Intro to Psych: Notes, Vocab, and final review
Intro to Psych: Notes, Vocab, and final review PSY - 0010
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Heath Fienman Psychology 91014 Biopsychology Phrenology 0 Franz Gall 1800 s 0 Bumps on skull determines where personality and behavior come from Neuroscience 0 Study of neural structures behavior and learning Nervous System 1 Central Nervous System Brain and Spinal cord 2 Peripheral Nervous System Everything else 0 Connects CNS to rest of body 0 Brain 0 Spinal cord 0 Re exes 2 Motor Neurons Efferent Then your brain tells you what you feel 0 Carry OUTGOING info from CNS to muscles and glands l Sensory Neurons Afferent FIRST you feel the pain 0 Carry INCOMING info from sense receptors to CNS Also Interneurons are 3 type from the REFLEX ARC Nerves 0 Part of PNS 0 Connects muscles glands and sense organs to CNS PNS 1 Autonomic Automatic 0 Sympathetic arousing fight or ight 0 Parasympathetic calming rest and digest 2 Somatic Voluntary control on purpose Neurons 0 Dendrites Receive info from other neurons 0 Soma Cell body Maintains the health of cell 0 Axon Electrical impulses are generated process info and fire these impulses 0 Myelin Sheath Fatty substances Provide insulation and speed up neural transmission 0 Axon Terminal Chemicals are sent 0 Glial Cells Provide environment around neurons Support Neurons acquire nutrients Resting Potential 0 At rest 0 Negatively charged inside Positively charged outside neuron Action Potential 0 Brief electrical charge 0 Neural impulse 0 Travels down neuron 0 Generated by movement of positively charged ions in and out of channels in axon membrane 0 Sodium ions go in and depolarization occurs 0 Reaches threshold and as a result ACTION POTENTIAL 0 Positive ions pumped out and becomes negatively charged again until further notice 0 All or none response Neuron fires completely or not at all Neural Communication 0 Axon terminals to dendrites BUT in space between Synaptic Gap 1 Electrical Impulses AP travel from one neuron to another across a tiny junction called the synapse Synapse 0 Vesicles NT s hook up with compatible receptor sites in the gap Neurotransmitters 0 NT molecule has structure that fits receptor site on receiving neuron like a lock and key Maurizime ers and Their I ierepiucpxhrine gluccse in bloodstream increasecl Bxyged l tc brain arucll muscles nriecllull a n n d ren e rg in Name Primary F39Lnrncti en Locatienis Receptere Hates Muscle central Elilie cf the r39TlC lEt ciri39rrieI39II 1 WCMDW Wearemuscular Wicbti nic rng W EFWEI39CCI39 A mal r Acetylcheliine lfcurrI IJatIcI39II 7 7 7 7 player In rrlier39rlcr39gpt t V 1IJnctIIurIa 39sr ENS muscarinnc K seesaw respcnse Imbalances cause Excitatcr39g39 twitching cur paaraly si s I tEEt39njal Mast antidepressants maverrlient gt cantml m d r FTIIFFIIE the effect of Serutemin 392 Get CHE 5 HT sercltcunain Mest narccitics FEQLEIEIJ EIDI39IJ H v t affect Its release or aeetlte sleep reuptalce r39rlclscle ccntrcll E V I erl balances cause Dr K a wn igsjf tnway f H Dthalamug D1 DEE D3 Farlcinscns Cecairne ancl p mm L 39 I 1 J FD J D4 D53 cpriates have a significant ecluntary n lcitlcin effect en Its release Fight er Flight resplbnse increased heart rate i rucreasecll Preclucecl frcin39l Debamine ea renal in the adrenal glancls en kidneys F recu rsc r th bsle to crease the bleed brairu barrier making i t aru d pjalmihe Hypcthalamus willie excellent pharrrliaceutlcal Ifcir treatn39lent calf Farkinscns cur Ellepressicln Frecurscr Us a 4 Trlptnphan Sgrgt nm El d lids Pu essential arrmncu aclcl Mediates muscle tone 5 I gt SASHA Receptcre susceptible th Ir Ih39bltg CNS Bram ISIAHAB alcehel which creates ENE clepxressicn 1 gt 7 H Spinal Cercl migraine Inhbts Signals Eraim tem WMDA armncu aclcl Bln d PrEEEUFE arrhint acicll miner Tvremine quot quot CNS iiicine Th1 neLI retransmi tter that is regulatlcuni r V larger ncut unclerstcicucll a L ng39trrt lamest Lulutamate Detentlatlen CNS PINS Mlbst ccrrurmcn cthers rrerrnraF O O O O O Neural Communication 0 Excitatory NT 0 Causes receiving neuron to fire 0 AGONISTS mimicsenhances NT effect on receptor sites 0 Inhibitory NT 0 Causes receiving cell to stop firing 0 ANTAGONIST blockreduce response to NT s 0 Reuptake NT s in synapse reabsorbed into the sending neuron 0 Stops NT action 0 Phineas Gage rod pole through brain but he was changed personality altered 0 Deep Lesioning Using electrical current to destroy tissue 0 ESB less destructive electrical stimulation of brain milder current used to stimulate neural activity 0 EEG electrodes placed on outside of cells in brain measures electrical activity within the brain 0 CT Computer controlled X ray that gives different views of the brain tomography 0 PET Detect radioactive glucose in bloodstream while person is performing task 0 MRI magnets oxygen levels tracked Hindbrain back of brain lowest 0 Structures sustain basic bodily functions 0 Connected to spinal cord Cerebellum 0 Controls voluntary and involuntary motor movements and balance coordination Pons 0 Relays messages between cerebellum and corteX sleep Reticular Formation 0 Arousal Medulla 0 Controls heartbeat breathing and swallowing Limbic System 0 Mid brain 0 Involved in learning memory and motivation Hippocampus 0 Essential to formation of new memories Amygdala 0 Linked to emotions of fear and anger Hypothalamus 0 Hunger thirst sexual behavior rewardpleasure center 0 Helps govern endocrine system 0 Fulfill basic needs Thalamus 0 Relay station between sense organs and cortex 0 Sensory switchboard Cingulate Cortex 0 Role in emotional and cognitive processing Cortex 0 4 lobes 0 2 hemispheres 0 Contralateral organization Right side of body is controlled by left side of brain and vice versa Frontal lobes 0 Executive functions 0 Primary motor cortex Parietal Lobes 0 Somatosensory cortex 0 Body sensations and touch Output motor cortex Input sensory cortex Temporal Lobes 0 Auditory cortex 0 Language 0 Learning and memory Occipital Lobes 0 Visual cortex 0 Image on left side goes to right brain and vice versa 0 Right visual field CAN be named if image is seen from left side Endocrine System 0 Body s slow chemical communication system 0 Hormones chemicals synthesized by set of glands 0 Hormones secreted into the bloodstream Pituitary Gland Master Gland Pineal Gland Biological Rhythms sleepwake MELATONIN Thyroid Growth and metabolism THYroxin Adrenal Glands Fight ight stress Epinephrine Cortisol Pancreas Insulin and Glucagon diabetes Gonads Male and female sex glands Regulate bodily development and maintain reproductive organs in adults Heath Fienman 92214 PSY MonW ed Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception 1 Synesthesia Disorder in which the signals from the various sensory organs are 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 processed in the wrong cortical areas resulting in the sense information being interpreted as more than one sensation Transduction conversion of one form of energy into another In sensation the transforming of stimulus energies such as sights sounds and smells into neural impulses our brains can interpret J ND Just noticeable difference Difference threshold the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 of the time We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference Absolute Threshold the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 of the time Habituation The tendency of the brain to stop paying attention to constant information Sensory Adaptation diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation Visual Accommodation Lens changes from thick to thin enabling it to focus on objects that are close or far away Pupil Iris opening that changes size depending on the amount of light in the environment Iris Its muscles control the size of the pupil Aqueous Humor Clear liquid that nourishes the eye Cornea Bends light waves so the image can be focused on the retina Vitreous Humor J ellylike liquid that nourishes and gives shape to the eye Blind Spot Optic disk Where the optic nerve leaves the eye there are no photoreceptor cells here Optic Nerve Sends visual info to the brain Fovea Central area of retina greatest density of photoreceptors Retina Contains photoreceptor cells Lens Changes shape to bring objects into focus Rods Black white and gray Cones Fine detail and color Blind spot Optic nerve leaves the eye there are no receptor cells there no rods and cones Dark Adaptation rods From bright to dark Light adaptation cones adapt to increased level of light takes a few seconds Trichromatic 3 color theory he theory that the retina contains three different color receptors one most sensitive to red one to green and one to blue which 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color RED GREEN and BLUE Afterimages When a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed Opponentprocess Theory The theory that opposing retinal processes redgreen yellowblue whiteblack enable color vision For example some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green Pinna Visible external part of the ear that serves as kind of concentrator funneling the sound waves from the outside into the structure of the ear Auditory Canal 3 tiny bones in the middle ear to vibrate Cochlea a coiled bony uidfilled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses Auditory Nerve Contains axons of all the receptor neurons Pitch how high or low a sound is Place Theory Helmholtz In hearing the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea s membrane is stimulated Frequency Theory In hearing the theory that the rate of the nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone thus enabling us to sense its pitch Volley Principle Auditory neurons take turns firing in 3 groups Gustation Sense of taste Olfaction ability to smell Olfactory Bulbs Receptors send their info here Somesthetic Senses Bodily feelings Skin senses Touch pressure pain temperature Kinesthetic Sense Location of the body in relation to each other Vestibular Senses Movement and body position Sensory Con ict Theory Motion sickness Shape Constancy Why a person still perceives a coin as circle even if it appears to be an oval Brightness constancy Perceive same light even when it changes Size Constancy Always the same size no matter the distance Figureground the organization of the visual field into objects the FIGURES that stand out from their surroundings the GROUND Similarity Things that look similar people perceive as being in same group Reversible figures figure and ground seem to switch back and forth Proximity How close something is Closure Tendency to complete figures that are incomplete Continuity Assume something continues than is separated Depth perception capability to see the world in 3D Monocular cues Illusion of depth to paintings referred to as pictorial one eye Binocular cues both eyes 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 Linear perspective Tendency for lines that are actually parallel to seem to converge Relative Size When someone assumes something is small they also assume it is far away Overlap interposition If one object blocks another it is assumed that the other is behind it or farther away Aerial atmospheric perspective Farther away the object the less sharp it appears Texture gradient Up close texture looks very distinct and sharp but farther way it doesn t and almost blends together Motion Parallax Discrepancy in motion of moving near and far objects like vision in a car Accommodation the process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina Convergence Rotation of the 2 eyes in their sockets to focus on a single object Binocular disparity Because the eyes are a few inches apart they don t see exactly the same image MullerLyer Illusion identical lines but one looks longer than the other Moon illusion Moon on horizon seems much bigger than moon in the sky Perceptual Set a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another TopDown Processing information processing guided by higherlevelmental processes as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience of them BottomUp Processing analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up from the brains integration of sensory information 68 Heath Fienman 92414 Psych MonW ed Chapter 4 Notes Consciousness Consciousness 0 Awareness of ourselves and our environment 0 Everything gong on inside and outside of you Circadian Rhythm 0 24 hour cycle 0 Light triggers superchiasmatic nucleus 0 Pineal Gland Melatonin increases during PM when light decreases and decreases during AM 0 Serotonin regulates sleep also 0 We spend 13 of our lives sleeping 0 Altered state of consciousness Sleep Stages 0 EEG utilized 0 Approximately every 90 minutes we pass through 5 distinct sleep stages Awake and Alert 0 Strong mental engagement 0 Brain Waves BETA waves 0 Fast irregular low amplitude small waves on EEG Awake but relaxed 0 Eyes closed 0 Brain waves ALPHA waves 0 Slow regular higher amplitude Sleep Stages 12 Early light sleep 0 Brain waves THETA waves High amplitude irregular 0 Stage 2 includes Sleep Spindles bursts of activity Sleep Stages 34 stage 4 occurs once or twice early in the night 0 DEEPEST sleep 0 Brain waves DELTA waves 0 Slower larger amplitude big waves on EEG REM Sleep Rapid Eye Movement 0 Vivid dreams Sleep paralysis or paradoxical feeling of Why can t I run during the dream Closest to being awake REM rebound Sleep Deprivation Impaired concentration Irritability Depressed immune system lead to vulnerability Fatigue and subsequent death Sleep Disorders Nightmares repetitive impaired function distress REM sleep Sleep terror more common in children panic and screaming cant recall the exact images of the dreams Deeper stages of sleep Sleepwalking Insomnia difficulty falling or staying asleep anxiety Sleep Apnea Stops breathing for up to 30 seconds sometimes depression Narcolepsy Inability to stay awake throughout the day REM sleep Dreaming Freud dreams as Wish fulfillment What is going on in our mind Manifest Content Actual plot of dream Latent Content Meaning behind the dream Activation Synthesis 0 Hypothesis dreams created to explain brain stem activation during REM sleep Activationinformationmodemodel Information accessed While awake affects dream synthesis daily activities Hypnosis Social Interaction Suggestion Hypnos Greek God of Sleep 4 Elements of Hypnosis 1 2 3 4 Person told to focus on What is being said Person told to relax and feel tired Person told to accept suggestions Person told to use vivid imagination Psychoactive Drugs Drugs that alter thinking perception and memory Tolerance Withdrawal Dependence physical and psychological 4 Types 1 2 Depressants 3 4 Hallucinogens Stimulants Narcotics Heath Fienman 10614 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 6 Vocabulary Memory 1 Memory The ability to remember things that we have experienced imagined PS 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 and learned Encoding The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain39s storage systems Storage Holding onto information for some period of time Retrieval Getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used InformationProcessing Model Model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages Parallel distributed processing model PDP A model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections Levelsof processing Model Model of memory that assumes information that is more quotdeeply processedquot or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time Sensory Memory The very first stage of memory the point at which info enters the nervous system through the sensory systems Iconic memory type of sensory Memory visual sensory memory lasting only a fraction of a second ex Double Take Eidetic Imagery The ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more Echoic Memory Type of Sensory Memory the brief memory of something a person has just said ex quotWhatquot Phenomenon Shortterm memory STM The memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used Selective Attention The ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input Working Memory An active system that processes the information in shortterm memory Maintenance Rehearsal Practice of saying some info remembered over and over in one s head in order to maintain it in STM Longterm memory LTM The system of memory into which all the info is placed to be kept more or less permanently Elaborative Rehearsal A method of transferring info from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way Nondeclarative implicit memory Memory that is not easily brought into conscious awareness such as procedural memory motor skills habits 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Anterograde amnesia Loss of Memory from the point of injury or trauma forward or the inability to form new LTM Declarative explicit memory Type of LTM containing info that is conscious and known Semantic Memory Type of Declarative memory containing general knowledge such as knowledge of language and information learned in formal education Episodic Memory Type of Declarative Memory containing personal information not readily available to others such as daily activities and events Semantic network model Model of Memory organization that assumes information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion with concepts that are related stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related Retrieval Cue A stimulus for remembering Encoding specificity The tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information such as surrounding or physiological state available when the memory is first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved Recall Type of memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be quotpulledquot from memory with very few external cues Recognition The ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact Serial Position Effect Tendency of information at the beginning and end of a body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body of information Primacy Effect beginning info is remembered best Recency Effect ending info is remembered better than that at the beginning Automatic Encoding Tendency of certain kinds of info to enter LTM with little or no effortful encoding Flashbulb memories Type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it Constructive Processing Referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered revised or in uenced by newer information Hindsight Bias The tendency to falsely believe through revision of older memories to include newer information that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event Misinformation effect The tendency of misleading info presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself Curve of forgetting A graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually same as the learning curve concept Distributed Practice Spacing the study of material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods Encoding failure failure to process info into memory Memory trace physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Decay Loss of memory due to passage of time during which the memory trace is not used Disuse Another name for decay assuming that memories that are not used will eventually disappear Proactive interference Memory retrieval problem that occurs when older info prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information Retroactive interference Memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information Consolidation The changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when a memory is formed Retrograde Amnesia Loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards or loss of memory for the past Anterograde Amnesia Loss of memories from the point of injury or illness forward Can t remember anything new cannot form new memories Ex 50 First Dates Alzheimer s Disease A disease that affects over 4 Million Americans targets adults and elderly common type of dementia 3rd leading cause of death in late adulthood Symptoms begin with forgetfulness of small