Social Psychology, Conformity and Obedience
Social Psychology, Conformity and Obedience Psych 210
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Ann Carter Herbert
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Ann Carter Herbert on Monday November 16, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Psych 210 at Clemson University taught by Professor Chris Pagano, PhD in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/16/15
Social Psychology The home team advantage 0 Having your own fans and a stadium full of people supporting you and not the other team is actually a proven advantage 0 Social Facilitation 0 Social Interference is also possible I The presence of others cause you to perform worse Could cause more pressure Yerkes Dodson Law 0 The relationship between performance and Arousal I You want a certain amount of arousal to play sports but if you get too pumped up it can be too much pressure I Being the home team increases arousal I Number of people in stadium increases arousal I The amount of evaluation increases arousal The Optimal Level of Arousal Shifts with Task Difficulty 0 Easy tasks experts Simple well learned automatic 0 Difficult tasks novice complex new 0 This all plays into how well you perform Dominant responses 0 Things that you are good at and used to doing automatic 0 Social facilitation NonDominantresponses 0 Things you aren t so good at and results in a higher level in arousal more pressure and anxiety 0 Social Interference 0 Just having confidence can increase social facilitation dominance 0 Fear of performing poorly causes you to perform poorly Lewin s 1951 Field Theory of social pressures o The individual exists in an ever changing field of forces that push and pull the person in various directions I People behave differently when they are immersed in a field of social pressures or forces 0 Example I 1 Desire to do well I 2 Pressure from home I 3 Desire to have fun I 4 Pressure from friends 0 Social Impact Theory I Part of Lewin s Field Theory I The amount of social Impact felt is determined by the number of sources delivering the force Example increased audience size increased stage freight Also impacted by the number of targets receiving the force 0 If you are presenting in a group project it decreases stage freight because force is divided between the people in your group I Term for this Diffusion Bystander Intervention 0 Why do bystanders sometimes fail to help I Example The Kitty Genovese Murder 1964 The rape and murder took over 30 minutes 38 people heard her cries but nobody helped I the more bystanders there are the less likely that you will get help I Diffusion of Responsibility 0 Steps of Intervention I People have to notice the incident I Interpret the situation as an emergency I Assume Responsibility I Help 0 Worsens if you think you are less qualified I If there are more people around you will assume someone else is more qualified to help or do a better job 0 Informational In uence I People look to others for information I There must be a reason why others are not helping it s not an emergency nothing can be done etc o Normative In uence I People are concerned about what others will think about messing up about looking different etc I This is a type of Conformity 0 Three main factors in summary I Diffusion of Responsibility I Informal In uence I Normative In uence Conformity and Obedience Adjusting behavior to match others Normative In uence 0 People are concerned about what others will think about messing up about looking different etc o Impression management I People consciously amp unconsciously modify their behavior to in uence other s perceptions of them Conformity 0 An individual s opinions are different from the group but the individual behaves as to fit in o This does not necessarily believe that the individual agress but goes along anyways 0 Solomon Asch s 1955 study of Conformity I 75 of the subjects conformed at least once I on average subjects conformed about 37 of the time I the line example I Informational In uence Some subjects said they questioned their own perceptions and started to believe they had some defect I Normative In uence When subjects were allowed to write their answers rather than say them conformity dropped 7525 0 The In uence of the Minority I If a single confederate disagreed conformity decreased dramatically Even if the dissenting opinion was another wrong answer I Only a couple dissenters who are adamant with a strong opinion can get the majority to go along I Mechanisms of Minority In uence Demonstrates that dissent is possible encouraging further dissent normative Causes the majority to question beliefs leaving it open to change informational Obedience 0 Similar to conformity but I The person changes their behavior because of a direct request I The person making the request is a leader or authority 0 Milgram 1963 I Why were his subjects so obedient The sequential nature of the task fostered obedience Example the holocaust I the setting fostered obedience I Proximity of the experimenter and or learner in uenced obedience Group Decision Making 0 Deindividuation In large groups people can lose their sense of individual responsibility I Riots I Looting I Suicide baitiings People start doing things in groups that they otherwise wouldn t do 0 Due to I Diffusion of responsibility Reduced selfawareness I Anonymity If you are in a group you are somewhat anonymous Emotional Arousal Also occurs in the military prison guards police etc That makes the organization a lot more function Makes it easier to get the job done This can also backfire Conformity and Social Identity 0 Zimbardo s 1972 prison study 0 Social Identity 0 Once an individual identifies with a group it can become part of their identity 0 The individual will conform to the roles expected a type of deindividuation 0 Example robbers cave boys camp split into two groups I Within Group Solidarity Within each group individuals set aside differences I Negative Stereotyping of Other Group All members of the other group were seen as different from all members of one s own group I Hostility Betweengroup Interactions Types to quotwarfarequot arose between the groups I Superordinate goals Fades barriers between groups to form a larger group encompassing the two eg failed water supply 0 Group Polarization is a type of conformity I First you join a group that shares your views If the group has more extreme views than you then your views will become more extreme o Normative In uence I The group becomes more alike due to conformity On average however it becomes more extreme as Members try to oneupquot each other Members think the norm is more extreme I The In uence of the Minority Including a few people with different views can dramatically reduce polarization by bringing in other views and lessening these in uences I Groupthink When members of a group are more concerned with group unity than with realistically appraising options 0 Concern for group unity everyone wants to agree 0 Pressure to conform to leaders 0 Failure to consider alternative opinions o Suppression of con icting information I Conformity and Obedience are overwhelmingly positive things
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