord tracts nerve pathways etc quotFunction always re ects structurequot and vise versa in anatomy Levels of structural organization see diagram in PP slides Chemical Level atoms molecules organelles Cellular Level Tissue Level Types muscle nervous connective epithelial Organ Level 2 tissue types forming 1 structure Organ System Level 11 organ systems on body Organism P P FP NE Organ Systems 1 Skeletal a Major Components bones 206 bones in body cartilage tendons ligaments joints b Major Functions support scaffolding protection leverage hematopoiesis mineral storage energy storage 2 Muscular a Major Components skeletal muscle cardiac muscle smooth muscle 650 muscles in the body b Major Functions producing movement producing heat thermogenesis 3 Cardiovascular Circulatory a Major Components heart blood vessels 6000 miles in body blood b Major Functions transportation 02 nutrients C02 wastes hormones etc Lymphatic a Major Components lymph vessels lymph nodes thymus gland tonsils spleen b Major Functions uid control ltration of blood immunity WBC activation Nervous a Major Components brain spinal cord nerves sense organs b Major Functions communication homeostasis Endoc ne a Major Components hormoneproducing glands and cells b Major Functions communication homeostasis Respiratory a Major Components lungs nasal cavity pharynx larynx trachea bronchi b Major Functions gas exchange Digestive a Major Components alimentary canal GI tract salivary glands liver gallbladder pancreas b Major Functions mechanical and chemical breakdown of food absorption solid waste removal Urinary a Major Components kidneys ureters urinary bladder urethra b Major Functions ltration and elimination 10 Reproductive a Major Components i Males testes penis glands duct system ii Females ovaries uterine tubes uterus vagina external genhaHa b Major Functions hormone production germ cell formation housing of developing fetus females 11 lntegumentary a Major Components skin accessory structures hair nails sebaceous oil glands sudoriferous sweat glands b Major Functions protection temperature regulation waste elimination sensation Skin Layers See page 10 in workbook o Epidermis epithelial cells layers Strati es squamous epithelial cells Alive cells are deepest layer of epidermis Most super cial epidermis is dead skin cells ll with keratin keratin is what makes the dead skin cells hard and protects you from harmful substances in the outside world 0 Dermis deep layer of skin Composed of connective tissue blood vessels and receptor cells 0 Hypodermis NOT a layer of skin Anchors skin to deeper structures Composed of mainly adipose fat tissue See pages 35 of lab book for Figure 11A Directional Terminology and Anatomical Position Figure 12 Planes of The Body Figure 13 Regions of The Body Figure 14 Body Cavities Lecture 3 January 15th Unit 2 Osteology the study of bone Functions of Bone P P FP NE Support framework for body structure Protection Movement skeletal muscle attachment bones used as levers Mineral storage ie calcium phosphate Blood cell formation hematopoiesis Triglycerides adipose storage in yellow bone marrow a Potential chemical energy source Humans have 206 NAMED bones and some unnamed bone Bones of skeletal system are divided into two parts Axial Skeleton spine vertebral column thorax sternum and ribs skull bones hyoid bone Appendicular Skeleton a Pectoral girdles clavicles and scapulae b Upper limb humerus ulna radius carpals metacarpals phalanges c Pelvic girdle hip pelvic and coxal bones d Lower limb femur patella bula tibia tarsals metatarsal phalanges Bone types Long bones long diaphysis bones that are longer than they are wide a humerus ulna radius femur tibia bula metatarsals Short bones approximately cubed in shape a Carpals wrist region tarsals ankle region Flat bones thin attened a ribs sternums most bones of the skull Irregular bones a vertebra os coxae pelvic bones 2 05 coxae Sesamoid bones quotseedlike bones that develop in tendons a pateHa Texture of Bone Compact vs Spongy Bone 1 Compact very dense outer portion of most bone a Looks solid to naked eye but actually has little passageways for nerves and blood vessels running through 2 Spongy found inside bone a structure of trabeculae needlelike pieces contains red bone marrow or yellow bone marrow between needlelike pieces a trabeculae formation looks random but actually forms along stress lines Long Bone Structures Diaphysis shaft of long bone longaxis of bone 0 Compact bone on outside 0 Contains medullary cavity in middle which is also called the marrow cavity because it contains red andor yellow