things then progresses to forgetting family members names then forgetting memories then how do drive where their house is how to eat how to bath where they are then eventually death Think curious case of Benjamin Button mentally Infantile Amnesia The inability to retrieve memories much before age 3 Autobiographical Memory The memory for events and facts related to one s personal life story Heath Fienman 103014 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 12 Vocabulary Social Psychology 1 Social Psychology The branch of psychology that studies how people thinks feel and behave in social situations 2 Social In uence The study of the effects of situational factors and other people on an individual s behavior 3 Conformity The tendency to adjust one s behavior attitudes or beliefs to group norms in response to real or imagined group pressure 4 Groupthink When people within a group feel it is more important to maintain the group s cohesiveness than to consider the facts realistically or from their own perspective 5 Group Polarization Tendency for members of a group discussion to take somewhat more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions when compared to individuals who have not participated in a group discussion 6 Social Facilitation The positive in uence of others on performance of an easy task 7 Social Impairment The negative in uence of others on performance of a difficult task 8 Social Loafing The tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on a task 9 Deindividualization When people are gathered in a group they have the tendency for them to lessen their sense of a personal identity and responsibility 10 Consumer Psychology Studies the habits of consumers in a market place 11 Compliance Changing one s behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change 12 Foot in the door technique Asking for a small commitment and after gaining compliance asking for a bigger one 13 Door in the face technique Asking for a large commitment and being refused and then asking for a smaller one 14 Lowball technique Getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment 15 Cult Any group of people with a particular religious or philosophical set of beliefs and identity 16 Obedience Changing one s behavior at the command of an authority figure 17 Attitude A tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person object idea or situation 18 Persuasion the process by which one person tries to change the belief opinion position or course of action of another person through argument pleading or explanation 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Elaboration likelihood Model A model suggesting that attitude change can be driven by evaluation of the content of a persuasive message central route or by irrelevant persuasion cues peripheral route Centralroute Processing The route to persuasion that involves careful and thoughtful consideration of the content of the message conscious processing Peripheralroute Processing type of information processing that involves attending to factors not involved in the message such as the appearance of the source of the message the length of the message and other noncontent factors Cognitive Dissonance The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent For example when our awareness of our attitudes and our actions clash we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes Impression Formation The forming of the first knowledge that a person has concerning another person Social Categorization The assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past Stereotype A generalization about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group regardless of actual variation among the members Implicit Personality Theory Set of assumptions about how different types of people personality traits and actions are related to each other Attribution Theory A description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people s behavior Situational Cause Cause of behavior attributed to external factors such as delays the action of others or some other aspect of the situation Dispositional Cause Cause of behavior attributed to internal factors such as personality or character Fundamental Attribution Error Actorobserver Bias the tendency to overestimate the in uence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors Prejudice An opinion or strong feeling formed without careful thought or regard to the facts Discrimination Treating members of different races religions ethnic groups differently usually associated with prejudice Ingroups Groups of people with which a person identifies Outgroups Groups of people with which a person does not identify Social Cognitive Theory Prejudice is seen as an attitude that is formed as other attitudes are formed through direct instruction modeling and other social in uences on learning Realistic Con ict Theory Prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Social Identity Theory theory in which the formation of a person39s identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization social identity and social comparison Social Identity the quotwequot aspect of our selfconcept the part of our answer to quotWho am Iquot that comes from our group memberships Social Comparison Evaluating one s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others Stereotype Vulnerability The effect that people s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior SelfFulfilling Prophecy An expectation that gives rise to behaviors that cause the expectation to come true Equal Status Contact Contact between groups in which the groups have equal status with neither group having power over the other Jigsaw Classroom Educational approach designed to minimize prejudice by requiring all children to make independent contributions to a shared project Interpersonal Attraction Liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person Proximity The state of being close or next to neamess Reciprocity of Liking Tendency for people to like other people who like them in return Romantic Love Type of love consisting of intimacy and passion Companionate Love The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined Aggression Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy Social Role The pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position Prosocial Behavior Positive constructive helpful behavior The opposite of antisocial behavior Altruism Unselfish concern for the welfare of others sel essness Bystander Effect The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present Social Neuroscience The study of how our bodies and brain work during social behavior 10 According to social categorization the most in uential thing in helping us form 11 12 l3 14 15 l6 17 18 19 20 21 22 In Asch s study conformity decreased when at least one of the confederates opposition agreed with the participant One of the keys to deindividuation is Anonymity Connor needs 20 he asks his mom for 50 and she gives him 30 Door in the face phenomenon Follow up research to Stanley Milgram s original study has found that over 60 percent of teachers will deliver shocks up to the point of being lethal Studies have found that attitudes are primarily the result of learned behavior Affective component of an attitude I love to go to clubs they make me so haPPY Vicarious Learning Learning by watching others attitudes As an attorney you recommend that your client dress up for his day in court so he looks more professional in front of the judge The Source PeripheralRoute Processing Secondary factors that one noticed Impression Formation Prediction an opinion or attitude The things that happen first primacy effect Someone who smiles must always be happy Implicit Personality Theory Caleb is always late to work and his friends think it is because he is lazy Dispositional Cause Prejudice is about attitudes while discrimination is about behavior Student not wanting to be friends with a teacher in groupout group theory Most starling finding in Jane Elliot s study Test scores dropped for each group during their respective turn as the outgroup Most effective way to decrease prejudice Create an environment of equal status where groups must rely upon each other to solve a common problem The more you see someone the more likely you are to like them Mere Exposure Phenomenon Concept of Opposites attract Reciprocity of Liking According to Robert Sternberg s 3 components of love which component addresses the physical aspects Passion According to Sternberg when all 3 components of love are present a couple possesses consummate love When people are unable to reach a goal frustration might occur which can result in aggression 23 Increased levels of aggression in those who drink alcohol may be due to a decrease in the NT known as Serotonin 24 Studies of the brain have found that temporoparietal junction is in uential in the presence of altruistic sel essness behaVior 25 Once a situation is deemed an emergency the next step in the decisionmaking process is taking responsibility Heath Fienman 1 124 14 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 15 Vocabulary Treatment and Therapy Psychological Therapies 1 Therapy Treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 more effectively Psychotherapy Therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks with a psychological professional Insight Therapies Therapies in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior thoughts and feelings Action Therapy Therapy in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly Biomedical Therapies Therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical methods to relieve symptoms Psychoanalysis An insight therapy based on the theory of Freud emphasizing the revealing of unconscious con icts Latent Content Symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams Free Association psychoanalytic technique in which a patient was encouraged to talk about anything that came to mind without fear of negative evaluations Resistance Occurring when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic by either changing the subject or becoming silent Transference in psychoanalysis the tendency for a patient or client to project positive or negative feelings of important people from the past onto the therapist Directive therapy in which the therapist actively gives interpretations of a client s statements and may suggest certain behavior or actions Psychodynamic Therapy a newer and more general term for therapies based on psychoanalysis with an emphasis on transference shorter treatment times and a more direct therapeutic approach Interpersonal Therapy IPT Form of therapy for depression which incorporates multiple approaches and focuses on interpersonal problems Nondirective therapy style in which the therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client instead remaining a calm nonjudgmental listener while the client talks PersonCentered Therapy nondirective insight therapy based on the work of Carl Rogers in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens Authenticity Genuine open and honest response of the therapist to the client Unconditional Positive Regard Having respect for a person s feelings values and goals even if they are different compared to those of the therapist Empathy The ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client Re ection therapy technique in which the therapist restates what the client says rather than interpreting those statements 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Gestalt Therapy form of directive insight therapy in which the therapist helps clients to accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences using leading questions and planned experiences such as roleplaying Behavior Therapies action therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior Behavior Modification The use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior Applied Behavior Analysis Functional analysis conditioning techniques followed Systematic Desensitization behavior technique used to treat phobias in which a client is asked to make a list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentrating on those fears Aversion Therapy Form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior Exposure Therapies behavioral techniques that expose individuals to anxiety or fearrelated stimuli under carefully controlled conditions to promote new learning Flooding technique for treating phobias and other stress disorders in which the person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fearprovoking situation or object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response Modeling Learning though the observation and imitation of others Participant Modeling technique in which a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a stepbystep gradual process while the client is encouraged to imitate the model Token Economy The use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges Contingency Contract a formal written agreement between the therapist and client or teacher and student in which goals for behavioral change reinforcements and penalties are clearly stated TimeOut an extinction process in which a person is removed from the situation that provides reinforcement for undesirable behavior usually by being placed in a quiet comer or room away from possible attention and reinforcement opportunities Cognitive therapy therapy in which the focus is on helping clients recognize distortions in their thinking and replace distorted unrealistic beliefs with more realistic helpful thoughts Arbitrary inference distortion of thinking in which a person draws a conclusion that is not based on any evidence Selective thinking distortion of thinking in which a person focuses on only one aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects Overgeneralization distortion of thinking in which a person draws sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applies those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Magnification and minimization distortions of thinking in which a person blows a negative event out of proportion to its importance magnification while ignoring relevant positive events minimization Personalization distortion of thinking in which a person takes responsibility or blame for events that are unconnected to the person Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT action therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by learning to think more rationally and logically Rational emotive behavior therapy REBT cognitive behavioral therapy in which clients are directly challenged in their irrational beliefs and helped to restructure their thinking into more rational belief statements Group Therapy Group of clients with similar problems gather together to discuss their problems under the guidance of a single therapist Family Counseling A form of group therapy in which the family members meet together with a counselor to resolve problems that affect the entire family Support Groups a group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion problem solving and social and emotional support Therapeutic Alliance Relationship between the therapist and the clients that develops as a warm caring accepting relationship characterized by empathy mutual respect and understanding Evidence Based Treatment Techniques that have produced desired outcomes or therapeutic change in controlled studies Cyber Therapy Psychotherapy that is offered on the internet also called online intemet or web therapy counseling Biomedical Therapies Therapies that directly affect the biological functioning of the body and brain Psychopharmacology The use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders Antipsychotic Drugs drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions hallucinations and other bizarre behavior AntianXiety Drugs Drugs used to treat and calm anXiety reactions typically minor tranquillizers Antidepressant Drugs Drugs used to treat depression and anXiety Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT Form of biomedical therapy to treat severe depression in which electrodes are placed on either one or both sides of a person39s head and an electric current is passed through the electrodes that is strong enough to cause a seizure or convulsion Psychosurgery Surgery performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders Prefrontal Lobotomy psychosurgery in which the connections of the prefrontal lobes of the brain to the rear portions are severed Bilateral Anterior Cingulotomy psychosurgical technique in which an electrode wire is inserted into the anterior cingulate gyrus with the guidance of a magnetic resonance imaging machine for the purpose of destroying that area of brain tissue with an electric current Heath Fienman 92414 Psych MonW ed p x 091 10 Beta Waves very small and fast low amplitude high frequency 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 11 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Chapter 4 Consciousness Consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our environment Walking Consciousness Individual s thoughts feelings and sensations are clear and organized and they feel alert most time spent here Altered State of Consciousness When there is a shift in the quality or pattern of your mental activity Circadian Rhythm the biological clock regular bodily rhythms for example of temperature and wakefulness that occur on a 24hour cycle Microsleeps Brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only seconds Sleep Deprivation Loss of sleep Adaptive Theory Proposal that humans and animals evolved different sleep patterns to avoid being present during the predator s normal hunting times which would typically be at night Restorative Theory Sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body REM Sleep rapid eye movement sleep a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur Also known as paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed except for minor twitches but other body systems are active NREM Sleep Any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM Alpha Waves Drowsy Large and slow Theta Waves Even slower and larger Stage 1 Sleep Light sleep S2 Sleep Spindles higher frequency brain waves S3S4 Delta Waves Very deep sleep Delta Waves Slowest and largest waves Sleep Paralysis Voluntary muscles are paralyzed and you get the feeling of why can t I run REM Rebound the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep Nightmares Bad dreams REM Behavior Disorder Get up and thrash around act out nightmares Night Terrors more likely in children Panic experienced while in deep sleep Insomnia Inability to sleep Sleep Apnea Stops breathing for 10 seconds or more while sleeping Narcolepsy a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep often at inopportune times can t stay awake Manifest Content according to Freud the remembered story line of a dream as distinct from its latent or hidden content 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 ActivationSynthesis Hypothesis Theory Another kind of thinking that occurs while sleeping AIM Information taken in while awake can have in uence on the synthesis of dreams Dissociation a split in consciousness which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others Socialcognitive Theory of Hypnosis People who are hypnotized are not in an altered state but are merely playing the role expected of them in the given situation Physical Dependence a physiological need for a drug marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued Drug Tolerance the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug requiring the use to take larger and large doses before experiencing the drug39s effect Withdrawal the discomfort and distress that follows discontinuing the use of an addictive drug Psychological Dependence a psychological need to use a drug such as to relieve negative emotions Stimulants drugs such as caffeine nicotine and more powerful amphetamines cocaine and Ecstasy that excite neural activity and speed up body