Lecture Notes Comm 2321
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Becca Rickard on Friday January 30, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Comm 2321 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Hillary Schulman in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Writing for Strat Comm in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
12015 Public Relations The PR Process Research gt Planning gt Communication gt Evaluation Distinguishing PR goals from other professions Corporate Goals Make money impress investors retain strong employees produce innovative products produce high quality products for as cheap as possible keep clients happy be ef cient PR Goals Maintain a strong reputation anticipate future problems work closely with media amp other outlets compile large amounts of relevant information monitor all aspects of the company articulate business climate to management REMEMBER PR is NOT management You do not tell your client how they should spend their money you are not a journalist You don39t write stories you don39t have an angle and you don39t have an audience you introduce stories to journalists who have storytelling abilities angles and a built in audience Characteristics of the PR Practitioner Write with intent Can write in a variety of formats and understand their differences Writing gets scrutinizeda lot Grammar is impeccable Honest to both the client and their audiences if they want to maintain respect Needs to know their public and why they are their public Organized Three things to keep in mind Write Well Choose medium wisely Understand Purpose Ethics in Public Relations The Legal Environment First Amendment Freedom of Speech Commercial Speech protection for truthful marketing of legal products and services Highvalue protected politics religion culture Lowvalue unprotected obscenity criminal threats Opportunity for litigation gt Defamation The publication of material that would hold one up to hatred ridicule contempt or spite Libel published defamation Slander defamation by spoken words gestures or other transitory means Malice defamation of a public gure Fault must be demonstrated writer was negligent or careless gt actual malice 12215 Ethics Identifying Malice Publication Defamation Damage Identi cation Fault Occurs when plaintiff can prove that defendant knew the published material was false or showed reckless disregard for the truth Ex Tom Cruise39s 50M defamation suit over Suri abandonment claim What are the chances of winning Af rrnative Defenses Truth if the story was true in any way can get off because libel is inherently a false statement Quali ed privilege you quoted someone acting in an of cial capacity Statute of limitations the suit must be brought within a speci ed period of time 12 years Constitutional privilege According to the PRSA Be honest and accurate in all communications Includes lies of omission Act promptly to correct errors you may have made Preserve intellectual property rights in the marketplace Investigate truthfulness and accuracy of info Ethical Standards Advisories 1 Illegal Recordings you need proper consent from at least on party participating in the conversation Don39t worry about asking though it39s normal practice 2 Ethical Use of Interns if you39re not going to pay students you need to at least provide them with a valuable work experience 3 Plagiarism unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another and representing them as your own work Failure to attribute work 12715 More Standards I II III cannot claim your product is environmentally friendly without proof professional con icts of interest Phantom Expereince in ate resumes credentials capabilities People must pay you for what you do No deceptive online practices gt fake blog No deceptive practice gt using trademark names Disclosure by expert commentators and professional spokesperson of payment and financial interest Telling the truth gt even if it makes client look bad Report unethical behavior or unprofessional performance Disclosure of employment status Research Methods in PR Research Step 1 ID Publics and Issues public relations needs gt info needs and sources defined gt facts assembled publics sampled issues monitored gt info assembled for target audiences Invest your energy seeking not just writing Proving your value to business Preliminary Research II III informal research gt method of gaining an indepth understanding of an audience nonscientific gt it39s good old fashioned stalking done as background research record keeping of utmost importance identify key contacts Media outlets Opinion leaders EXperts Special committees organized Focus Groups A small number of people who share some demographic characteristic Meet in small groups Are asked questions by a moderator Responses are observed IV Casual monitoring V check hashtags observe Research on company database intemet Thinking about outcomes outputs gt activities undertaken in campaigns takes gt the result of these tactics outcomes gt the resultant changes to behavior The further down the chain the better the outcome The further