bone marrow o remember that red bone marrow is where hematopoiesis takes place and yellow bone marrow is where triglycerides are stored Epiphyses ends of bones o Composed of compact bone on outside and spongy bone on inside 0 Lined with hyaline cartilage o remember that spongy bone can contain red or yellow bone marrow as well 0 Epiphyseal plate in children made of hyaline cartilage that turns into epiphyseal line adults made of bone 0 Site where bone growth occurs via mitosis in children making long bones longer until hyaline cartilage becomes bone 0 Connectsfuses epiphysis and diaphysis in adults when cartilage no longer exists and is composed of bone cells Membranes o Periosteum lines outside of compact bone 2 Layers n Dense thick connective tissue on outside for muscle tendon attachment n Thin layer of different bone cells osteoclast and osteoblasts for bone remodeling a Deep to periosteum are bers called Sharpey s bers than are attached to the bone which causes force of muscle contraction to move the bones o Endosteaum lines inside of compact bone Delicate layer made of up only bone cells Over lifespan bone is constantly being remodeled broken down and added to via bone cells osteoclasts and osteoblasts Over 10 year span you replace your entire skeleton because over time bone becomes brittle so it s important that it recycles by breaking down the older bone and replacing with newer bone 0 Articular cartilage hyaline cartilage 0 Line articular surfaces typically the epiphyses because that is where articulation of bone typically occurs 0 Cushions apposing bone ends during movement and absorbs some stress As people age red bone marrow sites convert to yellow bone marrow sites except for in the head of the femur and the head of the humerus when doctors take bone marrow for transplant it typically comes from the head of the femur Short Flat Irregular and Sesamoid Bone Structures Compact bone on outside both sides Spongy bone on inside 0 Spongy bone of short at irregular and sesamoid bone is call diploe 0 Yellow or red bone marrow is in the empty spaces of the trabeculae Periosteum is on the outside of the compact bone Endosteum surrounds the trabeculae of the diploe Lecture 4 January 20th Bone Markings Process a roughened bony prominence usually serving as the site of attachment for muscles or connective tissue structure Trochanter relatively large blunt type of process found only on the femur Tuberosity a large blunt or rounded process Tubercle a small blunt or rounded process Spine a pointed projection of bone Crest a prominent border that may be rough Fossa a saucerlike depression Foramen a hole in a bone size is extremely variable Head a rounded articular surface joined to the shaft of the bones by a constriction the neck Condyle a smooth structure either concave or convex joined directly to the shaft of a long bone Facet a smooth surface for articulation Pelvic Girdle 2 ossa coxae hip bones of the appendicular skeleton and the sacrum of the axial skeleton singular of ossa coxae is 05 coxae o sacrum joined to each 05 coxae at sacroiliac joints posteriorly o ossa coxae join together at pubic symphysis anteriorly brocartilage of pubic symphysis is typically larger in women than in men during pregnancy relaxn hormone in the last trimester is released and relaxes the fibrocartilage it increases the diameter of the pelvic cavity birth canal so fetus can move through 0 To orient the pelvic girdle in the right position ASlSs and pubic tubercles must be in the same coronal frontal plane 0 The pelvic brim marks the difference between the false pelvis and the true pelvis Superior to the pelvic brim and medial to iliac fossas the between the 2 iliac bones is the false pelvis and is part of the abdomen n Contains abdominal viscera such as the large intestine True pelvis is found inferior to the pelvis brim and contains the pelvic organs A midsagittal view of the pelvis shows the true vs false pelvis Bones of pelvic girdle o Sacrum axial skeleton Fusion of 5 sacral vertebrae that are separate during embryonic development they fuse over time Wedgeshaped bone Foramina that branches of spinal nerves pass through a Anterior sacral foramina n Posterior sacral foramina Sacral canal posterior is part of vertebral canal a Different nerves and nerve roots go through that attach to spinal cord Median sacral crest posterior Auricular surfaces lateral where SI joint is formed a This articular surface is shaped like an ear which is why it s called the auricular surface Coccyx is not part of the pelvic girdle but is very often left in pictures of pelvic