Nutrition 210 NUTRITN 210
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This 70 page Bundle was uploaded by Jena Wilcox on Friday January 30, 2015. The Bundle belongs to NUTRITN 210 at University of Massachusetts taught by Jerusha Peterman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 179 views. For similar materials see SciFoodPrinciples&MealPlanning in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
Nutrition 210 04032014 12314 Learning Objectives 1 0 List sensory criteria and components and describe how they are used for food selection 0 List nutritional criteria and describe how they are used for food selection 0 Describe how cultural criteria can affect food selection and give examples Preview Questions 0 What are sensory criteria used for food selection 0 What are examples of nutritional criteria 0 What are examples of cultural Food selection 0 Wide variety of foods available 0 Competition among food companies 0 Selection criteria Sensory Nutritional Cultural Religious Psychological Budgetary 0 00000 Sensory Sight 0 Color 0 In uences taste o Palatability color palette 0 Odor 0 Quality and desirability o Differentiation 20004000 odors Taste 0 Most in uential 0 Sweet sugars glycols aldehyde sour concentration of hydrogen ions acidic bitter phenolic compounds alkaloids salty ionized salts savory umami glutamate Touch 0 Texture 0 Structure 0 Mouth feel 0 Chemethesis Hearing 0 Ripeness Nutritional Criteria 0 2 reason in US change in eating practices 0 Changes in practices from 1960s 0 1990s and fat 0 US government guidance 0 Dietary guidelines for Americans 0 ChooseMyPIategov 0 Nutrition facts panel 0 Health 0 Complementary medicine o Nutrigenomics 0 Functional food Cultural Criteria 0 Ethnic in uences o Immigrant populations 0 Host populations 0 Place of birth 0 Geography and climate Manner hands utensils amount of food Religious Criteria 0 Religious rituals o Christians and bread and wine 0 Holiday foods 0 Turkey or ham for Christmas 0 Chinese for new years celebrations 0 Eggs on Easter 0 Catholic and sh on Fridays Buddhism 0 300M Buddhists worldwide 0 Karana compassion and karma 0 Vegetarianism common Hinduism o 930M Hindus worldwide o Vegetarianism common for some it is against beliefs to kill an animal 0 Strict Hinduism No poultry No eggs No animal esh Dairy products OK Some no garlic onions mushrooms turnips lentils and tomatoes EXTRA CREDIT WHY SeventhDay Adventist Church 0 About 17M worldwide 0 Vegetarianism recommended 40 of members 0 Mormon Church 0 About 14M worldwide 0 Discouraged alcohol coffee and tea 0 Encouraged minimal meat consumption regular physical activity Judaism 0 13M worldwide 0 Kosher Law focus kosher animals only no blood no mixing meat and milk Three groups meat dairy pareve Separate utensils time between milk and meat Not all practice eating kosher Holiday dietary practices including fasting 0 Non kosher carnivorous animals pork sh without scales birds of prey Islam 00 lB Muslims worldwide 0 Ramadan 9th month in lunar calendar fast from dawn to sunset 0 Eid alFitr feast of breaking the fast conclusion of Ramadan fasting o Halal permitted and Haram prohibited No blood Correct slaughtering No carrion No intoxicants No pork carnivorous animals with fangs birds with sharp claws land animals without ears sharks products from pork of horns or hooves of cattle 0 12814 Psychological and Social 0 Food security vs food insecurity Advertising 0 Social conscience 0 Eating environment 0 Social norms Bioengineering Genetically modi ed foods GMOs 0 DNA moved from one species to another via bacteria 0 New species created 0 Existing species improved 0 Uses increase resistance to pests disease growing climate transport damage spoilage Biotechnology Categorization 0 Actual food 0 Foods derived from or with ingredients of actual food 0 Foods with single ingredients or additives from GMOs 0 Foods with ingredients from enzymes produced by GMO foods 0 Examples ripeningdelayed fruits grains with increased protein golden rice Concerns o Allergies 0 Gene contamination o Religiouscultural concerns 0 General view 0 More accepting of changes to plants than to animals sh 0 FDA says no risk to health or safety Food evaluation 0 Covered in lab Basic food chemistry 0 Elements join to produce molecules and compounds 0 Body can break down some compounds and form new ones Water 0 Essential to life 0 Medium for carrying nutrients and waste 0 Sources 0 Liquids 0 Foods Free easily separated from foods a Good medium for dissolving a Orange Bound part of chemical structure of food a Hard to remove a Resistant to freezing and drying n Bread Speci c heat amount of energy to heat is highest known Amount of energy to heat 1 mL of water 1 degree C water 1 Freezing point 32 F O C Melting point Boiling point 212 F 100 C Higher altitudes water boils at a lower temperature Heat 0 Transfers 0 Moderate effect Moistheat cooking methods 0 Use water to transfer heat 0 Boiling simmering steaming stewing braising Solvent dissolves many things Essential to microorganisms o Removing waterl fewer microorganisms Water activity 0 Higher more spoilage 0 Lower less spoilage Osmosis and osmotic pressure o Salting increases osmotic pressure l dehydration 0 Sugar increases osmotic pressure l dehydration Carbohydrates Sugars starches bers 0 Primary source 0 Plants Grains Legumes Fruit Some veggies Milk Glycogen in muscles Major monosaccharide o Glucose Major sugar in food Unit of starch glycogen Dextrose o Fructose Sweetest Primarily in fruits o Galactose Pa rt of lactose Less sweet tasting Oligosaccharides 0 Found in dried beans raf nos stachyose 0 not well digested by humans 0 used for bulking in lowcalorie foods 0 not cariogenic don t produce calories polysaccharides o