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Week 11 Notes

by: Colean Notetaker

Week 11 Notes 11762-002

Colean Notetaker
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These are notes for the eleventh week of the semester. They are composed from listening to Updegraff's lecture, and my perspective of viewing his power point.
General Psychology
John Updegraff
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Colean Notetaker on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 11762-002 at Kent State University taught by John Updegraff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 11/15/15
Psych. John A. Updegraff Week 10 Notes ­Social Influence (Chapter 13)­  Social Psychology  Social psychology examines the influence of the social environment on the way  people think, feel, and behave  ­Major lesson of social psychology  Far more than we recognize, our behavior and the behavior of people around us  are produced and constrained by the social world, and not by a person’s  personality, attitudes, or “true self”  ­Attribution= explaining other’s actions  We seek other people’s behavior  ­Was it caused by the person’s disposition (internal)? ­Was it caused by their situation (external)?  *Fundamental Attribution Error When explaining another person’s behavior, we  1. Overestimate the impact of disposition (person’s traits) 2. Underestimate the impact of the situation   Social Influence  When are we most likely to conform? Why do we conform? How far will we go just to avoid going against the group?   *Stan Milgrim Studies “What is the influence of a crowds behavior on a passer by”  A lot of Obedience Studies  *The Autokinetic Effect: Sherif (1936) If you put someone in a dark room, & you shine a light at the other end of the room  and ask the person to stare at the light, it will create the illusion that the light is  moving. Then ask: how far did you think it moved?  The answer: some people might think it’s moving a half an inch, some might think 10 feet.  There is no right answer, so people’s answers will vary  *Line Judgment Studies: Asch (1955) 12 critical trials  Conformity on 37% of trials Only 24% gave error­free performance (compared to 99% when alone) Only takes 3­4 people    Two kinds of social influence  ­Informational SI  Autokinetic Study Need for clarification  Ambiguous judgments (people are unclear about something) What you say is what you believe  ­Normative SI Line Judgment Study Need for approval  Unambiguous judgment  What people say is not what you believe  *The murder of Kitty Genovese  New York City March 13 , 1964 Nobody did anything while Kitty was getting murdered (38 people)   Principles of Bystander Intervention  ­Diffusion of responsibility  The more people, the less any single person feels la sense of responsibility to act  ­Pluralistic Ignorance  We construe something, as an emergency to the degree that other people  react like it’s an emergency Lots of people not doing anything = not an emergency  *Adolf Eichmann on trial for war crimes for his role in the murder of millions of Jews in  the Holocaust    When We Obey Authority When authority figure is close at hand When authority figure is perceived as legitimate and prestigious When victim can’t be seen directly When we are not held directly responsible When we see another person obeying When there are no role models for defiance When we’ve already obeyed to smaller requests ­Love & Relationships­   Marriage in America  ­People are optimistic about marriage Who are confident they will have a single happy marriage: 70% Who think they will divorce: 0%  The reality:  50% of marriages end in divorce  Including separation, rate is over 60% Who will have a single, happy marriage: less than 33% Even worse for young marriages  Highest divorce rate is women married before 22, men before 24 Who Are We Attracted To? ­Proximity – we like people who are nearest to us ­Mere exposure: we begin to like things that we are exposed to repeatedly  ­Similarity: we pair with people who are similar in: Age Physical appearance Education Personality Economic status Ethnicity  ­Religion ­Interests ­Political attitudes  Marriage in cross­cultural context In most societies, throughout most of history, Marriage was a family decision, made mostly by parents  Marriage was intended for producing and raising kids In modern West: explosion of individualism. Marriage became the ultimate individual choice; Marriage provides a person with sexual and emotional gratification Children are optional The modern myth of “true love”: If you are in true love then you should marry. If you marry you should be in true love. If you find the right person, you will have “true love” forever.  Passionate vs. Companionate Love ­Companionate love  “The affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined” Often associated with emotional intimacy  Not associated with physiological arousal  More stable over time than passionate love  Stronger companionate love in the first two years of marriage predicts longer, more  satisfying marriages (Huston et al., 2001) ­Passionate love  “A wildly emotional state in which tender and sexual feelings, elation and pain, anxiety  and relief, altruism and jealousy coexist in a confusion of feelings” Usually present at the beginning of a relationship   Who is Cupid?  Cupid is your ‘genes taking over’ “Falling in love is a trick that our genes pull on our otherwise perceptive mind to  hoodwink or trap us into marriage” (M. Scott Peck: The Road Less Traveled)   What’s a gene’s top priority? ­Replication  ­Personality (Chapter 12)­  What is Personality?  Whatever makes for consistency in our behavior  Whatever is responsible for individual differences in behavior ­Definitions Personality is: Your typical pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting The organization of enduring behavior patterns that distinguishes one person from  another  ­Personality involves  1) uniqueness  2) consistency  3) organization  Psychoanalytic Perspective Three guiding premises:  1. Unconscious motivations: People are often unaware of the motives behind their  behavior  2. Repression: Unacceptable motives and impulses are kept out of conscious awareness  by the use of defense mechanisms.  