Week 11 Notes
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Colean Notetaker on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 11762-002 at Kent State University taught by John Updegraff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 11/15/15
Psych. John A. Updegraff Week 10 Notes Social Influence (Chapter 13) Social Psychology Social psychology examines the influence of the social environment on the way people think, feel, and behave Major lesson of social psychology Far more than we recognize, our behavior and the behavior of people around us are produced and constrained by the social world, and not by a person’s personality, attitudes, or “true self” Attribution= explaining other’s actions We seek other people’s behavior Was it caused by the person’s disposition (internal)? Was it caused by their situation (external)? *Fundamental Attribution Error When explaining another person’s behavior, we 1. Overestimate the impact of disposition (person’s traits) 2. Underestimate the impact of the situation Social Influence When are we most likely to conform? Why do we conform? How far will we go just to avoid going against the group? *Stan Milgrim Studies “What is the influence of a crowds behavior on a passer by” A lot of Obedience Studies *The Autokinetic Effect: Sherif (1936) If you put someone in a dark room, & you shine a light at the other end of the room and ask the person to stare at the light, it will create the illusion that the light is moving. Then ask: how far did you think it moved? The answer: some people might think it’s moving a half an inch, some might think 10 feet. There is no right answer, so people’s answers will vary *Line Judgment Studies: Asch (1955) 12 critical trials Conformity on 37% of trials Only 24% gave errorfree performance (compared to 99% when alone) Only takes 34 people Two kinds of social influence Informational SI Autokinetic Study Need for clarification Ambiguous judgments (people are unclear about something) What you say is what you believe Normative SI Line Judgment Study Need for approval Unambiguous judgment What people say is not what you believe *The murder of Kitty Genovese New York City March 13 , 1964 Nobody did anything while Kitty was getting murdered (38 people) Principles of Bystander Intervention Diffusion of responsibility The more people, the less any single person feels la sense of responsibility to act Pluralistic Ignorance We construe something, as an emergency to the degree that other people react like it’s an emergency Lots of people not doing anything = not an emergency *Adolf Eichmann on trial for war crimes for his role in the murder of millions of Jews in the Holocaust When We Obey Authority When authority figure is close at hand When authority figure is perceived as legitimate and prestigious When victim can’t be seen directly When we are not held directly responsible When we see another person obeying When there are no role models for defiance When we’ve already obeyed to smaller requests Love & Relationships Marriage in America People are optimistic about marriage Who are confident they will have a single happy marriage: 70% Who think they will divorce: 0% The reality: 50% of marriages end in divorce Including separation, rate is over 60% Who will have a single, happy marriage: less than 33% Even worse for young marriages Highest divorce rate is women married before 22, men before 24 Who Are We Attracted To? Proximity – we like people who are nearest to us Mere exposure: we begin to like things that we are exposed to repeatedly Similarity: we pair with people who are similar in: Age Physical appearance Education Personality Economic status Ethnicity Religion Interests Political attitudes Marriage in crosscultural context In most societies, throughout most of history, Marriage was a family decision, made mostly by parents Marriage was intended for producing and raising kids In modern West: explosion of individualism. Marriage became the ultimate individual choice; Marriage provides a person with sexual and emotional gratification Children are optional The modern myth of “true love”: If you are in true love then you should marry. If you marry you should be in true love. If you find the right person, you will have “true love” forever. Passionate vs. Companionate Love Companionate love “The affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined” Often associated with emotional intimacy Not associated with physiological arousal More stable over time than passionate love Stronger companionate love in the first two years of marriage predicts longer, more satisfying marriages (Huston et al., 2001) Passionate love “A wildly emotional state in which tender and sexual feelings, elation and pain, anxiety and relief, altruism and jealousy coexist in a confusion of feelings” Usually present at the beginning of a relationship Who is Cupid? Cupid is your ‘genes taking over’ “Falling in love is a trick that our genes pull on our otherwise perceptive mind to hoodwink or trap us into marriage” (M. Scott Peck: The Road Less Traveled) What’s a gene’s top priority? Replication Personality (Chapter 12) What is Personality? Whatever makes for consistency in our behavior Whatever is responsible for individual differences in behavior Definitions Personality is: Your typical pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting The organization of enduring behavior patterns that distinguishes one person from another Personality involves 1) uniqueness 2) consistency 3) organization Psychoanalytic Perspective Three guiding premises: 1. Unconscious motivations: People are often unaware of the motives behind their behavior 2. Repression: Unacceptable motives and impulses are kept out of conscious awareness by the use of defense mechanisms. 