girdle o Ossa Coxae 2 be able to distinguish right from left Also called the innominate bone coxal bone or hip bone 3 separate bones held together by cartilage in adolescence begin to fuse together in area known as acetabulum at about 1517 years of age and completed by age 23 Bones that make up each 05 coxae 1 llium superior 0 When you put hands on hips this is the iliac crest o The highest point of the iliac crest is found at L4 level same level you nd the umbilicus Typically where lumbar punctures take place 0 ASISPSIS found at either end of iliac spine ASIS allows you to orient hip bone into correct anatomical position because it is supposed to be in same coronal plane as the pubic tubercle o AllSPIIS found just inferior to ASISPSIS respectively 0 Greater sciatic notch more superior than lesser sciatic notch separated by lesser sciatic notch by the ischial spine Foramina created by ligament and notch l greater sciatic foramen l Passage of sciatic nerve o Lesser sciatic notch Foramina created by ligament and notch gt lesser sciatic foramen o Auricular surface medial for SI articulation o lliac fossa muscle attachment for iliacus muscle 2 lschium inferiorposterior o lschial tuberosity very large prominence typically covered by gluteus maximus when the thigh is in extension anatomical position when you ex the thigh the gluteus maximus slides to the side and uncovers the ischial tuberosity sitting o lschial ramus connects with the superior pubic ramus 3 Pubis inferioranterior n Superior pubic ramus connects with ischial ramus to form the obturator foramen not a lot passes through it n Inferior pubic ramus n Pubic tubercle put in same coronal plane as the ASIS to orient the hip in the correct position a Pubis symphysis articulation of two ossa coxae anteriorly n Acetabulum where the 3 hip bones fuse together Translates quotsmall Roman vinegar cupquot 0 Where the head of the femur articulates with pelvis Head always pointing in medially to articulate with the acetabulum Neck Great trochanter Lesser trochanter lntertrochanteric crest posterior connects greater and lesser trochanter lntertrochanteric line anterior connects greater and lesser trochanter Gluteal tuberosity posterior attachment for gluteas maximus Linea aspera posterior splits medially and laterally at distalinferior femur creating the popliteal surface Patellar surface anterior only articulation for the patella Medial lateral condyles o Medial is on same side as head of the femur o lntercondylar fossa Popliteal surface superior half of the oor of popliteal fossa n Mediallater epicondyles n Adductor tubercle on medial epicondyle for attachments od any muscles responsible for adduction PateHa n Sesamoid bone bone found in a tendon that helps alter the pull of the muscle a Patella found in quadriceps femoris muscle tendon that attaches quads to tibial tuberosity o lnferior portion of tendon between the patella and the tibial tuberosity can also be called the patellar ligament Tibia medial to bula n Mediallateral condyles superior for articulation with the condyles of the femur to form knee joint for eXext n Tibial tuberosity anterior follow sharp edge inferiorly to anterior border of the tibia o shin bone can be felt right under the skin a Medial malleolus bump on medial aspect of ankle Fibula lateral to tibia not a weightbearing bone a Does not participate in exext of the knee a Head of bula articulates with the bular facet found on the posterolateral aspect of tibia n Lateral malleolus bump on lateral aspect of ankle 0 Little fossa on posterior side of malleolus allows tendons to turn 90 degrees before heading into foot Ankle joint made by articulation of the tibia bula and talus n Allows for dorsi exion and plantar exion u If the malleoli break the ankle joint becomes unstable Bones of the foot know ankle joint vs ankle bones n Tarsal bones 7 short bones bones of the ankle region called ankle bones 1 Talus bone that articulates with distal end of tibia and bula to form the ankle joint 2 Calcaneus quotheel bonequot inferior to talus 3 Navicular anterior to the talus on medial side 4 Cuboid l The 3 Cuneiforms located anterior to navicular 5 Medial cuneiform 6 Intermediate cuneiform 7 Lateral cuneiform Intertarsal joints n Intertarsal joint between calcaneus and talus allows for inversion and eversion Can to more inversion because the lateral malleolus goes more distal that medial malleolus 0 When you sprain an ankle its often due to overinversion because Can go further with inversion Ligaments on lateral side are a lot weaker than ligaments on medial ankle region can more