Textbook notes Chapter 1 - 4
Textbook notes Chapter 1 - 4 Ling 1
Popular in Introduction to Study of Language
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Linguistics and Speech Pathology
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by bloodiris0312 on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Ling 1 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Hyams, Nina in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Study of Language in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Textbook notes Chapters 1 4 1 What is Language Grammar rules Sapir Whorf Hypothesis Morphology Word classes Morphemes Word forming Tree Diagrams M Rules of Syntax IN IUJ Constituents Syntactic Category Phrase Structure Tree Diagrams Phrase Structure Rules Ih Semantics Semantic Rules LeXical Relations Semantic Features Pragmatics Maxims of Conversation Presupposition 1 What is Language The possession of language distinguishes humans from other animals Meaning certain sounds signify certain concepts same sequence can represent different meanings in different languages Convention some relationships between form sound and meaning are arbitrary also true in sign languages Creativity ability to produce infinite new sentences through knowledge of a language universal property of human language Grammar unconscious rules acquired as language is developed that aid creativity Noam Chomsky father of Modern Linguistics Sound symbolism pronunciation suggests meaning ie onomatopoeia Spoonerism speech error where sounds are switched blue bus bue blus Linguistic competence knowledge of language Linguistic performance application of knowledge to speech production and comprehension Grammar rules Phonology combining sounds into words Morphology word formation Syntax combining words to phrases phrases to sentences Semantics assigning meaning LeXicon mental dictionary Grammatical conforming to rules Ungrammatical deviating from rules Descriptive grammar grammar expressing basic linguistic knowledge Prescriptive grammar grammar that creates standards for language Prestige dialect spoken by people in positions of power Standard dialect standardized language Teaching grammar grammar used to teach another language dialect Gloss Parallel word of another language in native language Universal Grammar blueprint all languages follow Part of children s talent to learn Linguistic Theory seeks to describe knowledge of language and how it is acquired Sign Language ASL a form of language because it creates new sentences and words Discreteness Language is composed of discrete units combined according to grammars Displacement Ability to converse about concepts unrelated to the present SapirWhorf Hypothesis Native language in uences thoughts and or perceptions of the world Linguistic determinism Not just in uence determines FALSE Linguistic relativism Different languages encode different categories therefore in uencing perception 2 Morphology Orthography spelling Stored with pronunciation Mental lexicon mental dictionary Grammatical category syntactic class of word N VAdjetc Also in lexicon Word classes Content words open class N VAdjAdv clear meanings and concepts Lots of new words Function words closed class ConjPpronouns specify grammatical relations Few new words Slips of tongue switching content words around in the sentence Morphemes The most elemental unit of grammatical form Every word has one or more morphemes Meaning of morpheme must be constant Morphology Study of word internal structure and rules by which words are formed Linguistic sign sound and meaning of words are arbitrary yet inseparable Monomorphemic word that only has one morpheme Free morphemes constitute words on their own monomorphemic boy Bound morphemes always part of words un aka af xes Circumfix morpheme that is a pre x and a suffix at the same time aka discontinuous morphemes Word forming Root Morpheme to which all af xes are attached May or may not have meaning Stem Root affix Each new af x creates a new stem Base Old stem to which new af x is attached Bound roots acquire meaning through grouping with other morphemes Morphological rules rules to make words through morphemes Derivational morphemes create a new meaning when added to base Derived word base derivational morpheme Blocking derived word can block path for other derived words In ectional morphemes mark properties eg tense Productivity ability to create new words Case grammatical relation of noun in sentence Case morphology when case is marked by in ectional morphemes Tree Diagrams Look at homework for examples Right Hand Head Rule the category of the mother is category of right hand daughter Suppletion irregular words treated separately eg child children Head part of word phrase that determines meaning and category Compound made of 2 or more words 3 Syntax Part of grammar that represent knowledge of sentences and structure Rules of Syntax Combine words to phrases to sentences and describe relationship between