functions Depressants drugs such as alcohol barbiturates and opiates that reduce neural activity and slow body functions Hallucinogens psychedelic mindmanifesting drugs such as LSD that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input Amphetamines drugs that stimulate neural activity causing speededup body functions and associated energy and mood changes Cocaine Produces feelings of euphoria energy power and pleasure Caffeine Stimulant Nicotine Stimulant Barbiturates drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment Benzodiazepines Minor tranquilizers mild depressant effect Alcohol Most commonly used and abused depressant Narcotics Depressant that suppresses sensation of pain that utilize endorphins Opium Highly addictive pain relieving produces euphoria Morphine Control severe pain Opiates opium and its derivatives such as morphine and heroin they depress neural activity temporarily lessening pain and anxiety LSD a powerful hallucinogenic drug also known as acid lysergic acid diethylamide PCP Only for veterinary medicine or tranquilizer Ecstasy MDM a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen Produces euphoria and social intimacy but with shortterm health risks and longerterm harm to serotoninproducing neurons and to mood and cognition 52 Marijuana Most commonly abused hallucinogens 53 THC the major active ingredient in marijuana triggers a variety of effects including mild hallucinations Heath Fienman 10614 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 6 Vocabulary Memory 1 Memory The ability to remember things that we have experienced imagined PS 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 and learned Encoding The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain39s storage systems Storage Holding onto information for some period of time Retrieval Getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used InformationProcessing Model Model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages Parallel distributed processing model PDP A model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections Levelsof processing Model Model of memory that assumes information that is more quotdeeply processedquot or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time Sensory Memory The very first stage of memory the point at which info enters the nervous system through the sensory systems Iconic memory type of sensory Memory visual sensory memory lasting only a fraction of a second ex Double Take Eidetic Imagery The ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more Echoic Memory Type of Sensory Memory the brief memory of something a person has just said ex quotWhatquot Phenomenon Shortterm memory STM The memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used Selective Attention The ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input Working Memory An active system that processes the information in shortterm memory Maintenance Rehearsal Practice of saying some info remembered over and over in one s head in order to maintain it in STM Longterm memory LTM The system of memory into which all the info is placed to be kept more or less permanently Elaborative Rehearsal A method of transferring info from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way Nondeclarative implicit memory Memory that is not easily brought into conscious awareness such as procedural memory motor skills habits 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Anterograde amnesia Loss of Memory from the point of injury or trauma forward or the inability to form new LTM Declarative explicit memory Type of LTM containing info that is conscious and known Semantic Memory Type of Declarative memory containing general knowledge such as knowledge of language and information learned in formal education Episodic Memory Type of Declarative Memory containing personal information not readily available to others such as daily activities and events Semantic network model Model of Memory organization that assumes information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion with concepts that are related stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related Retrieval Cue A stimulus for remembering Encoding specificity The tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information such as surrounding or physiological state available when the memory is first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved Recall Type of memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be quotpulledquot from memory with very few external cues Recognition The ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact Serial Position Effect Tendency of information at the beginning and end of a body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body of information Primacy Effect beginning info is remembered best Recency Effect ending info is remembered better than that at the beginning Automatic Encoding Tendency of certain kinds of info to enter LTM with little or no effortful encoding Flashbulb memories Type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it Constructive Processing Referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered revised or in uenced by newer information Hindsight Bias The tendency to falsely believe through revision of older memories to include newer information that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event Misinformation effect The tendency of misleading info presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself Curve of forgetting A graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually same as the learning curve concept Distributed Practice Spacing the study of material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods Encoding failure failure to process info into memory Memory trace physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Decay Loss of memory due to passage of time during which the memory trace is not used Disuse Another name for decay assuming that memories that are not used will eventually disappear Proactive interference Memory retrieval problem that occurs when older info prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information Retroactive interference Memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information Consolidation The changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when a memory is formed Retrograde Amnesia Loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards or loss of memory for the past Anterograde Amnesia Loss of memories from the point of injury or illness forward Can t remember anything new cannot form new memories Ex 50 First Dates Alzheimer s Disease A disease that affects over 4 Million Americans targets adults and elderly common type of dementia 3rd leading cause of death in late adulthood Symptoms begin with forgetfulness of small things then progresses to forgetting family members names then forgetting memories then how do drive where their house is how to eat how to bath where they are then eventually death Think curious case of Benjamin Button mentally Infantile Amnesia The inability to retrieve memories much before age 3 Autobiographical Memory The memory for events and facts related to one s personal life story Heath Fienman Psychology Chapter 2 Vocabulary Biological Perspective Biopsychology 1 Nervous system Network of cells that carries info to and from all parts of the 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 body Neuroscience A branch of the life sciences that deals with the structure and function of neurons nerves and nervous tissues Biological psychology or Behavioral Neuroscience branch of neuroscience that focuses on the biological bases of psychological processes behavior and learning Neuron Specialized cell in the nervous system that receives and sends messages within the system Dendrites Part of the neuron that receive messages from other cells Axon fiber attached to the soma and its job is to carry out messages out to other cells Axon Terminals responsible for communicating with other nerve cells end of axon Glial Cells cells that provide support for the neurons to grow on and around deliver nutrients to neurons produce myelin to coat axons clean up waste products and dead neurons in uence info processing and during prenatal development in uence the generation of new neurons Myelin fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate protect and speed up the neural impulse Nerves Bundles of axons in the PNS myelin Diffusion Process of molecules moving from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration Resting Potential The state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse Action Potential The release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon AllorNone referring to the fact that a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all Synaptic Vesicles Saclike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals Neurotransmitters Chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that when released has an effect on the next cell Synapse or Synaptic Gap Microscopic uidfilled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell Receptor Sites 3dimensional proteins on the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters Excitatory Synapses Synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Inhibitory Synapses Synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing Antagonist Chemical substances that block or reduce a cell39s response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters Agonist Chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell Reuptake Process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles Enzymatic Degradation Process by which structure of neurotransmitter is altered so it can no longer act on a receptor Central Nervous System Part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord Spinal Cord Afferent Sensory Neurons Efferent Motor Neurons Interneurons A long bundle of neurons that carries messages between the body and the brain and is responsible for very fast lifesaving re exes Re ex Arc The connection of the afferent neurons to the intemeurons to the efferent neuron resulting in a re ex action Neuroplasticity The connection of the afferent neurons to the interneurons to the efferent neuron resulting in a re ex action Stem Cells Special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of becoming other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear PNS All nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself Somatic Division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body ANS Division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles organs and glands Sensory Pathway Nerves coming form the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of afferent neurons Motor Pathway Nerves coming from the CNS to the voluntary muscles consisting of efferent neurons Sympathetic Division Fight or ight Part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal Parasympathetic Division Part of the ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible of the organs and glands Endocrine Glands Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream Hormones Chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Pituitary Gland Gland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone and in uences all other hormonesecreting glands also known as the master gland Oxytocin hormone released the posterior pituitary gland that is involved in reproductive and parental behaviors Pineal Gland Endocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum secretes melatonin Thyroid Gland Endocrine gland found in the neck regulates metabolism Pancreas Endocrine gland controls the levels of sugar in the blood Gonads Sex glands secrete hormones that regulate sexual development and behavior as well as reproduction Ovaries The female gonads Testes Male gonads Adrenal Glands Endocrine glands located on top of each kidney that secrete over 30 different hormones to deal with stress regulate salt intake and provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during Lesioning insertion of a thin insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire CT Scan Brainimaging method using computercontrolled Xrays of the brain MRI Brainimaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain Electroencephalograph Machine designed to record the electroencephalogram EEG A recording of the electrical activity of large groups of cortical neurons just below the skull most often using scalp electrodes PET brain imaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color coded image of the activity of the brain FMRI MRIbased brainimaging method that allows for functional examination of brain areas through changes in brain oxygenation Medulla The fist large swelling at the top of the spinal cord forming the lowest part of the brain which is responsible for lifesustaining swallowing and heart rate Pons The larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep dreaming leftright body coordination and arousal Reticular Formation An area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for general attention alertness and arousal Cerebellum Part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary rapid fine motor movement Limbic System A group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning emotion memory and motivation Thalamus Part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area Sensory Switchboard Olfactory Bulbs Two bulblike projections just under the front of the brain that receive information from the receptors in the nose Hypothalamus Small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep hunger thirst and sex Hippocampus Curved structure located within each temporal lobe responsible for the formation of longterm memories and the storage of memory for location of objects Amygdala memory of fear Cortex higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input Cerebral Hemisphere The two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain Corpus Callosum Thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres Occipital Lobe visual Parietal Lobes Touch taste and temperature Somatosensory Cortex Area of neurons running down the front of the parietal lobes responsible for processing information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch temperature body position and possibly taste Temporal Lobes hearing and speech Frontal Lobes decision making and production of uent speech Motor Cortex Section of the frontal lobe located at the back responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous system Mirror Neurons Neurons that fire when a animal or person performs an action and also when an animal or person observes that same action being performed by another Broca s Aphasia Ability to speak Wernicke s Aphasia Comprehension of language Spatial Neglect Condition produced by damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere resulting in an inability to recognize objects or body parts in the left visual field Cerebrum The upper part of the brain consisting of the two hemispheres and the structures that connect them Heath Fienman 92914 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 5 Learning 1 Learning Relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience PS 8 9 10 or practice Re ex Unlearned involuntary response that is not under personal control or choice Stimulus Any object event or experiences that causes a response Response the reaction of an organism Classical Conditioning learning to make an involuntary re ex response to a stimulus other than the original natural stimulus that normally produces the re ex Unconditioned Stimulus UCS a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary re ex response Unconditioned Response UCR an involuntary re ex response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus Neutral Stimulus NS Stimulus that has no effect on the desired response Conditioned Stimulus stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned re ex response by being paired With the original unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Response CR Learned re ex response to a conditioned stimulus Before Conditioning NS No Response During Conditioning NS UCS UCR After Conditioning CS CR 11 12 13 14 15 Stimulus Generalization the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus With the conditioned response Stimulus Discrimination the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired With the unconditioned stimulus Extinction the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus in classical conditioning or the removal of a reinforcer in operant conditioning Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred HigherOrder Conditioning occurs When a strong conditioned stimulus is paired With a neutral stimulus causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Conditioned Emotional Response CER emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person Vicarious Conditioning classical conditioning of a re ex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person Conditioned Taste Aversion development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction occurring after only one association Cognitive Perspective modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus Operant Conditioning the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses Law of Effect law stating that if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence it will tend to be repeated and it followed by an unpleasant consequence it will tend not to be repeated Operant Any behavior that is voluntary Reinforcement Any event or stimulus that when following a response increases the probability that the response will occur again Reinforcer An item or event that when following a response will strengthen it Primary Reinforcer any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need such as hunger thirst or touch Secondary Reinforcer any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer such as praise tokens or gold stars Positive Reinforcement the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus Negative Reinforcement the reinforcement of a response by the removal escape from or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus Partial Reinforcement Effect the tendency for a response that is reinforced after some but not all correct responses to be very resistant to extinction Continuous Reinforcement The reinforcement of each and every correct response Fixed Interval Schedule of Reinforcement schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same Time every 3 times Variable Interval Schedule of Reinforcement schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event Time sporadic Fixed Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same Variable Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Punishment Any event or stimulus that when following a response causes that response to be less likely to happen again Punishment by Application the punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus Punishment by Removal the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus Shaping the reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired more complex behavior Discriminative Stimulus any stimulus such as a stop sign or a doorknob that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement Instinctive Drift Tendency to revert to genetically controlled patterns Token Economy type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens Applied Behavior Analysis ABA modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response Biofeedback using feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses such as blood pressure and relaxation under voluntary control Neurofeedback form of biofeedback using brainscanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior Latent Learning learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful or needed Insight the sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly Learned Helplessness the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past Observational Learning learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior Learning Performance Distinction referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior Ivan Pavlov Classical conditioning Dog salivation John B Watson Behaviorism Little albert fear white rat Edward Thorndike Law of Effect puzzle box BF Skinner Operant Conditioning Heath Fienman 92914 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 5 Notes Learning Learning 0 Relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience Types of Learning 0 Association 0 Observation 0 Implicit Explicit Association Learning 0 Pavlov Classical Conditioning dog salivation 0 Skinner Operant Conditioning Stimulus 0 Something in the environment When exposed to it something will happen as a result to the exposure Response 0 What happens as result to exposure of stimulus Consequence 0 After response occurs StimulusStimulus Learning 0 Learning to associate one stimulus With another ResponseConsequence Learning 0 Learning to associate a response With a consequence Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning 0 Russian Psychologist 0 Digestion Salivation in dogs Pavlov s Lab setup 0 Measuring saliva 0 Presentation of food 0 Saliva before food 0 Association With sounds Unconditioned Stimulus UCS food 0 Elicits unconditioned response UCR salivation Unconditioned Response UCR salivation 0 Occurs due to presentation of UCS Neutral Stimulus NS 0 Does not elicit UCR Before Conditioning 0 Food UCS produces Salivation UCR 0 Tone or sound does not During Conditioning 0 Tone NS paired with food UCS and it produces salivation UCR After Conditioning 0 Neutral stimulus NS becomes a Conditioned Stimulus CS or replaces the UCS and produces Conditioned Response CR 0 Tone CS produces Salivation CR Acquisition 0 Initial stage in classical conditioning 0 Association between NS and UCS takes place 0 NS must come before UCS 0 Time between NS and UCS must be brief about half a second Extinction 0 Occasionally pair the original UCS still Spontaneous Recovery 0 Recover response after extinction Stimulus Generalization 0 Tendency to respond to a stimulus similar to the CS 0 Example god salivates to sound of beeper Stimulus Discrimination 0 Distinguishing between a CS and other stimuli that do NOT signal an UCS 0 Example dog salivates to Csharp but not B at Higherorder conditioning 0 A CS becomes associated with another stimulus 0 The 2rld stimulus elicits the CR 0 Example light and tone can both produces salivation Conditioning of Fear 0 John Watson founder of behaViorism 0 Little Albert and the white rat Counterconditioning 0 Unleaming of conditioned response Edward Thorndike 18741949 0 Trial and error learning Puzzle Box Cats 0 Law of effect 0 Responses followed by pleasurable consequences tend to be repeated BF Skinner 19041990 0 Observable measurable behavior 0 Operant Voluntary behavior 0 Learning depends on consequences good or bad Operant Chamber Skinner Box 0 White rat emits behavior and is given shock or food Reinforcement 0 Follows and strengthens response Primary Reinforcer 0 Needs 0 Innately reinforcing Secondary Reinforcer 0 Learned 0 Due to an association with primary reinforcer Positive Add something Negative Take away something Positive Reinforcement 0 Behavior response followed by pleasant consequence 0 Makes the behavior more likely to occur again 0 Add something desirable Negative Reinforcement 0 Behavior Response followed by removal of something unpleasant 0 Makes the behavior more likely to occur again Continuous and Partial Reinforcement 0 Reward given every time doesn t always work 0 Punishment 0 Behavior followed by unpleasant consequence O Intended to reduce the behavior 0 Positive Punishment 0 Add something undesirable after a behavior 0 Negative Punishment 0 Remove something desirable after a behavior 0 Problems with punishment 0 Fear anxiety 0 Avoidance 0 Modeling of aggression Effective Punishment 0 Punishment should be immediate 0 Punishment should be consistent 0 Punishment should be paired with reinforcement for correct behaviors FILM Skinner wanted the pigeon to turn head it was reinforced Skinner taught pigeons a lot of things Shaping 0 Reinforcing Successive approximations to reach a target behavior Parenting reinforce desirable behaviors ignore undesirable behaviors Education 0 shape learning in small steps token economy Sports 0 principles of reinforcement used to enhance performance Workplace 0 reinforcers in uence productivity Biofeedback O controlling involuntary responses e g blood pressure via biological feedback Neurofeedback Cognitive Learning Theory 0 Early learning theory 0 1950 s amp 1960 s increased focus on mental events cognitions Tolman Latent Learning 0 Mental Representations 0 Learning without obvious reinforcement 0 Cognitive maps Seligman Learned Helpessness O Learned Helplesness tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures Bandura Observation Learning 0 Modeling 0 Bobo doll experiment 1961 Bandura s Bobo Doll Experiment Children39s behavior after watching an adult model act aggressively towards a Bobo doll 0 Two Conditions I Aggressive amp nonaggressive model I Viewers of aggression played more aggressively I Model s behavior imitated even in absence of reward Heath Fienman 101514 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 7 Vocabulary Cognition Thinking Intelligence and Language 1 Thinking Cognition mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating info to others Mental Images mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picturelike quality Concepts ideas that represent a class or category of objects events or activities Problem Solving Process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways Decision Making Identifying evaluating and choosing among several alternatives Trial and Error Mechanical Solution Problemsolving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found Algorithms Very specific step by step procedures for solving certain types of problems Heuristic An educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem also knows as a rule of thum Representativeness heuristic Categorizing objects and simply assumes that any object or person that shares characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category Availability Heuristic Our estimation of the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant info from memory or how easy it is for us to think of similar related examples Functional Fixedness A block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions Mental Set the tendency for people to persist in using problem solving patterns that have worked for them in the past Confirmation Bias the tendency to search for evidence that fits one s beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs Convergent Thinking type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer using previous knowledge and logic Divergent Thinking type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point Intelligence the ability to learn from one s experiences acquire knowledge and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems G Factor the ability to reason and solve problems or general intelligence S Factor the ability to excel in certain areas or specific intelligence 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Sternberg s theory that there are three kinds of intelligence analytical creative and practical Analytical Intelligence the ability to break problems down into component parts or analysis for problem solving Creative Intelligence The ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems Practical Intelligence The ability to use info to get along in life and become successful Intelligence Quotient IQ a number representing a measure of intelligence resulting from the division of one39s mental age by one39s chronological age and then multiplying that quotient by 100 IQ MACA X 100 Reliability The tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people Validity The degree to which a test actually measures what it s supposed to measure Deviation IQ Scores a type of intelligence measure that assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of about 15 Gifted the 2 percent of the population falling on the end of the normal curve typically possessing an IQ of 130 or above Emotional Intelligence The awareness of and ability to manage one s own emotions as well as the ability to be selfmotivated able to feel what others feel and socially skilled Heritability proportion of change in IQ within a population that is caused by hereditary factors 5 or 50 Stereotype Threat Simply being aware of negative stereotypes can result in an individual scoring poorly on intelligence tests Language a system for combining symbols such as words so that unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others Grammar the system of rules governing the structure and use of a language Phonemes the basic units of sound in a language th sh a etc Morphemes The smallest units of meaning within a language playing has 2 play and ing Syntax The system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences Semantics The rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences Pragmatics aspects of language involving the practical ways of communicating with others or the social quotnicetiesquot of language Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language Cognitive Universalism theory that concepts are universal and in uence the development of language Cognitive Reserve The ability of the brain to build and maintain new neurons and the connections between them 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 What is thinking Mental activities that involves processing organizing understanding and communicating information In the brain the process of creating a mental image is almost the opposite of how we see an actual image People in the US often think of a sports car when asked to envision a fun fast form of travel In this example a sports car would be considered a prototype What method of problem solving guarantees a solution Algorithm What type of PS strategy would be best if you are giving directions to a coffee shop that you are currently at Work backward from the goal If you suddenly realize a solution to a problem as if it just popped in your head Insight Using a trash bag as a makeshift rain jacket while it is pouring Overcoming Functional Fixedness Ignoring websites that are skeptical of his belief and only visits sites that support his belief Confirmation Bias As many uses as possible for a piece of paper what type of thinking is being used Divergent Which is the best way to encourage divergent creative thinking Go for a walk or engage in some other automatic activity In Gardner s view effective counseling psychologists and managers would likely be high in interpersonal intelligence According to Sternberg which type of intelligence has a low relationship to academic success and would be the most difficult to measure in a classroom Practical Intelligence By what age do IQ scores start to become meaningless 16 Olivia is 4 a very young child Which intelligence test would be used to determine her IQ WPPSIIV To validate the test the teacher should be careful to do which of the following Strive to make sure the test measures what it is supposed to measure In terms of differing cultures what should be the goal of every test designer To create a test that is culturally fair Kyle is unable to take care of himself in any area of his life Profound intellectual disability Lewis Terman s study provided evidence that individuals with high IQ s show little to no signs of mental illness or adjustment problems What was the difference between the 100 most successful and least successful men in Terman s study The successful men had clearly defined goals and more motivation to achieve them What do some researchers argue is a more accurate means of gauging success in relationships and careers Emotional Intelligence Stereotype threat example Joaquim who believes IQ tests are unfair to Hispanics something that his IQ score seems to re ect The basic units of sound in a language are known as Phonemes According to Noam Chomsky what is a language acquisition device A biological element that allows us to learn language innate language 24 Researchers believe that up to the age of 9 months individuals possess the ability to understand phonemes of all languages 2 5 Vygotsky believed that language helps to develop concepts Whereas Piaget believed that concepts must be developed first if language is to follow Heath Fienman 10614 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 6 Notes Memory Memory System that senses organizes alters stores and retrieves information Hippocampus Essential to formation of new memories What is Memory Encoding Converting environmental and mental stimuli into memorable brain codes Storage Holding on to encoded information computer hard drive Retrieval Pulling information from storage Short term Unrehearsed information is lost in about 15 to 30 seconds Sensory All info lost Within a second or so Long term Info retained indefinitely although some info may be difficult to retrieve Sensory Memory Capacity large Many memories but very brie y can t store it all 25 iconicvisual 4 echoicsounds seconds Sperling 1960 Capacity of Iconic memory Attention is key Must encode for it to go into short term memory Shortterm Working Memory Capacity Magic number 7 plus or minus 2 bits of information Duration 30 seconds or more unless effort is made to store to longterm 2 goals Hold for brief period of time OR to store move to longterm memory Automatic and effortful Maintenance and elaborative rehearsal Repetition and distinction causes individuals to be more likely to remember Chunking Breaking down large groups of information into smaller subgroups to help remember Encoding Meaning Structural Shallow 0 Phonemic Intermediate 0 Semantic Deep Serial Position Effect 0 First and last words will be remembered more easily 0 Primacy items heard first are more likely to be remembered 0 Recency items heard last most recent Working Memory 0 Holding and manipulating information 0 Mental work space Longterm memory 0 Capacity large unlimited 0 Duration years 0 Goal retrieval 0 Decay not utilizing for a while causes you to forget info but is still there Types of Information 0 Procedural Implicit not using conscious awareness to activate how to tie shoe driving MOTOR SKILLS 0 Declarative Explicit Requires conscious effort 0 Semantic facts and general knowledge 0 Episodic events in life personally experienced Encoding Specificity 0 Retrieval cues 0 Context dependent time location environment all play roles 0 State dependent internal state emotions physiology drugs Flashbulb Memories 0 Automatic encoding 0 Emotional content of event Accuracy of Memories 0 Loftus eyewitness testimony 0 Misinformation effect purposely given false information following even to mislead 0 Can create false memories that seem real told by others about event or have seen pictures Forgetting 0 Encoding failure 0 Decay haven t accessed or used info in a while 0 Interference Proactive and Retroactive Amnesia 0 Retrograde difficulty recalling old memories from the past 0 Anterograde difficulty creating new memories 50 first dates Enhancing Memory 0 Make material meaningful elaborative rehearsal 0 Study repeatedly spacing effect 0 Activate retrieval cues Heath Fienman 1 11014 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 11 Notes Stress and Health Stress 0 Physical emotional cognitive and behavioral responses to threatening or challenging events Stressor 0 Cause of stress reaction Distress 0 Effect of undesirable stressors negative events Eustress 0 Effect of desirable stressors positive events Major Life Changes 0 Death of Spouse 100 Life change units 0 Divorce 75 0 Job Loss 47 CUSS College 0 Being Raped and HIV positive 100 Finals Week 90 Financial difficulties 84 0 Fraternity Rush 47 Hassles 0 Daily most of the time 0 Frustrations delays irritations minor disagreements etc 0 Residual ripples from stressors Psychological Stressors 0 Pressure Urgent demand or expectation 0 Uncontrollability traffic 0 Frustration Con ict 0 2 desires goals only one is obtainable 0 ApproachApproach WinWin skiing or beach for vacation 0 ApproachAvoidance must choose or not choose goal With both positive and negative aspects Dentist appointment important for better hygiene but hate the dentist 0 AvoidanceAvoidance Caught between a rock and a hard place Hate math must take either statistics or calculus Fight or Flight Response 0 Automatic physiological reactions in situations that seem threatening to us Automatic Nervous System Sympathetic Division 0 Arouses 0 FightorFlight Parasympathetic 0 Calms 0 Rest and digest ANS Activation 0 Adrenal medulla and secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine 0 Secretion of glutocorticoids HPA Axis 0 Secretion of glutocorticoids Hans Selye General Adaptation Syndrome 0 Body s defense against stress 0 Reaction to any environmental stressor 0 Phase 1 Alarm shock 0 Phase 2 Resistance Normal level of resistance to stress highest in phase 2 0 Phase 3 Exhaustion resistance dies down can lead to illness and sometimes even death Stress and Immune System 0 Bone Marrow B Kill Bacteria 0 Thymus Gland T Kills Viruses and Cancer cells 0 Microphage Ingests harmful invaders and debris Stress and Disease 0 Heart Disease coronary 0 Cancer Suicide 0 3rd leading cause of death in adolescents in USA 0 Highest Rate Elderly White Males Stress Appraisal 0 Lazarus and Folkman 1984 PersonEnvironment relationship 0 Primary Appraisal What is at stake 0 Secondary Appraisal What can I do about it Coping 0 Mastering tolerating or reducing stressor effects ProblemFocused eliminate or reduce source of stress by direct action EmotionFocused change how one feels or reacts emotionally Stress and Personality Type A Ambitious time conscious hardworking often hostile Type B Relaxed less competitive slow to anger Type C pleasant unlikely to express negative emotion Hardy Thrives on stress but lacks anger hostility of Type A Commitment control challenges Optimists Expect positive outcomes Pessimists Expect negative outcomes Become an optimistic thinker 1 Stop and think 2 Recognize negative statements 3 Challenge those negative thoughts Stress and Social Factors Poverty Work stress Burnout Acculturation Acculturative Stress From need to adapt to one s ways to that of majority culture Integration Successfully combines the 2 cultures maintaining birth culture and living culture Assimilation Gives up old culture and takes on new culture completely Separation Individual completely rejects the NEW culture and stays with old culture Marginalization Fringe of both cultures don t know where they belong Dealing with Stress Preventing and Managing Preventing Planning organizing time management self care resources buffering Managing Stop and think selfcalming techniques deep breathing relaxation techniques yoga prayer meditation and visual imagery Heath Fienman 1 11014 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 11 Vocabulary Stress and Health 1 Stress The term used to describe the physical emotional cognitive and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging 2 Stressors Events that cause a stress reaction 3 Distress The effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors 4 Catastrophe An unpredictable largescale event that creates a tremendous need to adept and adjust as well as overwhelming feelings of threat 5 Eustress The effect of positive events The optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and wellbeing 6 Social Readjustment Rating Scale SRRS Assessment that measures the amount of stress in a person s life over a 1 year period resulting from major life events 7 College Undergraduate Stress Scale CUSS Assessment that measures the amount of stress in a college student s life over a 1 year period resulting from major life events 8 Hassles The daily annoyances of everyday life 9 Pressure The psychological experience produced by urgent demands or expectations for a person s behavior