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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Taryn on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Soc101 at MiraCosta College taught by Dr. Bruce Hoskins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at MiraCosta College.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Reviewing exercise in class: OPRESSION -Think that the majority should rule (left handed example) (Why should we have more colored people in the media when majority is white?) (Why should 90% pay attention to the 10%?) *Because EQUALITY is foundation of our country *Because helping the minority can help MAJORITY (wheel chair ramps help disabledAND skate boarders, strollers, those who are injured, shopping cart *Double sliding doors benefits (old people) (left handed people bc doors are right oriented) (germaphobes) (people with groceries/kids) WE MAKE OPPRESSION NORMAL: violin, cello, drum, guitar Person of low class would say cello because they don't know what cello is HOW DOES OPPRESSION OPERATE: find equivalent in term like gender -Think that majority should rule -Oppression is normal -Right handed privilege is built into our society -Right handed privilege is largely invisible to right handed people ( ——— 10/26 I. Understanding stratification: A. Systems of stratification -Stratification: structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in societies. (ex: 1. Slavery: a system of enforced servitude in which enslaved individuals are owned by other people, who treat them as property (2 types of slavery freewhole: indentured servant, channel :own person for entire life and own child of person) 2. Castes: a hereditary rank, usually religiously dictated, that tends to be fixed and immobile (ex: makes caste system work is the belief in reincarnation. DEPENDS on reincarnation. If you were born poor/ deformed/women then you would be treated badly because it means you were a bad person in your past life.) 3. Estates: a system of stratification under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services. (ex royal family taxes to reflect peasants) 4. Class System: a social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics and influence social mobility (people can move in class system) (move poor class to middle class) 1) What are the four types of stratified systems: Slavery, Castes, Estates, Class System II Social Mobility: Movement of individuals or groups from one position of a society’s stratification system to another. a. Intergenerational mobility: involves changes in social position of children relative to their parents b. Intragenerational mobility: involves social changes within a persons adult life 2) What is the difference between intergenerational and intragenerational mobility and give an example of both (2-3 sentences)?: Intergeneration Mobility: 1st generation: agriculture, day labor, Janitor, Maid, Nanny// 2nd generation children: Managers, teachers, police// 3rd generation doctors, lawyers Intragenerational Mobility: Crew member, supervisor, manager, store manager, district, regional, III Sociological perpectives on stratification: a. marx on class: - capitalism: the economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits. - class: group of people who have similar level of economic resources - bourgeoise: the capitalist class, comprising of the owners of the means of production - proletariat: the working class in a capitalist society who lack ownership of the means of production - class consciousness: subjective awareness held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position - false consciousness: describes an attitude held by member of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position - the shrinking middle class: in 2006, only about 22 percent of american households qualified as middle class, compared to 28% in 1967 C. Bourdeiu and Cultural Capital: cultural capital: our tastes, knowledge, language, and ways of thinking that we exchange in interactions with others. (EX Cultural Capital: “Fancy dinner party” or “Playing dominos” . How did you learn? Family, Friends/peers, Media, School) Going to college- Parents said this since I was younger because they were teachers and told me to study and work hard in school to reinforce IV. Social Class in the US: A. Occupational Prestige: - Prestige: the respect and admiration that an occupation holds in society. - EX: Lawyers, Doctors, Professors, Engineers, Scientists - Esteem: the reputation that a specific person has earned within an occupation - FOR DOCTORS: SURGEON: (BRAIN/CARDIO), BUT PLASTIC SURGERY IS NOT “ESTEEMED” - What is the difference between occupational prestige and occupational esteem and give an example of both (2-3 sentences)?: B. Socioeconomic status: a measure of class that is based on income, education, occupation, and related variables. V. Income and Wealth: -Income: refers to wages and salaries measured over some period, such as per hour or per year Top 1%:(383k) Top 5%:(188k) Top 10%: (140k) Top 20%: (90k) -Wealth: Is the total of all persons material assets, including savings, land, stocks, and other types of property, minus his or her debt at a single point in time. TOP 20% HOLDS 87.3% OFALLWEALTH!!!!!!!!!!!!! Top 1: 35.6% What does the shrinking middle class tell us about what is happening to the wealth and income distributions in the United States and should this be a cause for concern: VII. Defining poverty: - Absolute poverty: refers to a minimum level of subsistence that no family should be expected to live below eg 2008 - ex 950 month. roommates/rent a room - Relative poverty: is a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society whatever their lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the nation as a whole. - “Keeping up with the Jones”/ Seeing someone get what you want/ feeling broke compared to your friends or others ————————————————————————————— ————————- Women are…….. Women are defined my societal expectations which often revolve around being a mother. One common generalization is that women are often sensitive and emotional and lack reason Men are………… Expected to work and not show emotion. ————————————————————————————— ————————- Chapter 12 I. The Social Construction of Gender A. Sex and Gender 1. Sex: the biological differences between males and females (Male and Female) 2. Gender: The social and cultural significance that we attach to the biological differences of sex. (EX: BITCH (women: salty)/confront guy who is acting like “bitch” II. The Social Construction of Sexuality -Sexuality: Denotes our identities and activities as sexual beings -Sexual Orientation: the categories of people to whom we are sexually attracted -Heterosexual: a category of sexual orientation that includes those who are sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex -Homosexual:Acategory of sexual orientation that includes those attracted to same sex -Bisexual: a category of sexual orientation that includes those attracted to both men and women -Transgender: people who appear to be biologically or one sex but who identify with the gender of another -Heteronormativity: the cultural presupposition that heterosexuality is the appropriate standard for sexual identity and practice and that alternative sexualities are deviant, abnormal, or wrong. III. Gender and Inequality in the US A. Sexism: the ideology that one sex is superior to the other (also about gender, masculinity is privileged in our society) B. Institutional Discrimination C. Labor Force Participation 1. Glass Ceiling: an invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual’s sex, race or ethnicity. (keep hitting ceiling as they try to get higher in position because people assume they do not want to be in these high ranked jobs) 2. Glass escalator: suggests that while women are at a disadvantage in male dominated occupations, men are at and advantage in female occupations (Dance, fashion, hair salon, nursing, managers, chefs) C. Income: Wage Gap: Is the social fact that women make about 77 cents to the male dollar. men 20 women 15 200 wk 800 mo and 10,000 yr D. Home and Work: Second Shift: describes the double burden- work outside the home followed by child care and housework- that many women face and few men share equitably. men expect women to cook for them when they get home but women have a busy enough job as it is E. Politics:Although a higher percentage of women vote than men, women remain noticeably underrepresented in elected office IV. Working for change: Women’s Movements: A. Feminism: belief in social economic, and political equality for women. 1. Standpoint theory: because our social positions shape our perceptions, a more complete understanding of social relations much incorporate the p
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