easily tear ligaments on lateral side a Metatarsals 5 long bones 0 1st is most medial 5th is most lateral n Phalanges 14 long bones o Proximal digits 12345 0 Middle digits 2345 no 1 for hallux o Distal digits 12345 Lecture 4 January let Arthrology the study of joints Joint Articulation sites where two or more bones meet Classi cation of Joints 0 Based on Structure binding material 1 Fibrous Joint Bones joined by brous connective tissue 0 No joint cavity 2 CartilaginousJoint Bones held together by cartilage No joint cavity 3 Synovial Joint Bones separated by uidcontaining joint cavity 0 Joint cavity present 0 Based on Function amount of movement 1 Synarthrosis synarthrotic joint 0 Immovable joint 2 Amphiarthrosis amphiarthrotic joint 0 Slightly movable joint 3 Diarthrosis diarthrotic joint 0 Freely movable joint Furthering structural classi cation of joints Fibrous 0 Amount of movement permitted depends on the length of the connective tissue bers holding the bones together 0 Very short bers holding bones together will permit very little or no movement ampiarthrosis vs synarthrosis 3 Types of Fibrous joints 1 Suture very very short bers connect the interlocking edges of articulating bones 0 occurs only between bones of the skull 0 sutures are synarthrotic joints 2 Syndesmosis ligaments connecting two bones 0 syndesmoses are either classi ed functionally as synarthrotic or amphiarthrotic joints 0 very short ligaments permit no movement while longer ligaments permit slight movement a Ex distal tibio bularjoint ligament holds bones together 3 Gomphosis a peginsocket joint 0 only example is a tooth in the alveolar process of the mandible or maxillae bones 0 gomphoses are synarthrotic joints 0 periodontal ligaments holds bone together Cartilaginous Two Types of Cartilaginous Joints 1 Synchondrosis bar or plate of hyaline cartilage joining bones chondro cartilage o synarthrosis immovable Ex epiphyseal plates act as synchrondosis sternum and ribs 2 Symphysis a pad or plate of brocartilage between bones o amphiarthrotic slightly movable brocartilage acts as a shock absorber 0 you are shorter at night than in the morning because the intervertebral discs shrink because water quotleaks outquot due to pressure from gravity water reabsorbs over night 0 Ex pubic symphysis big piece of brocartilage vertebral column between the bodies of the vertebrae Synovial o All synovial joints are diarthrotic freely movable most joints in the body are synovialdiarthrotic jionts Distinguishing Features of Synovial joints 1 jointsynovial cavity Synovial Fluid to reduce friction between bones lubricant o Articular Capsule walls of the articular cavity 2 Parts I Fibrous capsule thick holds bones together a Synovial membrane delicate produces synovial uid 2 Reinforcing ligaments helps hold bonesjoint together outside of articular capsule 3 Bursae uid lled sacks for cushioning and to reduce friction Can cause problems ie pain due to bursitis 4 Articular hyaline cartilage Covers opposing bone surfaces always hyaline l Furthering structural types of synovial joints 6 all diarthrotic 1 Plane Joints 0 Simplest of synovial joint structures 0 Two at articular surfaces that glide over one another 0 Gliding movement is called translation which is the simplest of movement 0 Ex intercarpal joints intertarsal joints vertebral column in facet joints 2 Hinge joints Cylindrical shape of one bone tting into the troughlike shape of another bone looks like a mechanical hinge o Permits exion and extension one axial plane 0 Ex elbow joint distal end of humerus with proximal end of the ulna interphalangeal joints UPS 3 Pivotjoints Rounded end of one bone protruding into a sleeve or ring of another bone andor ligament o Permits rotation 0 Ex atlantoaxial joint C1C2 dens of C2 into C1 allowing for rotation proximal radioulnarjoint 4 Condyloid Joints 0 Oval articular surface of bone tting into the depression of another 0 Allow for all types of angular motions to occur exion extension abduction adduction circumduction Ex wrist radius and a couple of the carpal bones metacarpophalangeal joints metatarsophalangeal joints 5 Saddle Joints 0 Sort of like a condyloid joint with a greater freedom of movement 0 Both articular surfaces have a concave and convex portion that makes it look like a saddle Allows for exion extension abduction adduction circumduction and opposition 0 Ex carpometacarpal joints of rst digit thumb only example 6 BallandSocketjoints Spherical end of one bone tting into a cuplike socket of another 0 Universal motion most freely movable joint structure 0 Ex glenohumeral joints