that come from an outside source 10 Frustration The psychological experience produced by the blocking of a desired goal or fulfillment of a perceived need 11 Aggression Actions meant to harm or destroy 12 Displaced Aggression Taking out one s frustrations on some less threatening or more available target a form of displacement 13 Escape Withdrawal Leaving the presence of a stressor either literally or by psychological withdrawal into fantasy drug abuse or apathy 14 ApproachApproach Con ict Con ict occurring when a person must choose between two desirable goals 15 Avoidanceavoidance con ict Con ict occurring when a person must choose between two undesirable goals 16 Approachavoidance con ict Con ict occurring when a person must choose or not choose a goal that has both positive and negative aspects 17 Double approachavoidance con ict Con ict in which the person must decide between two goals with each goal possessing both positive and negative aspects 18 Multiple approachavoidance con ict Con ict in which one must choose between options that have both many attractive and many negative aspects 19 General Adaptation Syndrome GAS The 3 stages of the body s physiological reaction to stress including alarm resistance and exhaustion 20 Immune System The system of cells organs and chemicals of the body that responds to attacks from diseases infections and injuries 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Psychoneuroimmunology The study of effects of psychological factors such as stress emotions thoughts and behavior on the immune system Type 2 Diabetes Excessive weight gain and occurs when pancreas insulin levels become less efficient as the body size increases Natural Killer NK Cell Immune system cell responsible for suppressing viruses and destroying tumor cells Primary Appraisal The first step in assessing stress which involves estimating the severity of a stressor and classifying it as either a threat or a challenge Secondary Appraisal The second step in assessing a threat which involves estimating the resources available to the person for coping with the stressor Type A Personality Person who is ambitious time conscious extremely hardworking and tends to have high levels of hostility and anger as well as being easily annoyed Type B personality Person who is relaxed and laidback less driven and competitive than Type A and slow to anger Type C personality Pleasant but repressed person who tends to internalize his or her anger and anxiety and who finds expressing emotions difficult Hardy personality A person who seems to thrive on stress but lacks the anger and hostility of the Type A personality Optimist People who expect positive outcomes Pessimists People who expect negative outcomes Burnout Negative changes in thoughts emotions and behavior as a result of prolonged stress or frustration Acculturative Stress Stress resulting from the need to change and adapt a person s ways to the majority culture SocialSupport System The network of family friends neighbors coworkers and other who can offer support comfort or aid to a person in need ProblemFocused Coping Coping strategies that try to eliminate the source of a stress or reduce its impact through direct actions EmotionFocused Coping Coping strategies that change impact of a stressor by changing the emotional reaction to the stressor Meditation Mental series of exercises meant to refocus attention and achieve translike state of consciousness Concentrative Meditation Form of meditation in which a person focuses the mind on some repetitive or unchanging stimulus so that the mind can be cleared of disturbing thoughts and the body can experience relaxation Heath Fienman 102914 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 12 Notes Social Psychology Social Psychology 0 Scientific study of how we think about in uence and relate to one another 0 Herman Melville We cannot live for ourselves alone Applications 0 Business IndustrialOrganizational Politics 0 Education Norms 0 Rules about how to act Roles 0 Parts you play in life Culture 0 Program of shared rules that govern a community or society 0 Also includes values and belief systems Conformity 0 Adjusting one s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard 0 Behavior is contagious modeled by one and followed by another 0 Asch 1955 Group pressure and conformity compare standard line and comparison line if group of people choose wrong line the subject is more likely to also go with the group and choose the wrong line 0 An in uence resulting from one s willingness to accept others opinions about reality Conditions that strengthen conformity 0 One is made to feel incompetent insecure 0 Group has at least 3 people 0 Group is unanimous 0 One admires group s status 0 One has no prior commitment or response 0 Group observes one s behavior 0 One s culture strongly encourages respect for a social standard 0 Video of conformity Groupthink 0 Desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives 0 Tendency to ignore or discredit info contrary to group s position 0 Stereotyping of out group members 0 Feelings of invulnerability 0 Belief that group is always right 0 Strong pressure to conform Compliance 0 People change behavior due to someone else asking or telling them to change 0 Consumer psychology Footinthedoor Asks for something small if compliance occurs larger request is then asked 2 Doorintheface Person asks for something big you say no person then asks you to at least do something smaller 3 Lowball Require commitment and then explain cost dirty 4 That snotall Offer more Obedience 0 Compliance due to perceived authority of asker 0 Request perceived as command 0 Stanley Milgram Studied effects of authority on obedience 0 Participants instructed to give electric shocks to another person pretending to be shocked participant told that if person behind curtain answers incorrectly you must shock them more and more every time they answer incorrectly film showed 0 23 administered strongest shock possible even though it appeared to severely hurt person 0 100 administered the light shock to participants 0 RESOLUTION presence of authority figure results in increased obedience Individual Resistance 0 13 of Milgram s subjects resisted social coercion Social Facilitation 0 Other s presence improves performance Social Loafing 0 When working on same task others presence leads to less effort Attitude 0 Tendency to respond positively or negatively to people ideas etc 0 Affective behavioral and cognitive components 0 If we believe a person is mean we may feel dislike for the person and act in an unfriendly manner Persuasion 0 Attempt to change another s attitude via argument explanation etc 0 Source communicator more effective if person is expert or similar to you 0 Message clear and well organized is more persuasive 0 Target audience Know who your audience is tailor the message to the right audience language dress etc Elaboration Likelihood Model 0 Central Route 0 The speaker is clear 0 I am personally interested in the topic 0 I am motivated to apply the speaker s ideas 0 Peripheral Route 0 The speaker seems to be an expert He is neatly dressed I am tired The talk is too long What you get is what you see or how you happen to feel rather than what is actually said O O O 0 Cognitive Dissonance 0 When attitude and behavior con ict 0 To relieve ourselves of this tension we bring our attitudes closes to our actions Festinger 1957 0 Or change our behavior as a result Attribution Theory 0 Heider 1958 0 We tend to give causal explanations for someone s behavior 0 The situation OR the person s disposition Fundamental Attribution Error 0 Overestimate the impact of personal disposition internal 0 Underestimate the impact of the situation external when analyzing others Effects of Attribution 0 How we explain someone s behavior 0 Affects how we react to it 0 Negative behavior Dispositional Less favorable reaction 0 Situational understanding more favorable reaction Social Categorization 0 Stereotype 0 Prejudice internal 0 Discrimination behavior Robber s Cave 0 Boys assigned to one of three groups competing with each other 1 Withingroup solidarity 2 Negative stereotyping of other group 3 Hostile between group interactions Coming out of the Cave 0 Overcoming prejudice through 0 Equal status contact 0 Common goals intergroup dependence 0 OneonOne interactions Rules of Attraction 0 Interpersonal Attraction liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person 0 Factors Proximity Similarity Reciprocity Sternberg Model of Love Triangular model 0 Intimacy 0 Passion physical attraction 0 Commitment 0 Love can be predicted by how many corners are evident in relationship Stanford Prison Experiment Zimbardo 1971 0 Investigated the power of roles males 0 Social role pattern of expected behavior in a particular social situation 0 Assigned subjects to role of prisoner or guard Power of the Individual 0 The power of social in uence is enormous but so is the power of the individual Altruism 0 An unselfish regard for the welfare of others Bystander Effect 0 Likelihood of a bystander helping decreases as the number of bystanders increases Heath Fienman 1 11214 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 13 Notes Personality Personality Individual s characteristic way of thinking feeling and acting Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud Patients suffering from nervous disorders Symptoms could not be explained in terms of physical causes Clinical experience led to First Personality Theory Freud s Psychoanalytic Theory ID Structure of the mind Psychosexual stages In uence of early experiences Structure of the Mind ID Unconscious psychic energy motivated by basic drives EGO Executive Mediator SUPEREGO Internalized ideals what we want 0 Conscious mind 0 Preconscious outside awareness but accessible 0 Unconscious mind Unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives or urges Operates on the pleasure principle demanding immediate gratification I want to go out and party and get drunk Devil on shoulder Superego O O O O Ego O 0 Provides standards for judgment conscious Standards for future aspirations What would your grandmother think Angel on shoulder Functions as executive Mediates demands of ID and Superego Defense mechanisms Psychosexual Stages 0 ID s pleasureseeking energies focused on pleasure sensitive body areas 0 Fixation when child does not move through stage appropriately Oral Stage 0 First stage first year 0 Mouth Erogenous Zone 0 Weaning is primary con ict Anal Stage 0 1 to 3 years 0 Toilet training con ict 0 Expulsive messy hostile vs retentive neat stubborn personalities Phallic Stage 0 3 to 6 years 0 Sexual feelings 0 Oedipus Complex Electra complex for girls A boy s sexual desire for his mother and hatred for his father who is viewed as a rival 0 Identification Child copes with threatening impulses by repressing them and becoming more like rival parent Superego gains strength that incorporates parents values Latency Stage 0 6 to puberty Sexual feelings repressed 0 Samesex play Social skills Genital Stage 0 Puberty adolescence 0 Sexual feelings are consciously expressed Fixation 0 Unresolved psychosexual stage con ict 0 Stuck in stage and retains relevant personality characteristics and behaviors Defense Mechanisms 0 Ego s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality 0 Examples repression regression rationalization sublimation Behaviorist View 0 Define personality as a set of learned habits or responses SocialCognitive View 0 Emphasize importance of others behaviors and own expectations Albert Bandura Personality is result of interaction between person and social context Reciprocal Determinism Internal Cognitive Factors Thoughts and feelings about risky activities Environmental Factors bungeejumping friends Behavior Learning to bungee jump Bandura SelfEfficacy perception of one s competence in certain situations Humanism Focus on traits that make people uniquely human Carl Rogers SelfActualizing tendency Sense of self Unconditional Positive Regard Conditional Positive Regard I like you when you behave the way I want you to SelfConcept 0 Actual RealSelf One s perception of actual characteristics traits and abilities O IdeaSelf What one should or would like to be 0 Congruence Match of real and ideal self Match Harmony Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Lower level needs must be met before going to the next Bottom of pyramid Physiological needs Safety needs Belonging needs Esteem needs Selfactualization Top of pyramid Being needs Trait Theories Describe characteristics for purpose of prediction Trait a consistent enduring way of thinking feeling or behaving Gordon Allport Listed 200 traits believed to be part of nervous system Cattel Reduced number of traits between 16 and 23 The Big 5 Theory OCEAN U PP Pi OpenClosed ConscientiousUndirected ExtravertedIntroverted AgreeableDisagreeable NeuroticStable Biology and Personality 0 Behavior Genetics study of heredity and personality 0 Selective breeding of animals leading to predictable temperaments Twin and Adoption Studies 0 Identical have stronger correlation is trait similarities compared to fraternal twins 0 Video of twins 0 Strong biological component Personality Assessment 0 Interviews 0 Structured or unstructured Psychoanalytic Proj ective Tests 0 Evaluate personality from unconscious mind s perspective 0 Aim to reveal unconscious material Thematic Apperception Test TAT 0 What is happening in the picture in their opinion 0 Mostly sexual aggressive content Rorschach Inkblot Test 0 10 inkblot cards 0 Interpret what you see in the inkblot Behavioral Assessment 0 Direct observation 0 Clinical or natural settings 0 Rating scale 0 Frequency count Humanism Assessment Rogers 0 Ask people to describe how they see themselves real self and how they would like to be ideal self 0 Evaluate similarity of descriptions for congruence or incongruence Assessing Traits 0 Personality inventories Response format yes no cant decide etc 0 16PF Cattell 0 NEOPI Big 5 0 MMPIII Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory most widely used in research and clinical setting True or False Personality Tests on the Internet 0 Questionable reliability and validity 0 Lack of professional interpretation Heath Fienman 1 11214 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 13 Vocabulary Theories of Personality 1 Personality The unique and relatively stable ways in which people think feel and E U 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 behave Character Value judgments of a personas moral and ethical behavior Temperament The enduring characteristics with which each person is born Unconscious Mind level of the mind in which thoughts feelings memories and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness Id Part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious Pleasure Principle Principle by which the id functions the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences Ego Part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality mostly conscious rational and logical Reality Principle Principle by which the ego functions the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result Super Ego Part of the personality that acts as a moral center Conscience Part of the superego that produces pride or guilt depending on how acceptable the behavior is Psychological Defense Mechanisms Ways of dealing with anxiety through unconsciously distorting one s perception of reality Fixation disorder in which the person does not fully resolve the con ict in a particular psychosexual stage resulting in personality and behavior associated with that earlier stage Psychosexual Stages Five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child Oral Stage First stage occurring in the first year of life in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary con ict Anal Stage second stage occurring from about 1 to 3 years of age in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of con ict Phallic stage third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age in which the child discovers sexual feelings Oedipus complex situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the oppositesex parent and jealousy of the samesex parent Electra Complex Girls target their father and the mother is the rival Latency Fourth stage occurring during the school years in which sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways Psychoanalysis Freud s term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it NeoFreudians Follower of Freud who developed their own competing psychodynamic theories Personal Unconscious Jung s name for the unconscious mind as described by Freud Collective Unconscious Jung s name for the memories shared by all members of the human species Archetypes Jung s collective universal human memories 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Basic Anxiety Anxiety created when a child is born into the bigger and more powerful world of older children and adults Neurotic Personalities Personality types that have maladaptive ways of dealing with relationships in Horney s theory Habits In behaviorism sets of welllearned responses that have become automatic Social Cognitive Learning Theorists Theorists who emphasize the importance of both the in uences of other people s behavior and a person s own expectancies of learning Social Cognitive View Learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipating judging memory and imitation of models Reciprocal Determinism Bandura s explanation of how the factors of environment personal characteristics and behavior can interact to determine future behavior SelfEfficacy Individual s expectancy of how effective his or her efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any particular circumstance Locus of Control The tendency for people to assume that they either have control or do not have control over events and consequences in their lives Expectancy A person s subjective feeling that particular behavior will lead to a reinforcing consequence Humanistic Perspective the quotthird forcequot in psychology that focused on those aspects of personality that makes people uniquely human such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice SelfActualization Tendency The striving to fulfill one s innate capacities and capabilities SelfConcept The image of oneself that develops from interactions with important significant people in one s life Self Archetype that works with ego to manage other archetypes and balance the personality Positive Regard Warmth affection love and respect that come from significant others in one s life Unconditional Positive Regard Positive regard that is given without conditions or strings attached Conditional Positive Regard Positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish Fully Functioning Person A person who is in touch with and trusting if the deepest innermost urges and feelings Trait Theories Theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make human personality in an effort to predict future behavior Trait A consistent enduring way of thinking feeling or behaving Surface Traits Aspects of personality that can easily be seen by other people in the outward actins of a person Source Traits The more basic traits that underlie the surface traits forming the core of personality Introversion Dimension of personality In which people tend to withdraw from excessive stimulation FiveFactor Model Big Five Model of personality traits that describes five basic trait dimensions Openness openness one of the five factors willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 conscientiousness the care a person gives to an organization and thoughtfulness of others dependability Extraversion dimension of personality referring to one39s need to be with other people extraverts people who are outgoing and sociable Introverts people who prefer solitude and dislike being the center of attention Agreeableness the emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing friendly and likeable to grumpy crabby and unpleasant Neuroticism