down the chain the more difficult the evaluation Industry Terms FP NC LII 9 cuttings gt press clippings book to demonstrate volume and estimate quality Reach gt percentage of the target audience that was reached by campaign Frequency gt how frequently the target audience viewed the campaign Opportunity to see OTS gt combines elements of frequency and reach how likely it is or average views of targeted audience Share of voice gt compares campaign cuttingsreach against a competitor39s cuttingsreach Assigning Financial Value AVE Advertising Value Equivalent monetary value for results achieved Editorial Impact Assessing the credibility relevance and other factors related to publications Surveys DIY 12915 More Formal Techniques Survey Research Most common method used in PR Careful detailed sample examinations of the knowledge perception attitudes and opinions of members of various publics You never measure all of these at the same time gure out what you39re trying to get out of your audience before you create a survey Asses both reactions and preferences Publics are created based on demographics or opinions or both Belief Judgments about the truthaccuracy of a topic Attitudes goodbad judgments about a topic Behaviors actions When writing questions be conscious of what you39re asking Response Format on Surveys OpenEnded Responses Participants are free to answer a question in any way they39d like Ex What do you like about Ohio State Helpful because you get more variety understanding of perspectives you weren39t expecting etc Unhelpful because long winded answers are hard to give amp hard to sift through CloseEnded Responses Likert Scale Responses range from strongly agree strongly disagree always an odd number amount 5 or 7 scale All positions are assigned a score in order to create an average from respondents Semantic Differential Scale Anchors are labeled with bipolar adjectives always an odd number amount 5 or 7 scale Ex Urban Meyer descriptors Scale 15 with Fun on one end Serious on the other Frequency always vs never is the same as a semantic differential M For every variable conceptdomain you want to measure you need AT LEAST 4 items to measure it well Ex I am happy at OSU OSU students are happy I enjoy my major I39m satis ed at OSU If I chose again Different wording can allow for a better grasp on opinions and individual feelings There is such a thing as bad questions Using ambiguous words eg often some very Causes audience to focus on those words rather than the question overall Doublebarrelled questions eg drugs AND alcohol Leading questions researcher s opinion is made clear Loaded questions says something about audience based on their answer Double negatives 2315 The Issue Statement Four sentences that exemplify what you39re trying to do within your campaign De nes the issue or problem being addressed by the communication Actually identifying why PR is being hired to deal with a pressing matter serious issues First sentence What is the problem or opportunity being addressed issue Second sentence Who are the affected parties affected publics Third sentence What is the timing immediate impending potential timing Fourth sentence What are you strengths and weaknesses strengths and weaknesses For client but more importantly for PR rm Direction Sheet Subject of the piece Internal Communications Format PSA brochure magazine TV ad ducks in a row How are you going to be communicating What kind of resources will you need Where are these resources coming from Objective What do you hope to accomplish with this piece Should get everyone on the same page Intended audience Succint direct Angle What39s the hook What do you think you39re going to createuse to draw people in Key ideas Length timing Is it six months is it a year Deadline You can have more than one direction sheet over a campaign When you go into a project you may know some of these you may not know others These are questions you can ask your client during a meeting so that you can learn what you need 21015 Approaches to Creating your Sample Simple random sampling Selecting the number you need from a master list at random Systematic Sampling Computer picks a person randomly to begin then counts off in intervals of any until the list is complete Cluster Sampling Sample from a specific and smaller population eg OSU students versus young people Stratified Random Sampling Do your best to ensure that your sample resembles your population by making sure you have the similar proportions in your sample eg education level proportions Quota Sampling Drawing randomly an equal number of people in each subgroup you want represented Sample Techniques Descriptive Data Your data is descriptive because your population of interest is finite You can collect responses from your ENTIRE population Population your entire target audience of interest Examples Inferential Data Your data is collected from a sample of participants Who are meant to represent the broader population Since you can39t measure the opinions of the entire target audience You pick a random sample to re ect the average member39s beliefs EXAM REVIEW 30 