meaning and word arrangement Constituents Natural grouping of words parts of a sentence Tests Stand alone Work as a unit Replacement by pronoun one replacement Syntactic Category Grammatical categories Family of eXpressions that can substitute each other without losing grammaticality Noun Phrase NP Prepositional Phrase PP Adjective Phrase Ade Verb Phrase VP Tense Phrase sentence TP Adverbial Phrase Ava Determiner Det Conjunction Conj Functional categories grammatical function not meaning Determiner a this that etc Modal auXiliaries T might will would etc Phrase Structure Tree Diagrams Tree diagram with syntactic information akaPS Trees or Constitutent Trees Shows linear order of words syntactic categories and hierarchical organization of syntactic categories Head leXical category of same syntactic type Complement phrasal category occurring only neXt to head Specificer element preceding head X bar schema x is a variable that can be replaced by any category Only head is obligatory in XP Domination Each node dominates all under it signifying constituents Intransitive V cannot take NP complement Small clause XP composed of NP and bar level category C selection categorical selection of complement types by particular verbs S selection semantic specification of semantic properties for subjects and complements D structure deep basic structure of sentences that conform to X bar schema S structure surface derived structures that are D structure transformation rules Phrase Structure Rules Formulas used to build PS trees Recursive rule X bar repeats itself Adjunct category that is sister and daughter of X bar 4 Semantics Semantics study of linguistic meaning Lexical meanings of morphemes and words Compositional meanings of phrases and sentences or truth conditional semantics Tautologies sentences that are true regardless of circumstances Contradictions sentences that are always false Entailment meaning relation where one sentence s truth implies another s truth Synonymous paraphrases two sentences both T F in same situation Contradictory one sentence is T and other is F Principle of Compositionality meaning of an eXpression is composed of meaning of parts and how they are combined structurally Semantic Rules Semantic Rule 1 If the meaning of NP is member of meaning of VP sentence is T otherwise F Semantic Rule 11 There is a set of individuals X such that X is first member of any pair in the meaning of V whose second member is meaning of NP subject object Anomaly when sentences fit structurally but not semantically colorless green ideas sleep furiously Idioms fixed anomaly whose meaning is not compositional idiomatic phrases Reference association with real world objects meaning Sense additional meaning beyond eXpression An object can also have only reference or only sense Lexical Relations Synonyms eXpressions with the same meaning Antonyms eXpressions with the opposite meaning Complementary Pairs antonyms where A not B Gradable Pairs meaning is related to objects they modify Unmarked member of pair used in questions eg how high Relational Opposites pairs of symmetry in meaning Homonyms Homophones words with different meanings but identical sound Homographs Homonyms that are spelled identically Heteronyms Homographs that are pronounced differently Polysemous Word with multiple meanings that are related Hyponymy Relationship between general term and specific terms Semantic Features Properties that are part of words meanings and re ect knowledge of word meaning Slips of tongue show that substituted words share semantic features Classifiers grammatical morphemes that indicate semantic class Count Nouns nouns that can be enumerated and pluralized Mass Nouns uncountable nouns Eventive Verb describes events Stative Verb describes states More verbs Negative Polarity Item expressions that require negative element somewhere in sentence EXtra truth conditional Meaning that results from speaker using literal meaning in conversation Pragmatics study of eXtra truth conditional meaning Deictic words words that receive part of meaning through conteXt Reference resolution process where we search for conteXt to determine referent Linguistic conteXt anything that is uttered in discourse prior to along with pronoun Situational conteXt anything non linguistic Re exive pronoun pronoun that needs to receive reference in the same sentence Antecedent NP re eXive pronoun co refers to Co reference Act of re eXive pronoun Pragmatics Maxims of Conversation Also known as cooperative principles they are strategies used by language users to enable implicature Implicatures inferences that are drawn from seemingly unrelated discourse can be proved false with later information MaXim of Quality Truth MaXim of Quantity Information MaXim of Relation Relevance MaXim of Manner Clarity Presupposition Situations that must eXist for utterances to be appropriate Must hold under negation differ from implicature and entailments
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