degree of emotional instability or stability TraitSituation Interaction The assumption that the particular circumstances of any given situation will in uence the way in which a trait is expressed Behavioral Genetics Field of study devoted to discovering the genetic bases for personality characteristics Heritability How much some trait within a population can be attributed to genetic in uences and the extent individual genetic variation impacts differences in observed behavior Halo Effect tendency of an interviewer to allow positive characteristics of a client to in uence the assessments of the clients behavior and statements Projective Tests personality assessments that present ambiguous visual stimuli to the client and ask the client and ask the client to respond with whatever comes to mind Rorschach inkblot test projective test that uses ten inkblots as the ambiguous stimuli Thematic Apperception Test TAT projective test that uses 20 pictures of people in ambiguous situations as the visual stimuli Subjective referring to concepts and impressions that are only valid within a particular persons perception and may be in uenced by bias prejudice and personal experiences Direct Observation assessment in which the professional observes the client engaged in ordinary daytoday behavior in either a clinical or natural setting Rating scale assessment in which a numerical value is assigned to a specific behavior that is listed in the scale Frequency count assessment in which the frequency of a particular behavior is counted Personality inventory paper and pencil or computerized test that consists of statement that require a specific standardized response from the person taking the test Heath Fienman 1 1 17 14 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 14 Notes Psychological Disorders Early Treatment of Mental Illnesses 0 Ancient times evil spirits released by trephining 0 Hippocrates mental illness arose from imbalance of body uids 0 Middle ages mentally ill labeled as Witches Psychological Disorders 0 What is the difference between normal and abnormal 0 Easy answer It s complex With a continuum in the middle What is Abnormal Statistically rare Social norm deviance Subjective discomfort Inability to function 0 Danger to self others Abnormality 0 Frequency 0 Intensity 0 Duration 3 aspects of human functioning 0 Thoughts 0 Feelings 0 Behaviors Medical Model 0 Etiology cause and development of a disorder 0 Diagnosis Identifying symptoms and distinguishing one disorder from another Biological Model 0 Behavior is caused by biological changes in chemical structural or genetic systems of the body Psychological Models 0 Psychodynamic 0 Behavioral 0 Cognitive Sociocultural Perspective 0 Cultural Relativity important to consider individual s cultural background to diagnose and treat 0 Cultural syndromes 0 Cultural idioms of distress 0 Cultural explanations perceived cause Classifying Disorders 0 DSM5 2013 0 250 disorders 0 Symptoms 0 Typical Course 0 Nothing involving treatment Anxiety Disorders 0 Feelings of excessive apprehension or anxiety Social Anxiety Disorder 0 Fear of social situations 0 Fear of performance situations 0 Humiliation Embarrassment concerns Specific Phobias 0 Fear of an object or situation 0 Excessive 0 Unreasonable 0 Impairs daily life Common Phobias 0 Agoraphobia fear of open places 0 Acrophobia Fear of heights 0 Hemophobia fear of Blood Panic Disorder 0 Discrete episodes of intense dread 0 Panic attacks last about 10 minutes Physiological symptoms 0 Cognitive symptoms Agoraphobia 0 Anxiety about being in open or public places 0 Escape concerns 0 Panic attack concern 0 Avoidance Generalized Anxiety Disorder 0 Persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension 0 Worry about almost everything all or most of the time Film video clip 0 Goes into detail about anxieties Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 0CD 0 Persistent unwanted thoughts obsessions 0 Persistent unwanted behaviors compulsions 0 Repetitive ritualistic behaviors Trauma and Stressorrelated Disorders 0 Acute stress disorder 0 Diagnosed up to 1 month after event 0 Posttraumatic stress disorder 0 More than 1 month after event Stress disorders 0 Exposure to a traumatic event 0 Intense fear helplessness horror etc 0 Haunting memories nightmares 0 Social Withdrawal 0 Jumpy anxiety 0 Sleep problems Mood Disorders 0 Disturbance in mood or affect Range of emotion 0 A person with a mood disorder experiences emotions that are extreme and therefore abnormal Major Depressive Disorder Depression 0 Anhedonia lack of pleasure 0 Depressed mood 0 Sleep and or appetite disturbances 0 Feelings of worthlessness guilt 0 Fatigue Poor concentration 0 Suicidal thoughts and behaviors Dysthymia 0 Chronic low mood 0 Longer duration lower intensity than major depression Manic Episode 0 Expansive elated mood 0 Irritability 0 In ated selfesteem 0 Increased energy pressured speech 0 Reduced need for sleep 0 Increased excessive activity Bipolar Disorder 0 Manic and Depressive episodes 0 Shifts in mood 0 Film Psychologists discuss mood disorders Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa 0 Refusal to maintain normal body weight lt85 of expected body weight 0 Intense fear of weight gain 0 Distorted selfevaluation 0 Amenorrhea Reproduction in women or menstruation halts when body weight is too low Bulimia Nervosa 0 Episodes of overeating followed by compensatory behaviors 0 Vomiting laxative use excessive exercising fasting 0 Typically normal or above normal weight Body Image 0 Western cultures tend to place more emphasis on a thin body image than do other cultures Dissociative Disorders 0 Break in conscious awareness memory and a split sense of identity 0 Dissociative Amnesia memory loss for personal info related to traumatic event 0 Dissociative Fugue travel from familiar surroundings to new unfamiliar places after traumatic event Dissociative Identity Disorder 0 Person seems to have 2 or more distinct personalities 0 Traumatic events 0 Core personality original 0 Alter personalities 0 Blackouts Schizophrenia 0 A group of chronic severe disorders 0 Onset late adolescence early adulthood 0 Affects l in 100 people worldwide approximately 24 million 0 Psychosis out of touch with reality 0 Disorganized thinking 0 Inappropriate emotions and behavior 0 Positive Symptoms excesses of or additions to normal behavior observable 0 Ex Delusions unshakable false beliefs and Hallucinations disturbed perceptions Negative Symptoms less than or an absence of normal behavior Ex poor attention Flat Affect no emotion and Poor speech production Video Young man diagnosed with Schizophrenia Categories Disorganized Hallucinations confused speech inappropriate emotion social impairments Catatonic Periods of statuelike immobility mixed with bursts of wild agitated movement and talking Paranoid Delusions of persecution grandeur and jealousy together with hallucinations Biological Explanations Reductions in dopamine reduces positive symptoms Similar rate worldwide Genetic similarity increases risk gt50 chance that if one identical twin has Schizophrenia there is a chance that the other will develop it as well Fraternal twins approximately 20 Schizophrenia patients may exhibit morphological changes in the brain like enlargement of uidfilled ventricles Personality Disorders In exible and enduring behavior patterns Impairment in social functioning Typically without depression anxiety or delusions Antisocial Personality Disorder Lack of morals or conscience for wrongdoing Impulsive Lack regard for consequences Do not learn from previous experiences Formerly known as sociopath or psychopath Often end up going to jail for criminal ways Borderline Personality Disorder Moody Unstable and unclear sense of identity Clings to others yet pushes them away Heath Fienman 1 1 17 14 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 14 Vocabulary Psychological Disorders 1 Psychopathology The study of abnormal behavior and psychological dysfunction 2 Situational Context social or environmental setting of a person s behavior that makes a difference in how behavior or thinking is labeled 3 Subjective Discomfort emotional distress while engaging in a particular behavior or thought process 4 Maladaptive person finds it hard to adapt to demands of day to day living 5 Psychological Disorder Any pattern of behavior or psychological functioning that causes people significant distress causes them to harm themselves or others or harms their ability to function in day to day life 6 Psychodynamic View Hiding problems 7 Behaviorism Learning problems 8 Cognitive Perspective Thinking problems 9 Biopsychosocial perspective All of the above 10 Cognitive Psychologists Study the way people think remember and mentally organize information they see maladaptive functioning as resulting from illogical thinking patterns 11 Sociocultural Perspective abnormal thinking or behavior as well as normal is seen as the product of behavioral shaping within the context of family in uences the social group to which one belongs and the culture within which they both co exist 12 Cultural Relativity the need to consider the unique characteristics if the culture in which the person with a disorder was nurtured to be able to correctly diagnose and treat the disorder 13 Biopsychosocial Model How one accepts a particular culture is of a specific disorder 14 Anxiety Disorders Psychological disorders characterized by distressing persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety 15 Free Floating Anxiety Anxiety that seems to be unrelated to any realistic and specific known factor and it is often a symptom of an anxiety disorder 16 Phobia An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation 17 Social Anxiety Disorder Fear of interacting with others or being in a social situation and is one of the most common phobias that people experience 18 Specific Phobia Irrational fear of some object or specific situation 19 Claustrophobia Fear of being in small enclosed places 20 Acrophobia Fear of heights 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Agoraphobia Fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible should something go wrong Panic Attack A sudden onset of extreme panic with various physical symptoms Panic Disorder an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minuteslong episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain choking or other frightening sensations Generalized Anxiety Disorder an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal Obsessive Compulsive Disorder An anxiety disorder in which a person suffers from recurrent obsessions and or compulsions Acute Stress Disorder he development of severe anxiety dissociative and other symptoms that occurs within one month after exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor e g witnessing a death or serious accident As a response to the traumatic event the individual develops dissociative symptoms Posttraumatic Stress Disorder When the symptoms associated with ASD last for more than 1 month Magnification Tendency to make mountains out of molehills by interpreting situations as being far worse than they actually are All or nothing thinking person believes his or her performance must be perfect or the result will be total failure Overgeneralization a single negative event interpreted as never ending pattern of defeat Minimization giving little or no emphasis to one s successes or positive events and traits Affect Emotion or mood Mood Disorders disturbances in emotion Major Depressive Disorder When a deeply depressed mood comes on fairly suddenly and either seems to be too severe for the circumstances or exists without any external cause for sadness Manic Excessive excitement energy and elation Bipolar Disorder When a person experiences periods of mood that can range from severe depression to manic episodes Anorexia Nervosa Usually young and female reduces eating to the point that their body weight gain is significantly low or less than minimally expected Bulimia Nervosa Person develops a cycle of binging or overeating enormous amounts of food in one sitting and then using inappropriate methods for avoiding weight gain Binge eating disorder Uncontrollable binge eating but differs from bulimia primarily in the way that individuals with binge eating disorders do not purge or use inappropriate methods for avoiding weight gain Dissociative Identity Disorder Person seems to experience at least 2 or more distinct personalities existing in one body 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Schizophrenia a longterm mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought emotion and behavior leading to faulty perception inappropriate actions and feelings withdrawal from reality and personal relationships into fantasy and delusion and a sense of mental fragmentation Psychotic involving a severe break with reality Delusions Disorders in thinking Hallucinations People with Schizophrenia hear voices or see things or people that are not actually there Flat Affect Condition in which person shows little or no emotion Catatonia Both extremes either wildly excessive movement or total lack thereof Positive Symptoms Appear to re ect an excess or distortion of normal functions such as hallucinations or delusions Negative Symptoms Appear to re ect a decrease of normal functions such as poor attention or lack of affect StressVulnerability Model psychological theory that attempts to explain behavior as a predispositional vulnerability together with stress from life experiences Personality Disorders a deeply ingrained and maladaptive pattern of behavior of a specified kind typically manifest by the time one reaches adolescence and causing longterm difficulties in personal relationships or in functioning in society Antisocial Personality Disorder Antisocial personality disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has a longterm pattern of manipulating exploiting or violating the rights of others This behavior is often criminal Borderline personality disorder have relationships with other people that are intense and relatively unstable Heath Fienman 1 124 14 Psych Mon Wed Chapter 15 Notes Treatment and Therapy Two Kinds of Modern Therapy 1 Psychotherapy 0 Insight 0 Action 0 Goals 2 Biomedical 0 Surgical treatment 0 Drugs 0 Electroshock Psychoanalysis Freud 0 Therapy to reveal unconscious con icts 0 Free Association Patients talk about anything that comes to mind 0 Dream Analysis Content re ected What was going on in unconscious 0 Manifest Content Plot story 0 LATENT content Hidden symbolic meaning behind the dream 0 Resistance Reluctance to talk about certain topics 0 Transference feelings about important others projected onto therapist Psychodynamic Therapy 0 Newer form of analysis 0 Shorter treatment 0 More focus on transference PersonCentered Therapy Carl Rogers 0 Nondirective insight oriented 0 Re ective Listening 0 Unconditional positive regard 0 Empathy understand and see point of view of client 0 Genuineness 0 Enhance Congruence Real and ideal self match 0 If intense incongruence occurs person has problem Gestalt Therapy Perls 0 Whole is greater than sum of its parts 0 Goal Client accepts all of self good AND bad 0 Therapist is directive and confrontive 0 Use of techniques role playing empty chair pretend the person the client wants to talk to is in chair think what they would say as a response 0 Leading questions by therapist Behavior Therapy 0 Action therapies focused on behavior change not on the causes 0 Based in Learning Theory operant conditioning 0 Behavior Modification 0 Applied Behavior Analysis observe behavior institute consequence reinforcement or punishment to try and change behavior 0 Token Economy Reinforcers earned and exchanged for desired things 0 Contingency Contract Formal and written agreement on behavioral change reinforcement penalties often involves homework 0 Extinction remove reinforcement reduce undesirable behavior 0 Time out removal from situation that reinforces undesirable behavior Systematic Desensitization 0 Treatment of Phobias 0 Relaxation training 0 Fear hierarchy 0 Progressive exposure Other Behavior Therapies 0 Aversion Therapy undesirable behavior paired with aversive stimulus punishment 0 Flooding Intense inescapable exposure 0 Feared situation or object 0 Something formerly reinforcing Observational Learning 0 Modeling learning by observing and imitating a model 0 Participant Modeling model takes client through step by step process to produce desired behavior CognitiveBehavioral Therapy 0 Change the way client thinks this will change their behavior 0 Learning to think more rationally and logically Three Goals 1 Relieve symptoms and solve problems 2 Develop strategies for solving future problems 3 Help change irrational distorted thinking Cognitive Distortions 0 Arbitrary Interference Jumping to conclusions without any evidence 0 Selective Thinking Person focuses on only one aspect usually main negative of the situation and ignoring the others 0 OverGeneralization Sweeping conclusions based on only one incident 0 Magnify Negative events blown out of proportion 0 Minimize Positive events ignored 0 Personalization Assuming too much personal responsibility RationalEmotive Therapy Ellis 0 A type of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 0 Irrational beliefs challenge and restructured 0 Directive and confrontational 0 Not event but result is what makes client feels bad Group Therapy 0 Therapy Groups offer social and emotional support lower cost similar concernssymptoms 0 SelfHelp Groups No professional Facilitator 0 Family Couples Therapy Address problems together and do not blame 1 individual solely Eclectic Therapy 0 Therapy combines elements of different therapeutic techniques 0 Allows for personalization depending on the specific client Biomedical Therapies 0 Affect biological functioning of body and brain 0 Psychopharmacology use of drugs to relieve symptoms of disorders Antianxiety Medications 0 Depress Central Nervous system and elevate levels of the NT GABA Antidepressant Medications 0 Treat depression and anxiety 0 MAOI s 0 Tricyclic 0 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Increase 0 SSRI s elevate mood by elevating levels of Serotonin by reducing reuptake 0 Prozac Zoloft Paxil etc Medication Treatment Mania 0 Lithium common salt 0 Highly effective in reducing manic symptoms Antipsychotic Medications 0 Treat psychotic symptoms 0 Example Clozapine blocks NT receptors to reduce Schizophrenia symptoms 0 Excess of Dopamine in Schizophrenia 0 Reduces some positive symptoms hallucinations delusions 0 In mid 1950 s this medication rapidly declined the mental hospital population Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT 0 Treatment of severe depression 0 Electric current passed through brain using electrodes Psychosurgery 0 Surgery on the brain tissue to relieve severe psychological disorders 0 Prefrontal Lobotomy Connections between prefrontal lobe and rest of brain severed Heath Fienman 102014 Psych Mon Wed Cognition Cognition 0 Mental activity for organizing understanding and communicating Concepts 0 Ideas representing a class or a category Problem Solving 0 Trial and error guess and check Algorithms step by step guaranteed solution Heuristics effective rule of thumb 0 Insight solution appears suddenly in front of your eyes Barriers to Problem Solving 0 Functional Fixedness Consider only typical uses of an object 0 Mental Set Persist in using technique that worked in the past 0 Confirmation Bias looking for info that fits are preconceived beliefs not being openminded Creativity 0 Convergent Problem has only 1 possible solution utilizes previous knowledge and Divergent Think and look at all the possible solutions Thinking Intelligence 0 The ability to learn from experience acquire new knowledge and adapt to new situations Charles Spearman 66 9 0 g factor general intelligence Ability to reason and solve problems 0 Underlies intelligent behavior 0 s factor Specific intelligence 0 Ability to excel in a particular area Thurstone Primary Mental abilities 0 