hip joints See PP for pictures and charts Lecture 5 january 22ncl joints of the Lower Limb Sacroiliac joints between the sacrum and the ilium Synovial structure but varies throughout lifetime 0 Functional classi cation changes over time 0 Pubic symphysis connect 2 pubic bones at anterior midline of pelvis Cartilaginous structure Amphiarthrotic function brocartilage Hip joint acetabulum and head of femur Synovial structure 0 Ballandsocket most freely movable synovialdiarthrotic joint type 0 Diarthrotic function Knee Tibiofemoral joint 0 Synovial structure Modi edhinge joint allows for exion and extension 0 Diarthrotic function 0 Patellofemoral joint patella sitting on top of femur o Synovial structure Planar joint allows for glidingtranslations o Diarthrotic o Proximaltibio bularjoint o Synovial Planarjoint o Distaltibio bularjoint o Fibrous structure Syndesmosis ligaments connecting 2 bones o Synarthrotic function immovable for the most part AnkleFoot Talocrural joint true ankle joint 0 Synovial Hinge plantar exion and dorsi exion o Diarthrotic o lntertarsal joints ankle region 0 Synovial Planarjoints glidingtranslation Gliding of tarsal bones especially the talus and the calcaneus allows for inversion and eversion o Diarthrotic Tarsometatarsal joints between some of tarsal bones and proximal ends of metatarsals o Synovial Planarjoints glidingtranslation o Diarthrotic Metatarsophalangeal MP joints 0 Synovial Condyloid 2 planes of motion exionextension abduction adduction circumduction o Diarthrotic o Interphalangealjoints o Synovial Hinge 1 plane exion and extension 0 Diarthrotic Lecture 5 January 27th Myology the study of muscles Muscles Main Function use ATP stored energy to generate physical force 0 Stimulation of force via ATP from nerves intrinsic system regulation or hormones Muscular force is responsible for body movement movement of limbs organs blood vessels etc Muscles contain myo laments ie actinmyosin which interact to produce tension Helpful concepts when talking about muscles 1 Pre xes myo mys or sarco all refer to muscle 2 Muscle the tissue vs muscle the organ are 2 different things 3 Muscle ce muscle ber 3 Types of muscle tissue 1 skeletal voluntary striated 0 very very long multinucleated striated striped appearance attach to bone or skin 2 cardiac involuntary striated branching cells that breaks up striation pattern muscle cells bers attach to each other through intercalated discs that are specialized junctions so when the cells contract they pull on one another makes a STRONG contraction found in walls of heart 0 propels blood through circulatory system 3 smooth involuntary nonstriated spindleshaped ces wide in middle and narrow at ends uninucleated typically in middle of cell wide part ces arranged in same direction found in walls of hollow organs eg GI tract urinary tract 0 propels compounds through tracts via peristalsis found in places to regulate size of structure for particular funcUon o walls of blood vessels regulate blood ow 0 pupil of eye Functions of muscle tissue 1 Producing body movement including moving substance within the body eg peristalsis change size of certain structures eg pupil of eye 2 Maintaining posture Skeletal muscle secondary to ght against gravity 3 StabilizingJoints 4 Generating heat thermogenesis Muscle tissue Macroscopic structure A skeletal muscle the organ contains Skeletal muscle bers Blood vessels artery capillaries veins Nerve bers Connective tissue Connective tissue sheaths associated with skeletal muscle organ Endomysium wraps each individual muscle ber Perimysium creates fascicles by wrapping bundles of muscle bers Epimysisum wraps groups of fascicles Endomysium perimysium and epimysium are all connected to each other listen to 1640 Most skeletal muscles cross at least one joint and are usually attached to the articulation bones that form the joint When a muscle contracts and shortens it pulls one of the articulation bones towards the other so one bone remains relatively stationary while the other moves Origin the muscle s attachment to the immovable or less moveable bone Insertion the muscle s attachment to the moveable bone Origin and insertion can be 1 Direct attachments the epimysium of the muscle is fused to the periosteum of the bone 2 Indirect attachments the muscle s connective tissue wrappings usually epimysium extend beyond the muscle as either a tendon or aponeurosis which will attach to the bone Movements at synovial joints 3 general types of movements at synovial joints 1 gliding movement also called translation simplest of all movements 0 at articular surfaces