3. Early childhood development: Adult personality is shaped by how we resolve  psychosexual conflicts in infancy and childhood  Freud’s Personality Structure ­The Id: A reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual,  aggressive, and survival needs (libido) Operates on the “pleasure principle” ­The Ego: Balances the demands of the Id, the Superego, and reality. Operates on the  “reality principle.”  ­The Superego: Represents internalized ideals for how one ought to behave Strives for  perfection  Defense Mechanisms Defense mechanisms protect the ego and reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting  reality Freud identified a number of defense mechanisms, such as  ­Repression – thoughts and feelings are blocked from consciousness  ­Regression – retreating to earlier stage of development  ­Reaction formation – act the opposite of whatever you’re ashamed of  ­Projection – project your own issues onto somebody else ­Rationalization – come up with a good way to justify something bad  ­Displacement – redirect impulses to a safer outlet Freud Examples:  Accuse someone else of being angry with you Thinking of other people as being cheap and stingy, when its really you  Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Stage Stage Pleasure is centered around If fixated at this stage, adult personality will likely be… Oral Mouth – sucking, biting, Orally fixated: Excessive chewing smoking, eating, nail­biting, sarcasm Anal Bowel and bladder Anally retentive: orderly, elimination thrifty, stubborn Anally expulsive: messy, generous, uses lots of dirty humor Phallic Genitals Genitally fixated: Self­ centered, reckless  Evaluating Freud’s Theory Based on observations of a small number of Viennese patients during the Victorian era Research supports some of Freud’s ideas Much of our behavior is unconsciously guided  There is truth to some of Freud’s defense mechanisms  Research doesn’t support most of Freud’s ideas  Personality development is a lifelong process, not confined to childhood Personality isn’t linked to difficulties with “psychosexual” activities like weaning  and toilet training   The Humanistic Perspective Focused on how healthy people strive to fulfill their potential Focused on people’s conscious thoughts about themselves, less of a focus on behavior or  unconscious forces. (Abraham Maslow Carl Roger)  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self­Actualization Need to live up to one’s full, unique potential Esteem Need for self­esteem and respect from others Belongingness and Love Need to love and be loved Safety Need to feel safe, secure, and stable Physiological Need to satisfy hunger and thirst  Carl Roger’s View ­People can think of themselves in two ways  Actual self: How a person currently thinks and feels about themselves  Ideal self: The kind of person you would ideally like to be  ­Self­actualization is the process by which you become “ideal self” ­Other people’s reactions to you are important  Conditional positive regard When other people’s love requires you to meet certain expectations, it is  difficult to become your ideal self Unconditional positive regard When others love you unconditionally, you’re free to pursue self­ actualization  Evaluating Humanistic Theories ­Unlike Freud, it helps explain human’s capacity for growth and self­expression  But, it doesn’t acknowledge man’s capacity for evil ­Too engrained in Western individualistic values ­As a personality theory, it doesn’t do much to explain why certain personality traits are  related to each other   Trait Perspective ­Describes personality in terms of traits, such as: Friendly  Fun  Caring  Creative  Talkative  Happy  Nice  Imaginative Competitive  Moody  Responsible  Lazy Trustworthy   Factor Analytic Approach ­Looks to see which traits tend to correlate together into a cluster For example…  Cluster 1: Fun, friendly, talkative  Cluster 2: Nice, caring, trustworthy, responsible, not lazy Cluster 3: Creative, imaginative  Cluster 4: Moody, competitive  ­Clusters are formed only on the basis of statistical analysis, not any pre­existing theory  Trait Personality Scales Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)  ­Assesses “abnormal” personality traits that tend to be related to psychiatric diagnoses  and emotional disorders ­Used mainly in clinical settings  Trait Personality Scales ­Big Five Personality Inventory ­Assesses “normal” personality traits ­Used to understand normal, everyday behavior ­Five factors consistently emerge, even across cultures  Big Five Personality Factors  People who are HIGH on People LOW on this factor this factor tend to be.. tend to be… Neuroticism Anxious Calm Insecure Secure Moody Emotionally Stable Extraversion Sociable Quiet Talking Reserved Fun­Loving Inhibited Affectionate Opennness Creative Uncreative Curious Conventional Unconventional Few Interests Many Interests Agreeableness Sympathetic Critical Helpful Uncooperative Courteous Rude Conscientiousness Reliable Unreliable Organized Disorganized Careful Careless Three Perspectives on Personality  Perspective  People act they way they do because of … Psychoanalytic  Unconscious Conflicts between pleasure  seeking impulses and social restraints  Humanistic  Their Conscious Feelings about themselves in light of their experiences and needs Trait Their (mostly) genetically­influenced traits   Where Does It Come From?  Big Five traits are roughly 50% heritable  ­ Neuroticism and agreeableness are 41% heritable  ­ Openness is 61% heritable Upbringing (birth order) shapes personality too  ­ First­borns tend to be more conscientious than later­borns ­ Later­borns tend to be more open than first­borns  What about Gender? Is there a gender difference? Neuroticism Women are more neurotic Extraversion Overall, no difference Openness No difference Agreeableness Women are more agreeable Conscientiousness Women are slightly more conscientiousness  Does Personality Change?  ­Yes, but it’s more likely to change before the age of 30 than after the age of 30  ­From late teens to age 30, people tend to become:  Less extraverted Less open to experience More conscientious and more agreeable Less neurotic (women only) ­After age 30, people tend to continue to become: More agreeable More open to experience (men only)


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