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Lectures 10 & 11: Personality Psych & Intelligence

by: Gigi

Lectures 10 & 11: Personality Psych & Intelligence PSY150A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY150A1 > Lectures 10 11 Personality Psych Intelligence
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Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)
Adam Lazarewicz

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Here are the in-class notes for lectures 10 and 11 (Personality Psychology and Intelligence). All of the terms are defined in detail and I used highlights to show the most important information!
Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)
Adam Lazarewicz
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This page Bundle was uploaded by Gigi on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Adam Lazarewicz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1) in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 11/15/15
Personality Psychology Lecture 10 Monday November 2 2015 Personality Sigmund Freud Anna O Unconscious An individual39s characteristic pattern of thinking feeling amp acting IndiVidual differences Implies consistency stable qualities Austrian neurologist Early interest in cocaine as treatment for physical mental ailments Developed interest in nervous disorders defined by anxiety Found deeper meaning in almost everything Treated for hysteria by Freud o Limb paralysis on right side 0 Vision hearing amp speech issues 0 Loss of consciousness Faking symptoms Sympathy from Freud first quottherapyquot sessions Hypnosis traumatic childhood memory father dies in her arms Are we anxious about things that we are unaware of Collection of unacceptable thoughts wishes desires feelings memories most important contribution from Freud Dreams quotthe royal road to the unconsciousquot Psychoanalysis 3 Components of Personality Id Superego Ego Hydraulic pressure sensitive theory that attributes thoughts amp behavior to unconscious motives amp con icts Patients have too much quotpressurequot in conscious Valves Dreams Free Association respond to stimulus with 1st thing that comes to mind Slips of the tongue Freudian Slips Ego Superego Id Freud compared the mind to an iceberg Conscious mind is the tip that shows outside the water Unconscious is the underwater part that is much larger Unconscious psychic energy sexual amp aggressive urges o Pleasure Principle demands immediate gratification regardless of social norms amp restraints 0 Completely underwater on the quoticebergquot Internalized ideals amp standards for judgments o Conscience o Develops at age 45 0 How one ought to behave 0 Angel compared to Id 0 Morality Mostly conscious part of personality that mediates id vs superego struggle 0 Reality principle seeks to gratify id in ways acceptable to the superego Psychosexual Development Phallic Stage Role of Anxiety Repression Projection Reaction Formation Sublimation Freud id focuses energy on different parts of the body as we age erogenous zones 0 Traumatic experiences fixation lingering issues into adulthood 0 Patients symptoms rooted in childhood con icts 36 yrs 3rd stage boys develop unconscious sexual desires for mother jealousy amp hatred of father rival Castration Anxiety fear of becoming like a woman fear of powerful people overcoming them Freud39s personality id vs superego o Ego fears losing control generalized anxiety with no clear reason why 0 Defense Mechanisms ways reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Blocking unacceptable thoughts from conscious mind Underlies all the other defense mechanisms Disguise own threatening impulses by attributing them to others Unconsciously switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites Redirecting psychic energy away from negative outlets toward positive outlets quotsociallv usefulquot Evaluating Psychoanalysis The Bad Evaluating Psychoanalysis The Good 2 0th century op ons psychologists Gordon Allport Trait Perspective Trait Lexical Approach UVV VI J vnuvvg 0 Scientific Shortcomings Based on Freud39s own memories amp interpretations not research evidence Fails to predict behaviors only explains them post hoc after the fact Modern research refutes many ofhis ideas Little evidence for repression Introduction of the unconscious Modern Definition of unconscious processing of which we are not aware Different than Freud39s concept but rooted in that idea Defense against anxiety often unconsciously 0 Roots of modern study of Unconsciousimplicit processes Selfprotective defenses Sexuality as human motivation Social wellbeing 1 Freudian Psychoanalysis negativity 2 Skinnerian Behaviorism mechanical Founder of modern personality psych Thought Psychoanalysistoo deep Behaviorismnot deep enough 0 First need to describe personality vs explaining Characteristic pattern of behavior or a I disposition to feel and act a certain way Important individual differencesencoded in language over time Invent Words to discuss meaningful differences Natural selection amongst words Lots of synonyms amp crosscultural universality important trait 18000 trait descriptive adjectives Statistical 0 Start with lexical approach Approach 0 Have large number of people rate themselves 0 Factor analysis statistical procedure that identifies clusters of items that covary but do not