questions truefalse multiple choice very short answer sentence or even just name terms label words without context short answer half a page ex four different types of sampling explain give examples Components of PR What PR people do definition of PR maintains identity amp image between different third parties UncontrolledControlled Controlled gt PR person has complete control over communications being sent if I39m writing a speech for client I know exactly how it39s going to go MOST PR IS UNCONTROLLED gt You send out a press release but the public journalists etc do what they want with it Ex ads on youtube go from being controlled on tv you see message as it is but once it39s online there39s likes comments etc affecting the way people perceive the message in the first place News Release Checklist Forget about it PR Goals vs Corporate Goals Outputs activities undertaken in PR campaign research contact media journalists social media Outtakes results of activities undertaken to show that these have worked prove increase in traffic of social media clippings show journalism stories Outcomes actual change that your actions have caused people start thinking or doing differently because of what you have put out there more business for a company often take years History of why Ethics is so important we live in a world where the line between what39s real and what39s not is blurred that didn39t used to be how it was Short answer six but only need to answer five 22415 A Theoretical Basis for PR Recall The PR Process Research gt Planning gt Communication gt Evaluation Choosing a Message for the Right Reasons Theory Predictions about the way things work or what will happen Prediction of how events and actions are related Ex A wellknown theory is Evolution Theories of Persuasion amp Social In uence Persuasion an attempt to change modify completely shape create anew awareness reinforce to make what exists stronger Outcomes Awareness accepting for the first time Attitudes predisposition to likedislike Beliefs assessments that things are true or false Behavior observable actions Social In uence Theories Social Exchange Theory we make social decisions in the same way we make economic decisions We consider consequences to our actions We choose actions that keep costs low and rewards high Examples of Campaigns that would benefit from Social Exchange Theory Ex Thrift stores same stuff for cheap Sprint saying they39ll cut your bill in half Any sort of green campaign Community college Don39t appeal to value appeal to savings The Social Norms ADDroach In general people prefer to act like everyone else Descriptive Norms Refer to one39s perception of what most others actually do Iniunctive Norms Refer to one39s perception of what others believe to be appropriate conduct 3315 Potentgnl Publics or Spokesneonle Mavens know a lot about one particular subject Persuaders they are natural spreaders of information Connectors people who are wellconnected Elaboration Likelihood Model Central and Peripheral Routes high level of involvement takes the central route low level of involvement takes the peripheral route Involvement linked to argument strength when involved arguments are required when you aren39t source credibility is all that is required Popular Strategies Identification Makes ads relatable by playing on hopes fears desires or aspirations Suggestion of Action People will endorse ideas that are accompanied by a proposed and convenient action Familiarity and Trust People accept ideas from sources they are familiar with and trust Clarity Message is easy to understand Pitch Letters Gettin2 Press Coverage A suggested story idea submitted to individual journalists via email Gives reporter an idea for a story they could write Pitch letters are short and they are just ideas nothing formalized Components Why are you sending it to this someone in particular If you39ve already done some research you should refer them to this too 3515 Writin2 for Different Platforms Is This Enough The Emerging World of PR Traditional Media Social Media Even in the World of Print Journalism So much output Longer lengths etc Solution Thinkabout Storv Features Before Platform Questions you should ask target audience who uses what outlets topic consistent or relevant frequency of publication Length certain outlets are better than others based on how long your release needs to be Ex Twitter for WhiteOut announcement at a basketball game good Story Type serious funny etc funny things go to Twitter YouTube Buzzfeed gt serious may go to HuffPost NY Times Online etc Feature a story and then every substory around that topic Ex Undisputed Champs riots Who will be quarterback Audience Goals as they relate to time prominence audience finances Cost how can you get free press Kev Ouestion When Would Print J ourn sm Be Ide Why have it anymore When is it preferable to have print When there is more credibility want the keepsakes you want news specific to an area When it is timely you want to know about something immediately Gettin2 Into It Writin2 in the Medig Environment 1
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