plane joints glide or slide over one another 0 Ex intertarsal joints intercarpal joints some intervertebral articulation 2 angular movement includes exext addabd lateral exion circumduction motions that increase or decrease the angle between 2 bones 3 rotation exion decrease extension increase a hip shoulder wrist elbow humeroulnar MCPS atlantooccipital cspine lumbar spine adduction decrease abduction increase a hip shoulder wrist MCPS circumduction moving a limb so it creates a cone in space a hip shoulder o turning of a bone along its long axis 0 atlantoaxial joint shoulder hip o elbow proximal radioulnar suppro o tspine 0 Note There are other movements that apply to speci c joints or don t t into the categories listed above these are called special movements 0 This includes dorsi exion plantar exion supination pronation inversion eversion protraction retraction elevation depression and opposition DFPF talocrural joint Supinationpronation radius around ulna lnversioneversion intertarsal joints mostly between talus and calcaneus Protractionretraction TMj scapulothoracic sternoclavicular Elevationdepression TMj scapulothoracic sternoclavicular Opposition MCP thumb metacarpal 1 and trapezium saddle joint Lecture 5 january 28th Muscles of the Hip and Thigh Muscles of Posterior Gluteal Region Divided into two layers super cial and deep Super cial muscles posterior gluteal region important for maintaining upright posture 1 Gluteus maximus iv 0 ORIGIN posterior surface of the ilium sacrum and coccyx INSERTION iliotibial tract of fascia lata gluteal tuberosity of femur ACTIONS 1 Extension of thigh hip main extensor of hip 2 Lateral rotation of thigh hip INNERVATION inferior gluteal nerve common site for intramuscular injection 2 Gluteus medius lateral largely covered by gluteus maximus I ii iii iv 0 ORIGIN external surface of the ilium INSERTION greater trochanter of the femur ACTIONS abduction of the thigh hip INNERVATION superior gluteal nerve common site for intramuscular injection 3 Gluteus minimus inferior to gluteus medius ORIGIN external surface of the ilium ii INSERTION greater trochanter of femur iii ACTIONS abduction of the thigh hip iv INNERVATION superior gluteal nerve 4 Tensor fasciae latae anterior to hip joint i ORIGIN anterior portion of the iiac crest ii INSERTION iliotibial tract of the fascia lata iii ACTIONS 1 exion of thigh hip 2 abduction of thigh hip iv INNERVATION superior gluteal nerve quottensesquot deep fascia and by doing so helps to support the femur on the tibia while standing Fascial lata deep fascia that surroundsinvests the thigh 0 Works like an elastic stocking that prevents outward movement of skeletal muscles when they contract making muscular contraction more efficient and helps propel blood in veins back toward the heart by compressing the veins 0 lliotibial tract thickened later portion of the fascia lata 0 Runs from the iiac crest to the knee attaches near the lateral condyle of the tibia o Helps stabilize the femur on top of the tibia and acts as insertion point for gluteus maximus muscle Deep muscles posterior gluteal region Deep lateral rotators including piriformis o All stabilize the hip joint by helping to hold the head of femur in the acetabulum originate on the ilium and ischium insert on the greater trochanter and participate in lateral rotation of the hip joint 1 Superior gemellus 2 Inferior gemellus Obturator internus Obturator externus Quadratus femoris Piriformis i ORIGIN anterior surface of the sacrum inside the true pelvis n Passes through greater sciatic foramen and is known as organizer in greater sciatic foramen region because other structures coming through are organized relative to piriformis Superior to piriformis superior gluteal nerve superior gluteal artery 0 Inferior to piriformis inferior gluteal nerve sciatic nerve ii INSERTION greater trochanter of the femur iii ACTIONS lateral rotation of the thigh hip iv INNERVATION nerve to piriformis P P FPquot Muscles of the Anterior Hipliac Region lie over the anterior hip joint 0 These muscles ex the hip joint as a result they can ex the trunk or ex the thigh Two Major Anterior Hip Muscles iliac region 1 Psoas major i ORIGIN all 5 lumbar vertebrae ii INSERTION lesser trochanter of femur iii ACTIONS hip joint exion a Can result in exion of the thigh toward the trunk or exion of the trunk toward the thigh iv INNERVATION lumbar spinal nerves 2IHacus i ORIGIN Iliac fossa ii INSERTION lesser trochanter of femur iii ACTIONS hip joint exion a Can result in exion of the thigh toward the trunk or exion of the trunk toward the thigh iv