Verbal Fluency Comprehension 0 Spatial ability 0 Perceptual speed 0 Numerical ability 0 Inductive reasoning 0 Memory Gardner 0 Theory of multiple intelligences Verballinguistic logicalmathematical visualspatial musical movement intrapersonal interpersonalothers naturalist existentialist 0 Supports idea that intelligence comes in various forms 0 Savant Syndrome Person with mental disability is exceptional in a certain area Sternberg s Triarchic Theory 0 Analytical break problems down into components 0 Creative deal with novel problems in new ways 0 Practical using information for success in life Alfred Binet 0 With T Simon created first intelligence test for use in Paris schools Lewis Terman 0 Adapted Binet s test for use with American students 0 StanfordBinet Test 0 IQ mental age chronological age X 100 David Wechsler 0 WAISIV adults 0 WISCIV children Assessing Intelligence 0 Assess individual s mental aptitudes 0 Compare individuals with others using numerical scores Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 0 Overall intelligence IQ score 0 Verbal and performance IQ scores 0 Clinical and educational uses Principles of Test Construction 0 Reliability 0 Validity 0 Standardization Reliability 0 Consistency of results Validity 0 Does the test measure what it is supposed to measure Standardization 0 Representative sample of future test takers 0 Norms establish a basis for meaningful comparison Stability or change 0 IQ scores become stable after about age 7 r 66 Environmental Effects 0 Differences in intelligence among racial groups are largely environmental 0 Variation within a group occurs Extremes of Intelligence 0 Mental Retardation 70 or below 2 standard deviations below and significant limitations in adaptive functioning 0 Genius 130 or above Genetic In uences 0 Research suggests significant genetic contribution to intelligence 0 Higher correlation between children and birth parents over children and adoptive parents Aptitude Tests 0 Intended to predict ability to learn SAT Achievement Tests 0 Intended to re ect what you already learned Language 0 Morphemes smallest units in language that carry meaning 0 Phonemes basic units of sound such as th 0 Grammar Rules or structure of a language 0 Syntax system for grammatically correct sentences 0 Semantics meaning 0 Pragmatics communicating with others Animal Language 0 No definitive answer but depends on stimulus 0 Video of animals communicating with each other using symbols Heath Fienman 102214 Psychology Mon Wed 300 Developmental Psychology Research Design in Developmental Psychology CrossSectional 0 Different groups compared at one time 0 EX In 2014 a 20 30 and 40 year old are all looked at 0 Not expensive 0 Downside Results differences cannot be determined as 100 accurate due to differences in age Cohort effect Longitudinal 0 Same group compared at different times 0 In 1994 20 year olds are looked at In 2004 those same people now age 30 are looked at 0 Very costly 0 Attrition Can t get a hold of previous participants CrossSequential 0 Subjects of different ages are compared at several points in time 0 Combination of the first 2 Genetics and Development 0 DNA molecule containing organism s genetic materialchemical elements amines 0 Gene section of DNA certain sequence of amines 0 Located on chromosomes 0 Dominant and Recessive Genes Prenatal Development 0 2 types of twins 0 Monozygotic 0 One egg one sperm egg divides 0 Infants of same sex have identical features and same set of 46 chromosomes 0 Dizygotic O 2 eggs 2 sperm 0 No more genetically similar than other siblings Critical Periods 0 Times during which environmental events can have an impact or on development Teratogens shows film 0 Environmental agents that can cause deviations in development 0 Serious abnormalities ex FAS Newborn Re exes Adaptive 0 Nourishment 0 Connect with caregivers 0 Avoid harm Instant Re exes 5 survival re exes 1 Stepping 2 Grasping 3 MoroStartle 4 Sucking 5 Rooting Motor Milestones 0 Raising head 2 and 4 months 0 Rolling over 2 and 5 months 0 Sitting up 4 and 6 months 0 Crawling 0 Walking 818 months Developing Brain 0 Increasing complexity of neural networks Stages of Language Development 0 Cooing vowel like sounds 0 Babbling 0 Oneword speech holophrases 0 Telegraphic Speech 18 months 0 Whole Sentences Cognitive Development 0 Piaget s Stage Theory 0 Schemes Concept Framework Organizes and interprets information 0 Assimilation New knowledge incorporated into existing schemas 0 Accommodation New knowledge produces changes in existing schemas Jimmy sees a cat and thinks it s a dog Stage 1 Sensorimotor Stage Birth 2 years Children explore using senses Object Permanence 0 Mental Representation Stage 2 Preoperational Stage 0 Ages 27 0 Egocentrism 0 Magical Thinking 0 Symbolic Function 0 Children don t understand Conservation shows film about 2 glasses of juice which has more Centration and irreversibility Stage 3 Concrete Operational 0 712 years old 0 Conservation exists DeCentration and Reversibility Classification Concrete logic Stage 4 Formal Operational Stage 0 12 years adulthood 0 Abstract Thinking 0 Hypothesis testing What if Cognitive development SocioCultural 0 Vygotsky 0 The novice needs social interaction to improve their skills 0 Zone of Proximal Development 0 The innermost circle represents learned tasks blue circle 0 Tasks beyond the novice s current abilities Outermost green circle 0 Scaffolding Social interaction between novice and expert Temperament 0 Behavioral characteristics established at birth 0 Easy vs Difficult 0 3rd temperament middle Slow to warm up Attachment 0 Strong emotional connection 0 Develops early in life between infants and their caregivers 0 John Bowlby 0 Separation Anxiety 0 Failure to thrive 0 Mary Ainsworth 0 Strange Situation Ainsworth s research paradigm 0 Attachment styles 0 Film Strange Situation Attachment Styles 0 Secure comfortable exploring new areas 0 Insecure O Avoidant willing to explore somewhat do not try to touch base doesn t pay attention to people much O Ambivalent both clingy and resistant inconsistency O Disorganized Harry Harlow Nourishment not more important than contact comfort Harry Harlow Baby monkeys given Wire nourishment and Cloth soft gave care mothers contact comfort Love is a science makes impact on human life Detrimental effects of isolation Erikson Psychosocial Development 8 stages Crisis challenge at each stage Resolution must be reached Optimal vs Not optimal Trust vs Mistrust 0 Birth 1 year 0 Learn to trust or not 0 Regularity of care 0 Love and affection Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt 0 13 years 0 Realize can direct own behavior 0 Learn to express Will and independence 0 Exercise some control and make some choices or doubt self Initiative vs Guilt 0 35 years Challenged to control behavior 0 Begin to initiate activities and complete tasks 0 Enjoy own abilities or feel guilty Industry vs Inferiority 0 512 years 0 Pride in accomplishments or feelings of inferiority Identity vs Role Confusion 0 Adolescence 0 Develop sense of self 0 Form valid identity or confused about Who am I Intimacy vs Isolation 0 Early adulthood 0 Develop ability to share With care for and commit to another or feel isolated Generativity vs Stagnation 0 Middle adulthood 0 Contribute to next generation or feel lack of purpose 0 Generativity focus outward 8 Ego Integrity vs Despair 0 Late adulthood 0 Life review 0 Satisfaction or despairregret Parenting Styles A Authoritarian Parents impose rules and expect obedience dictator 0 Result in low self esteem and bad social skills often B Permissive Give in to children s demands 0 More aggressive immature C Authoritative Parents are demanding but also very responsive and ask for opinions 0 Higher levels of selfesteem more self reliant and usually have pretty good social skills 0 Considered the best parenting style Kohlberg Moral Development 0 The Heinz Dilemma What would you do and why 1 Preconventional consequences determine morality 0 Reward good 0 Punishment bad 2 Conventional 0 Morality involves conforming to society s rules and laws 3 Postconventional 0 Morality decided upon by individual 0 May con ict with society s rules laws Adulthood 0 Early 18 40 s 0 Middle 40 s 65 0 Late 65 70 Physical and Psychological Aging 0 Wear and tear More you use it the more it wears down environmental factors 0 Cellular clock limited number of times our cells can divide until we die 0 Free radical metabolism free radicals cause cellular damage over time which causes aging to occur Heath Fienman 102114 Psych Mon Wed Developmental Psychology Review Questions 1 Free Radical Theory is the theory of aging that states that unstable oxygen 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Studies by Harry Harlow showed that the most important element to developing 21 22 23 molecules tend to steal electrons as they bounce around thus causing damage to surrounding cells Anger is a normal reaction to death and not a sign of mental illness In a Longitudinal design one group of people is followed and assessed at different times as the group ages Cohort Effect The cognitive and social changes students go through because they are born and grow up in an age of smartphones Brandy has naturally blonde hair what do we know about her parents Each of her parents must have the recessive gene for blonde hair Polygenetic Inheritance When sets of genes group together the result can be multiple traits expressed as a single dominant trait Cystic Fibrosis Disorder resulting from recessive inheritance One X chromosome in the 23rd pairing Turner s Syndrome Abby and Brittany Hensel are dicephalic twins What is the function of the placenta It provides nourishment to the developing baby The 2rld week through the 8th week of pregnancy is referred to as the embryonic stage Alcohol is one of the most common teratogens and can result in a malformed head and brain damage When do most miscarriages occur In the first 3 months Habituation Measuring how long infants continue to focus upon a non changing stimulus Touch is well developed for babies at birth Concrete Operations Piaget The ability to conserve Scaffolding Vygotsky The process of helping less as the learner improves at a given task Cooing occurs first in a child s language development According to Thomas and Chess temperament styles often last throughout adulthood and are often in uenced by heredity Ambivalent Attachment Ainsworth attachment is physical contact Erikson Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt sense of independence because of one s ability to control their own actions Changes in the body of young boys such as the appearance and growth of body hair is considered a secondary sex characteristic 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Personal Fable It can t happen to me I m special According to Kohlberg about 15 of the adult population is at the post conventional level or morality According to Erikson the task of adolescence is to find a consistent sense of self Teens who argue with parents social norms like taste in clothes Adults physical peaks in the 20 s Most frequent cause of death in middle age heart disease The primary task of adulthood is finding a mate Baumrind Authoritarian parents would say Because I said so or Its my way or the highway Ego Integrity Content and happy with the way Grandpa s life turned out at 70th birthday party Telomeres Structures on the ends of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell reproduces Cellular Clock Theory Similar to limited number of car repairs until warranty runs out Denial Refuse to write a last will and testament because they believe in doing so they are admitting they are dying soon Heath Fienman 102114 Psych Mon Wed Developmental Psychology Review Questions 1 Free Radical Theory is the theory of aging that states that unstable oxygen 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Studies by Harry Harlow showed that the most important element to developing 21 22 23 molecules tend to steal electrons as they bounce around thus causing damage to surrounding cells Anger is a normal reaction to death and not a sign of mental illness In a Longitudinal design one group of people is followed and assessed at different times as the group ages Cohort Effect The cognitive and social changes students go through because they are born and grow up in an age of smartphones Brandy has naturally blonde hair what do we know about her parents Each of her parents must have the recessive gene for blonde hair Polygenetic Inheritance When sets of genes group together the result can be multiple traits expressed as a single dominant trait Cystic Fibrosis Disorder resulting from recessive inheritance One X chromosome in the 23rd pairing Turner s Syndrome Abby and Brittany Hensel are dicephalic twins What is the function of the placenta It provides nourishment to the developing baby The 2rld week through the 8th week of pregnancy is referred to as the embryonic stage Alcohol is one of the most common teratogens and can result in a malformed head and brain damage When do most miscarriages occur In the first 3 months Habituation Measuring how long infants continue to focus upon a non changing stimulus Touch is well developed for babies at birth Concrete Operations Piaget The ability to conserve Scaffolding Vygotsky The process of helping less as the learner improves at a given task Cooing occurs first in a child s language development According to Thomas and Chess temperament styles often last throughout adulthood and are often in uenced by heredity Ambivalent Attachment Ainsworth attachment is physical contact Erikson Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt sense of independence because of one s ability to control their own actions Changes in the body of young boys such as the appearance and growth of body hair is considered a secondary sex characteristic 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Personal Fable It can t happen to me I m special According to Kohlberg about 15 of the adult population is at the post conventional level or morality According to Erikson the task of adolescence is to find a consistent sense of self Teens who argue with parents social norms like taste in clothes Adults physical peaks in the 20 s Most frequent cause of death in middle age heart disease The primary task of adulthood is finding a mate Baumrind Authoritarian parents would say Because I said so or Its my way or the highway Ego Integrity Content and happy with the way Grandpa s life turned out at 70th birthday party Telomeres Structures on the ends of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell reproduces Cellular Clock Theory Similar to limited number of car repairs until warranty runs out Denial Refuse to write a last will and testament because they believe in doing so they are admitting they are dying soon Heath Fienman 102114 Psych Mon Wed Developmental Psychology Human Development 1 Human Development Scientific study of changes in people as they age from conception until death 2 Longitudinal Design A group of participants are studied over a long period of time Disadvantage Expensive 3 CrossSectional Design A group of different ages study them for a short period of time Disadvantage There is no connection in development 4 Cross Sequential Design Combination of the 2 follow a group of different ages for years 5 Cohort Effect The effects of being born and raised in a particular time or situation where all other members of your group has similar experiences that make your group unique from other groups 6 Nature The in uence of inherited characteristics of personality physical traits IQ and social competence 7 Nurture In uence of the environment including parenting styles physical factors economic factors etc 8 Genetics The science of inherited traits 9 DNA Molecule containing the genetic material for the organism 10 Gene Section of DNA with the same arrangement of chemical elements 11 Chromosomes Rodshaped structures found in the nucleus of a cell humans have 46 12 Dominant What is going to show 13 Recessive What is not going to show but still hold 14 Fertilization Sperm and Ovum meet 15 Ovum egg 16 Zygote The fertilization of an egg 17 Monozygotic identical Twins One zygote splits into 2 separate masses of cell each into separate embryo 18 Dizygotic Twins 2 eggs each get fertilized by 2 different sperm 2 zygotes in uterus at same time 19 Germinal Period First 2 weeks after fertilization 20 Embryo Once attached to uterus the developing organism 21 Embryotic Period 28 weeks after fertilization major organs and structures develop 22 Critical Periods When environmental factors affect pregnancy 23 Teratogen Any factor that can cause a birth defect 24 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS A series of physical and mental defects including stunted growth facial deformities and brain damage 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Fetal Period 8 weeks after conception to birth Cognitive Development The development of thinking problem solving and memory schemas being able to generalize Schemes mental concepts formed by children as they experience new situations and events Sensorimotor Stage The infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with environment Object Permanence Knowing that object will continue to be there is achieved at this stage Preoperational Stage The preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world Egocentrism The world revolves around them Centration Focus on one thing rather than an entire object Conservation Can39t decipher which is more or less ex cups of water is not present at this stage Concrete Operations Stage The School age children become capable of logical though processes but NOT abstract thinking Irreversibility Don t have mental ability to reverse something Formal Operations The adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking Vygotsky s Theory Social interactions play a big role in cognitive development Scaffolding Skilled learner helps someone and begins to reduce the amount of help so learner can soon learn on their own Zone of Proximal Development ZPD the difference between what a child can do with help and what a child can do without any help or guidance Stages of Language Development Cooing babbling oneword speech telegraphic speech whole sentences Temperament Behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth EasyRegular adaptable and happy Difficult Irregular nonadaptable and irritable Slow to Warm Up need to adjust gradually to change Attachment The emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver Secure Attachment Attached to caregiver Avoidant No attachment no bond Ambivalent insecure attachment angry but will go to Disorganizeddisoriented Neglected abused doesn t act very well SelfConcept The image you have of yourself based on your interactions with the important people in your life Stage 1 Trust vs Mistrust Erikson s 1st stage of personality development Infants basic sense of trust or mistrust develops as a result of consistent or inconsistent care Stage 2 Autonomy vs Shame Toddler strives for physical dependence Stage 3 Initiative vs Guilt Preschool aged child strives for emotional and psychological independence and attempts to satisfy curiosity of the world Stage 4 Industry vs Inferiority The adolescent strives for a sense of competence and selfesteem 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Adolescence transition period from childhood to adulthood puberty to legal independence Puberty Period of sexual maturation where person becomes capable of reproduction Personal Fable cognitive distortion in which adolescents believe that they are the focus of everyone else39s attention and concern It is found during the formal operational stage in neoPiagetian theory along with the imaginary audience Feelings of invulnerability are also common Imaginary Audience Extreme selfconsciousness in adolescents Identity vs Role Confusion refining their self by testing roles or become confused about who they are teens to 20 s Menopause time of natural cessation of menstruation the ability to