3. Early childhood development: Adult personality is shaped by how we resolve psychosexual conflicts in infancy and childhood Freud’s Personality Structure The Id: A reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual, aggressive, and survival needs (libido) Operates on the “pleasure principle” The Ego: Balances the demands of the Id, the Superego, and reality. Operates on the “reality principle.” The Superego: Represents internalized ideals for how one ought to behave Strives for perfection Defense Mechanisms Defense mechanisms protect the ego and reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Freud identified a number of defense mechanisms, such as Repression – thoughts and feelings are blocked from consciousness Regression – retreating to earlier stage of development Reaction formation – act the opposite of whatever you’re ashamed of Projection – project your own issues onto somebody else Rationalization – come up with a good way to justify something bad Displacement – redirect impulses to a safer outlet Freud Examples: Accuse someone else of being angry with you Thinking of other people as being cheap and stingy, when its really you Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Stage Stage Pleasure is centered around If fixated at this stage, adult personality will likely be… Oral Mouth – sucking, biting, Orally fixated: Excessive chewing smoking, eating, nailbiting, sarcasm Anal Bowel and bladder Anally retentive: orderly, elimination thrifty, stubborn Anally expulsive: messy, generous, uses lots of dirty humor Phallic Genitals Genitally fixated: Self centered, reckless Evaluating Freud’s Theory Based on observations of a small number of Viennese patients during the Victorian era Research supports some of Freud’s ideas Much of our behavior is unconsciously guided There is truth to some of Freud’s defense mechanisms Research doesn’t support most of Freud’s ideas Personality development is a lifelong process, not confined to childhood Personality isn’t linked to difficulties with “psychosexual” activities like weaning and toilet training The Humanistic Perspective Focused on how healthy people strive to fulfill their potential Focused on people’s conscious thoughts about themselves, less of a focus on behavior or unconscious forces. (Abraham Maslow Carl Roger) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SelfActualization Need to live up to one’s full, unique potential Esteem Need for selfesteem and respect from others Belongingness and Love Need to love and be loved Safety Need to feel safe, secure, and stable Physiological Need to satisfy hunger and thirst Carl Roger’s View People can think of themselves in two ways Actual self: How a person currently thinks and feels about themselves Ideal self: The kind of person you would ideally like to be Selfactualization is the process by which you become “ideal self” Other people’s reactions to you are important Conditional positive regard When other people’s love requires you to meet certain expectations, it is difficult to become your ideal self Unconditional positive regard When others love you unconditionally, you’re free to pursue self actualization Evaluating Humanistic Theories Unlike Freud, it helps explain human’s capacity for growth and selfexpression But, it doesn’t acknowledge man’s capacity for evil Too engrained in Western individualistic values As a personality theory, it doesn’t do much to explain why certain personality traits are related to each other Trait Perspective Describes personality in terms of traits, such as: Friendly Fun Caring Creative Talkative Happy Nice Imaginative Competitive Moody Responsible Lazy Trustworthy Factor Analytic Approach Looks to see which traits tend to correlate together into a cluster For example… Cluster 1: Fun, friendly, talkative Cluster 2: Nice, caring, trustworthy, responsible, not lazy Cluster 3: Creative, imaginative Cluster 4: Moody, competitive Clusters are formed only on the basis of statistical analysis, not any preexisting theory Trait Personality Scales Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Assesses “abnormal” personality traits that tend to be related to psychiatric diagnoses and emotional disorders Used mainly in clinical settings Trait Personality Scales Big Five Personality Inventory Assesses “normal” personality traits Used to understand normal, everyday behavior Five factors consistently emerge, even across cultures Big Five Personality Factors People who are HIGH on People LOW on this factor this factor tend to be.. tend to be… Neuroticism Anxious Calm Insecure Secure Moody Emotionally Stable Extraversion Sociable Quiet Talking Reserved FunLoving Inhibited Affectionate Opennness Creative Uncreative Curious Conventional Unconventional Few Interests Many Interests Agreeableness Sympathetic Critical Helpful Uncooperative Courteous Rude Conscientiousness Reliable Unreliable Organized Disorganized Careful Careless Three Perspectives on Personality Perspective People act they way they do because of … Psychoanalytic Unconscious Conflicts between pleasure seeking impulses and social restraints Humanistic Their Conscious Feelings about themselves in light of their experiences and needs Trait Their (mostly) geneticallyinfluenced traits Where Does It Come From? Big Five traits are roughly 50% heritable Neuroticism and agreeableness are 41% heritable Openness is 61% heritable Upbringing (birth order) shapes personality too Firstborns tend to be more conscientious than laterborns Laterborns tend to be more open than firstborns What about Gender? Is there a gender difference? Neuroticism Women are more neurotic Extraversion Overall, no difference Openness No difference Agreeableness Women are more agreeable Conscientiousness Women are slightly more conscientiousness Does Personality Change? Yes, but it’s more likely to change before the age of 30 than after the age of 30 From late teens to age 30, people tend to become: Less extraverted Less open to experience More conscientious and more agreeable Less neurotic (women only) After age 30, people tend to continue to become: More agreeable More open to experience (men only)
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