INNERVATION femoral nerve Psoas major and iliacus join and become one muscle inferior to the inguinal ligament referred to iliopsoas iliopsoas is the muscle primarily responsible for hip exion O Muscles of the Thigh 3 muscle groups surround the femur and are divided from one another by connective tissue sheets muscle groups create anterior medial and posterior compartments Muscles within compartments typically have similar actions and innervations so it is often easy to start studying them in groups and then looking at the exceptions to the commonalities Compartments o Anterior compartment of the thigh sartorius and quadriceps 1 Sartorius means quottailor s musclequot i ORIGIN ASIS ii INSERTION medial surface of the proximal tibia pes anserinus do not need to know this term iii ACTIONS 1 Flexes leg knee 2 Flexes thigh hip 3 also responsible for external rotation of the thigh which you don t need to know But it is called quotthe tailor s musclequot because these 3 actions combined cause you to sitstand how a tailor would while tailoring clothing ie hip and knee bent knee rotated outward meaning the hip is externally rotated so that the clothing can rest on the leg iv INNERVATION femoral nerve Rectus femoris one of the largest and most powerful muscles in the body quotkicking musclequot i ORIGIN AIIS and superior margin of acetabulum ii INSERTION tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament iii ACTION 1 Extends leg knee kicking 2 Flexes thigh hip iv INNERVATION femoral nerve Vastus lateralis i ORIGIN lateral lip of linea aspera ii INSERTION tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament iii ACTION 1 Extends leg knee iv INNERVATION femoral nerve Vastus medialis i ORIGIN medial lip of linea aspera ii INSERTION tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament iii ACTION 1 Extends leg knee i INNERVATION femoral nerve 5 Vastus intermedius deep to rectus femoris i ORIGIN anterior and lateral surface of shaft of femur ii INSERTION tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament iii ACTION 1 Extends leg knee iv INNERVATION femoral nerve Patellar ligament also called the patellar tendon all 4 quad muscles combine at the patellar ligament and then cross the knee joint Rectus femoris is the only quad muscle that cross the hip joint and therefore is the only quad muscle that quotacts onquot or moves the hip joint 0 Medial compartment of the thigh quotthe adductor groupquot 1 Gracilis i ORIGIN pubis ii INSERTION medial surface of proximal tibia pes anserinus do not need to know this term 0 Only adductor muscle to cross knee joint iii ACTION adducts thigh hip iv INNERVATION obturator nerve 2 Pectineus i ORIGIN pubis ii INSERTION posterior surface of proximal femur iii ACTION 1 Adducts thigh hip 2 Flexes thigh hip iv INNERVATION femoral nerve 3 Adductor Iongus most super cialanterior Iongus brevis and magnus i ORIGIN pubis ii INSERTION linea aspera of femur iii ACTION adducts thigh hip iv INNERVATION obturator nerve 4 Adductor brevis found deep to pectineus and Iongus i ORIGIN pubis ii INSERTION linea aspera of femur iii ACTION adducts thigh hip iv INNERVATION obturator nerve 5 Adductor magnus largest of adductor muscles triangular in shape deep to all other adductor muscles i ORIGIN pubis and ischium ii INSERTION linea aspera of femur and adductor tubercle of femur iii ACTION adducts thigh hip iv INNERVATION obturator nerve o Posterior compartment of the thigh These all are quotthe hamstring musclesquot 1 Biceps femoris lateral thigh ORIGIN 1 Long head ischial tuberosity 2 Short head linea aspera of femur INSERTION head of bula long and short head have a common tendon ACTION 1 Both longshort head exes leg knee 2 ONLY long head extends thigh hip 39 INNERVATION 1 Long head tibial nerve division of sciatic nerve 2 Short head common bular peroneal nerve Short head is deep to long head of b femoris Sciatic nerve is deep to and therefore protected by long head of b femoris 2 Semitendinosus medial thigh iv ORIGIN ischial tuberosity INSERTION medial surface of proximal tibia pes anserinus do not need to know this term ACTION 1 Flexes leg knee 2 Extends thigh hip INNERVATION tibial nerve division of sciatic nerve 3 Semimembranosus medial thigh deep to semitendinosus ORIGIN ischial tuberosity INSERTION posterior surface of medial conder of tibia ACTION 1 Flexes leg knee 2 Extends thigh knee 39 INNERVATION tibial nerve division of sciatic nerve Begins as very big aponeurosis broad at tendon that comes off of ischial tuberosity so it looks like a membrane
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