reproduce declines in women around age 50 and can last up to 10 years Andropause Men s version of menopause that is more gradual and less severe begins in the 40 s Intimacy vs Isolation Struggle to form close relationships or feeling socially isolated Young adults 20 s to 40 s Generativity vs Stagnation In middle adulthood 40 s to 60 s a sense of contributing to the world or feeling the lack of purpose Integrity vs Despair satisfaction or failure Authoritative Parenting high control high warmth sets rules but explains reasons and encourages open discussion favored in America Authoritarian high control low warmth impose rules and expect obedience Permissive High warmth low control spoiling Permissive Neglectful aren t involved with children let them do whatever they want until it interferes with what the parent wants Ego integrity Being able to look back on their lives and feel that their lives were relatively full and are able to come to terms with regrets and losses Cellular Clock Theory Cells are limited in the number of times they can reproduce to repair damage Existence of telomeres Structures on the end of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell reproduces When the telomeres get too short cells cannot reproduce and damage accumulates Supports the cellular clock theory supports this theory WearandTear Theory Outside in uences cause aging Organs and cell tissues wear out with repeated use with damage tissues accumulating and producing the effects of aging Collagen example FreeRadical Theory Latest version of the wearandtear theory in that it give an biological explanation for the damage done Free radicals cause the damage As people get older more and more free radicals do more and more damage producing the effects of aging Activity Theory Elderly person adjusts more positively to aging when remaining active in some way Even if can no longer do job can find a place to volunteer to remain active Many elderly people withdraw from activities involuntarily because no longer invited to social activities and included in other people39s lives 7 1 Stages of Death and Dying Main theory is the five stages of reaction When faced With death Elisabeth KiiblerRoss Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Heath Fienman 92214 Psych MW Sensation and Perception BottomUp Processing 0 Analysis of the stimulus begins with sense receptors and works up to the level of the brain and mind No prior knowledge TopDown Processing 0 Info processing guided by higherlevel mental processes as we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations Sensation 0 Detect physical energy stimulus from environment 0 Convert into neural signals 0 Stimulus of receptor sites to neural representation of stimuli 0 Example light waves to visual representation of a ower Perception 0 Select organize and interpret sensations Transduction 0 Process of converting physical energy into neural impulse form Stimulus to sense organ to nerve impulses transduced and sent to cortex for processing Just Noticeable Difference J ND 0 Smallest difference detectable 50 of the time Absolute Threshold 0 Least energy for correct stimulus detection 50 of the time Subliminal Perception 0 Subliminal Stimuli stimuli just below level of conscious awareness Habituation and Sensory Adaptation 0 Habituation Brain stops attending to constant unchanging stimuli cognitive 0 Sensory Adaptation Sensory receptors less response to constant stimuli biological Vision 0 Stimulus Input Light Energy 0 Brightness amplitude of a wave 0 Great amplitude Bright colors loud sounds Hue color determined by wavelength of light 0 Long Wavelength Low frequency red low pitch right 0 Short Wavelength High frequency blue bright high pitch left 0 Different wavelengths result in different colors The eye 0 Fovea Point of central focus 0 Cornea Light enters the eye 0 Iris Color muscle that expands or contracts changes size of pupil 0 Pupil Black center changes size in regard to amount of light entering the eye 0 Lens Focus lightwaves on the retina responsible for changing out ability to see near or far 0 Retina contains sensory receptors that process visual info transduction occurs here 0 Optic Nerve Back of the eye information is sent here to occipital cortex perception takes place upside down Accommodation 0 Eye s lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on retina Fovea 0 Central focus point in retina 0 Contains rods black White grey and cones color vision Blind Spot 0 Absence of receptor cells Where optic nerve leaves back of retina Visual Processing 0 Optic Nerves connect to thalamus 0 Thalamus connects to visual cortex occipital lobe Trichromatic Theory Helmholtz 0 Retina has 3 types of color receptors each sensitive to red green and blue Color Blindness 0 Genetic disorder blindness to red and green 0 Supports 3 color theory 0 Ishihara Test sees if someone is color blind or not OpponentProcess Theory 0 4 primary colors processed combined in pairs 0 Blueyellow red green blackWhite Perception 0 Select organize and interpret sensations Shape Constancy 0 Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change Size Constancy 0 Stable size perception amid changing size of stimuli Color Constancy 0 Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even When changing illumination filters the light re ected by the object Gestalt 0 The Whole is greater than the sum of its parts Depth Perception 0 Enables judgment of distance 0 Gibson and Walk 1960 suggest infants have depth perception Linear Perspective 0 Parallel lines appear to converge come together even though they clearly do not Apparent Motion 0 Phi Phenomenon Lights ashing at certain speed tend present illusions of motion 0 One light jumping from one point to another Illusion of motion Illusion 0 Mismatch between perception and reality Tall Arch 0 Vertical dimension of Arch looks longer than Horizontal dimension 0 But both are equal MullerLyer Illusion 0 More common in industrialized societies 0 Identical lines One looks bigger than other Heath Fienman 82714 Psychology The Science of Psychology Running List of Vocabulary Pages 119 1 Psychology The study of mental processes and behavior 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Objective Introspection William Wundt The process of objectively examining and measuring one s own thoughts and mental activities Structuralism W The structure of the mind society comes before individuals Functionalism William James A psychology based on the assumption that all mental processes are useful to an organism in adapting to the environment Gestalt Psychology Wertheimer A configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts Psychoanalysis Freud Set of underlying techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders unconscious Behaviorism Watson Emphasizes observable measurable behavior Psychodynamic Perspective Emphasize the importance of unconscious mental forces Cognitive Perspective Focuses on particular ways in which the human mind interprets stimuli from the senses and how these interpretations affect behavior Cognitive Neuroscience Academic field concerned with the scientific study of biological substrates underlying cognition with a specific focus on the neural substrates of mental processes Sociocultural Perspective Why humans behave the way that they do Seeks to understand human behavior and personality development by examining the rules of the social groups and subgroups in which the individual is a member Biopsychological Perspective Psychological in uences and factors are the most important factors in developing determining and causing behaviors and mental processes Evolutionary Perspective Studies the mental adaptations of humans to a changing environment especially differences in behavior cognition and brain structure Psychologist Academic degree and specialized training Psychiatrist diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Psychiatric Social Worker Social worker with some training with some training therapy methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders such as poverty stress and drug abuse Basic Research Research focused on adding info to the scientific knowledge base Applied Research Research focused on finding practical solutions to real world problems Chapter 2 Psych Vocab Biological Perspective Biopsychology Heath Fienman 101314 Psych Mon Wed Exam 2 Review Notes Chapters 36 Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception p x opospwn High amplitude translates to a loud sound Low frequency translates to a lowpitched sound Process of converting energy sound waves into neural activity is called transduction The Place Theory states that the location of the particular auditory receptors stimulated determines the perceived pitch of the sound Opponent Process Theory BlueYellow RedGreen Vestibular Sense controls balance Absolute Threshold is the smallest amount of energy that can be detected J ND noticing a change in a stimulus Similarity is the tendency to perceive similar things as being grouped together 10 Interposition is when closer objects block the view of those that are farther away 11 Texture Gradient With progressive distance the texture appears less detailed Chapter 4 Consciousness 1 99 89 Narcolepsy People suddenly fall asleep at random times during the day and during emotional moments Drug Tolerance Condition in which increasingly larger doses are required to produce the same effect Amphetamines stimulants induce arousal Barbiturates depressants induce relaxation Melatonin production is the highest when there is not light REM Sleep muscle activity is blocked Sleep Apnea lost of breath while sleeping Caffeine Stimulant Alcohol Depressant Chapter 5 Learning p x Stimulus Generalization When something similar to the CS still leads to the CR Stimulus Discrimination When a person learns to distinguish between similar stimuli Vicarious Learning Learning by watching the behavior of another and the consequences of that behavior Shaping occurs when one is rewarded for coming closer and closer to a desired behavior 091 9 10 11 Secondary Reinforcer wants if something is rewarding Study Schedules of Reinforcement Law of Effect Repeating a response that one has experienced as rewarding in the past Fixed Ratio Paid after every time she helps a certain number of outcomes specified number of correct responses Fixed Interval Predetermined interval specific time periods passed Variable Interval Random inspections throughout the week random period of time Variable Ratio Paid after a random number of outcomes Chapter 6 Memory r tr CDCgtOCDNLIIbmNb k 0000000 p x l 13 14 15 Episodic memory involves recalling a specific event you experienced Procedural memory involves remembering how to do something Implicit Memory involves involuntary recollection Maintenance Rehearsal repeating the info over and over again Elaborative Becoming involved with the info STM magic number is 7 plus or minus 2 bits of info recalled Chunking involves grouping information Primacy Effect remembering the first items on a list Recency last items Recall Pull info from storage without retrieval cues Proactive Interference Older stored information interferes with learning new information Retroactive Interference New information interferes with remembering old information Anterograde Amnesia Forming new memories or remembering things after incident hippocampus injured was difficult Semantic Encoding Giving meaning to Retrieval Cue Word or phrase that helps an individual remember something that had been forgotten common in recognition such as on multiple choice test Heath Fienman 12114 Psych Mon Wed Exam 4 Review InClass 1 Hassles day to day daily irritations quotpSX N 11 12 13 14 15 16 Frustration Type of event that can cause stress cant achieve What we want or desire ECT Treatment last resort for severe depression after the use of other treatments such as therapy and medication Without any response or success Psychosurgery Frontal Lobotomy sever frontal lobe from rest of brain can have significant effects such as changing someone s personality Reciprocal Determinism Social Cognitive theory proposed by Albert Bandura Our personality is a result of directional in uence of our environment behavior and internal cognitive factors that all impact each other Ego uses defense mechanisms to mediate ID and superego main purpose reduce anxiety Early treatment Trephining Hippocrates Imbalance of body uids Renaissance Witches Rational Emotive Theory Albert Ellis Social Cognitive Event occurs and there is a consequence or response In other words irrational beliefs our feelings are the cause of the consequence When in reality that might not be true 0 Directive and Confrontational Dream analysis Sigmund Freud Human Analysis dreams explore the unconscious 0 Manifest content What the dream seems to be about plot 0 Latent content Hidden or symbolic meaning behind the dream 16PF Cattel Traits Behavioral Theorists Based solely on Learning Theory environment effect is main concern conditioning Social Cognitive People s thinking in addition to the social environment Transference Psychoanalysis Feelings about important others projected onto therapist client typically views therapist as loved one such as parent and therapist Will realize Resistance reluctance to talk about certain topics Heath Fienman 1 124 14 Psych Mon Wed Exam 4 Multiple Choice Chapter 11 1315 Chapter 11 Stress and Health 1 Eustress Coincides with Arousal Theory Optimal amount of stress that people 10 ll 12 l3 14 15 16 need to positively promote their health and sense of wellbeing Primary application of the SRRS Social Readjustment Rating Scale developed by Holmes and Rahe To estimate your risk of illness or having an accident in the near future What does the SRRS use to determine its results Specific positive and negative life events to determine an individual s current level of stress Senior Citizens consider going shopping as stressful daily hassle Pressure Jorge has deadlines and expectations placed on him from school and work making him feel like he always has to do more and to work harder and faster The 1st response that people typically make when they are frustrated Try again ApproachAvoidance One goal or event has both positive and negative factors Alarm The stage of the General Adaptation syndrome is accompanied by activation of the Sympathetic Nervous System Stimulate FightFlight The immune system response to stress is effective as long as the stressor is not continuous or chronic Secondary Appraisal How can I deal with this potentially harmful stressor Type A Rushes and Arrives early easily annoyed Type B Easy going arrives with little time to spare Hostility The key Type A personality component related to heart disease Hardiness Seeing event as challenge rather than a problem Poverty and Job Stress The 2 most prominent social factors in creating stressful living conditions Marginalization Greatest acculturative stress comes from this 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Chapter 13 Theories of Personality Personality You are asked to describe your best friends by explaining how they act feel and what they think about you Unconscious Freud said this was most important in human behavior and personality ID According to Freud this part of the personality is totally buried within each individual Phallic Stage The awakening of sexual curiosity and interest in the genitals Karen Horney NeoFreudian who believed personality was mostly a product of dealing with anxieties during childhood Shadow Carl Jung s theory Archetype of dressing up like devils vampires zombies etc According to the Behavioral Theory personality primarily consists of Learned Responses SelfEfficacy Albert Bandura considers this as a person s expectancy of how effective his or her efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any particular circumstance Carl Roger s Fully Functioning Person Someone who is experiencing a match between his real and ideal self and who is also trusting of their innermost intuitions and urges Trait theories are less concerned with changing personality and more concerned with predicting personality Surface traits Describe to me that person you met last night Cattel 16 source traits Big Five E stands for extraversion Adoption studies have confirmed that personality can be strongly in uenced by genetics Halo Effect Teacher grades easier on people who are from his alma matter Frequency counts and rating scales are especially helpful in assessing Observable behaviors MMPI2 Personality assessment that objectively identifies abnormal patterns of behavior or thinking What is the function of a validity scale To determine if a person is giving an accurate response QMPPP gt1 10 4060 of individuals with anorexia that receive treatment and make recovery 12 13 14 11 15 16 17 18 19 20 Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders How would Hippocrates have dealt with someone suffering from mental illness He would focus on correcting the imbalance of bodily uids or humors Maladaptive trouble with day to day operations due to needing to do something Insanity in the US is typically used only by the legal system Cognitive irrational thinking DSM5 syndromes idioms of distress explanations or perceived cause Phobic Disorder Someone who is morbidly afraid of snakes and refuses to even look at a picture of a snake Acute Stress Disorder up to 1 month after incident Major Depressive Disorder feelings of constantly being tired but unable to sleep feelings of worthlessness that have no basis of reality Increased rates in depression in women might stem from gender roles social factors and emotional processing ADHD associated with bipolar disorder Bulimia Normal body weight Anorexia Severely under their expected body weight Genetic factors cause 4060 of disorders such as anorexia bulimia and binge eating Retrograde Amnesia patients often suffer from some form of physical trauma Fugue Traveling to places for no reason without recall Reference Characters from movie are secretly sending messages to me Positive Symptoms excessive or distorted characteristics such as hallucinations and delusions connected with Schizophrenia Antisocial Personality Disorder Most are male little or no guilt for criminal acts consistently irresponsible and don t keep commitments Studies show that borderline personality disorders occur more frequently in women while antisocial personality disorders occur more often in men 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Chapter 15 Psychological Therapies Philippe Pinel One of the first therapists to begin a movement towards the humane treatment of patients Insight Therapies Psychotherapies that attempt to increase the understanding of a client s motives Transference to a therapist from a client is associated with psychodynamic therapies Humanistic therapy Motivational interviewing is an alternative approach to this Gestalt Approach Directive pays close attention to body language and denied past Behavior based therapies are action based while psychodynamic and humanistic therapies are insight based Systematic Desensitization Slowly expose patient to each of their fears and assists them in gaining control of their anxiety In Vivo Client is confronted with the situation that causes them anxiety Imaginal Client is asked to think about and visualize the frightening situation Token Economy Successful across multiple settings in the establishment of desirable behaviors and modification of problem behaviors Arbitrary In uence Nicole tends to jump to conclusions with little or no evidence to support her beliefs Selfhelp Group No therapist Therapeutic Alliance Be more empathetic and caring when working with clients African Americans prefer therapist of opposite sex Asian men prefer therapist of same sex Cyber therapy can be effective for those who otherwise cant get a therapist Antianxiety drugs may be addictive and have more side effects than antidepressants treatment of anxiety disorders ECT Severe depression Deep Brain Stimulation Anorexia Nervosa
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