covary with other clustersgroups of correlations Reduces huge of traits to more manageable set Taxonomy Lists of the most 39important39 traits 0 Five Factor model the big 5 o Lexical amp statistical approaches 0 5 trait dimensions that capture clusters of correlated specific traits The Big 5 1 Conscientiousness 2 Agreeableness 3 Neuroticism 4 Openness 5 Extraversion Conscientiousness How we control direct amp regulate our lives High organized neat Low disorderly careless less structure Agreeableness Concern with cooperation amp social harmony High Sympathetic kind sincere Low Harsh hardheaded Neuroticism Openness Extraversion Research on the big 5 Tendency to experience strong negative emotions intense long lasting High moody anxious insecure Low emotional stability calm Willingness eagerness to try new experiences High creative imaginative Low practical set in ways Engagementwith the outside social world High talkative assertive outspoken Low shy quiet bashful Generally very stable through adulthood Neuroticism extraversion openness drop slightly after college Agreeableness conscientiousness rise slightly after college Big 5 predicts other attributes Morning peoplemore conscientious Evening people more extraverted High conscientiousness best career outcome Intelligence Lecture 11 Intelligence General Intelligence Multiple Intelligences Gardner39s Multiple Intelligences Emotional Intelligence 3 K7 7 rl 777 7 17l 7397 7 3 will lijllii ll Hui iti r ri l H r 777 r i it I itu Social construct a concept Not a concrete quotthingquot that you quothavequot 1 general ability or several Traditional view 0 Factor that underlies specific mental abilities Modern View Howard Gardner quothow smart are youquot vs quothow are you smartquot Multiple ways to be intelligent word smart TS Elliot Ix logic smart Albert Einstein I liEfiifTLU 9 nature smart Charles Darwin pr picture smart Pablo Picasso El body smart Martha Graham Igor Stravinsky 39wjyquot people smart Mahatma Gandh 5 gt19 use emotions Creativity Intelligence Test Creativity Test Measuring Intelligence Intelligence quotient IQ Lewis Terman Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Ability to produce novel and valuable ideas Convergent thinking closing in on a single right answer Deficitsdamage to left parietal lobe Divergent thinking imagining multiple possible answers Deficitsdamage to frontal lobe 0 French gov39t needed test to identify students who need extra help 0 Alfred Binet amp Theodore Simon create first intelligence test 1905 Assumption intellectual development is same for kids but faster for some than others 0 Measured mental age chronological age typical of a given level of performance ex 10 year olds metal age is 10 100 X mental age chronological age Average score 100 Works well for kids At Stanford revised the test for US culture StanfordBinet intelligence test 1916 Used test as measure of innate intelligence Therman 1916 advocate of eugenics he was very racist Most commonly used today 11 subtests 6 verbal amp 5 performance Differences between scores may indicate IQ Test Reliability IQ Test Validity Intellectual Disability Williams Syndrome Genetic Causes Environmental causes learning disabilities brain disorders personal strengths Do you get consistent results 0 Higher correlations higher reliability StanfordBinet WAIS very high reliability Does the test measure what it claims tol measure High IQ higher GPA in school higherprestige jobs amp salaries relationship stability less likely to be jailed 3 Criteria 1 IQ is at 70 or below 2 Significant limitations in everyday life 3 Present since childhood Does not mean inability to learn or perform well islands of excellence areas in which disable people perform remarkably well Large vocabulary detailed knowledge of facts Difficulty understanding facts they seem to grasp 1 Down Syndrome Fragile X Syndrome 3 Autism N 1 Problems before birth fetal alcohol syndrome 2 Problems at birth prematurity 3 Problems after birth childhood diseases Gifted Where does Intelligence come from Socioeconomic Status Female Advantage Male Advantage People with IQ at least 130 Unclear causes gifted boys lower testosterone levels gifted girls higher testosterone levels Brain Correlation between brain volume Size amp IQ score but not a cause Postmortem studies highly educated 17 more neural connections Brain Processing speed correlated with Speed IQ Perceptual speed correlated with 1Q Higher IQ quicker brain waves Genes Adopted children higher correlations of IQ w biological parents than adoptive Twins Family income parental education level occupation social status SES amp IQ positively correlated 0 Better spellers 0 Better verbal uency memory for verbal info 0 Better nonverbal memory 0 Less likely to underachieve o Slight advantage of quick math 0 Better math problem solving 0 Spatial tasks Stereotype Threat Steele amp Aronson Spencer Steele amp Quinn Stereotype socially shared beliefs about a group amp its members 0 Teen Talk Barbie quotmath class is toughquot IV BlackWhite participants completed items from the verbal GRE test framed as diagnostic not diagnostic DV of items correct There is no racial gap expectations elicit performance Woman amp Math IV Men Women take math test that producesdoes not produce gender differences DV Math test performance


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