digestible starch glycogen o indigestible ber 0 glycogen animal starch all glucose locanns a liver In muscles branched molecules a glucose easily ready converted to lactic acid in slaughtering small amount in shell sh o starch glucose from photosynthesis stored as starch a source examples rice tapioca wheat potatoes forms amylose and amylopectin know the difference 13014 0 ber 0 dietary in food 0 not digested by humans no calories 0 net carbs vs actual carbs o insoluble don t dissolve in water important for stool bulk softness may play a role in diverticulosis possibly cancer wheat cellulose a part of plant cell wall a herbivores digestive systems can digest we cannot digest hemicellulose a mixture of monosaccharides a broken down by baking soda mushy vegetable o soluble dissolve in water important for cholesterol heart health oats and oat bran fruits pectin substance a between and within cell walls of fruits and veggies inulin I found in asparagus Jerusalem artichoke and garlic a commercially from chicory root u used to give creamy texture for nofat foods also recently used to add ber n can contribute to GI distress for some people that cannot tolerate inulin Lipids Not soluble in water soluble in organic compounds Lipids usually called fats in food not strictly true Fats solid at room temp most animal foods Oils liquid at room temperature most plant foods 0 Visible v invisible Types 0 Triglycerides Glycerol backbone Fatty acids a Number of carbons a Degree of saturation Essential n Linoleic n6 n Linolenic n3 o Phospholipids Water soluble end Fat soluble end Emulsi ers o Sterols Testosterone Estrogen Adrenal Vitamin D Cholesterol Plant Sterols n Naturally found in plants a FDA food claim for decreased CVD risk 0 Fat functions 0 Add avor and texture 0 Transport ADEK fatsoluble vitamins Proteins Amino acids joined by peptide bonds 0 Essential 0 Nonessential 0 Complete protein all aa present most animal foods 0 Type od amino acid determined by side group extra credit is hemp seed a complete protein 0 Protein functions in food 0 Hydration Dissolve in and attract water lgels network of protein strands trapping in water resulting in a rm structure 0 denaturationcoagulation denaturation disruption of structure coagulation clotting or precipitation o enzymatic reactions holoenzyme protein nonprotein o buffering amphoteric o browning maillard enzymatic Vitamins and Mineral o Vitamins organic 0 Fat soluble ADEK 0 Water soluble everything else 0 Minerals not destroyed by heat light oxygen 0 Function in food 0 Regulate metabolic functions 0 Enrichment nutrients lost in processing added back thiamin ribo avin folate niacin iron 0 Forti cation extra nutrients added to food iodine vitamins A and D Antioxidants o Neutralize free radicals Increase shelf life Good for health 0 Sodium o Preservatives 0 Provides avor 0 Multiple forms Safety of US Food Supply 0 Many federal and state regulations CDC and outbreaksfoodborne illnesses Lawsuits for negligence CDC estimates 0 1 in 6 Americans get a foodborne illness 0 48M illnesses 0 128K hospitalizations 0 3K deaths new food safety law 0 FDA can issue recalls o More inspections emphasis on higher risk foods 0 Safety plans 0 Sciencebased standard for food risk FDA proposed standards 0 Focus on preventative controls for human food 0 Applies to facilities that manufacture process pack or hold human food 0 Food safety plan Hazard analysis Risk based preventative controls Monitoring procedures Corrective actions Ven cann Record keeping name of the law for extra credit Foodborne Illness Causes 0 Bacteria o Molds 1 cause of foodborne illness 90 types of bacterial foodborne illness B infection a intoxication or poisoning n toxinmediated infection infection bacteria replicate and cause infection through colonization salmonella listeria shigella intoxication or poisoning bacteria grow in food and release toxins into food that cause illness botulinum toxinmediated infection bacteria enter the intestinal tract and start producing toxin in intestine Ecoli Produce mycotoxins Some are carcinogenic Visible bloom on foods Susceptible foods I Jams n Jellies n Salty meats Food safety a Musty smelling cloths a Black spots in fridge o Viruses Need living cell to multiply All foodborne viruses transmitted oralfecal route Hepatitis A n Oralfecal not washing hands a Polluted shell sh and vegetable beds Norwalk n Contaminated shell sh a Water with raw sewage o Parasites Need a host to survive lt500year in US roundworms trichinella spiralis herring worms codworms n undercooked pork n uncooked or undercooked sh protozoa giardia cryptosporidium cyclospora n animals of one cell B infection through contaminated water 0 Prions Infectious protein particle without DNA or RNA Mad Cow Disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE n Puts holes in brain brain like sponge n Incubation of months years to decades Transmission I Probably from livestock fed slaughtered sick livestock n Rendered carcasses banned as feed 0 Toxins 0 Symptoms In ammation of GI tract Nausea Abdominal cramps Diarrhea Vomiting o Susceptible populations Very young Very old Compromised immune systems percentage of food borne illnesses derived from animal products 2614 0 New virulent biological hazards 0 Changes in existing microorganism 0 Examples E coli Norwalk virus C jejuni L monocytogenes Chemical hazards o Histamine food poisoning 0 Red tide shell sh Growth of reddish marine algae Warm surface temp high nutrient content low salinity and calm seas Paralytic shell sh poisoning o Vulnerable foods conditions 0 O 0000 oVu 000000 0 High water activity High protein content great nutrient source for bacteria Low acid content Suf cient oxygen for bacteria Extensively handled foods Crosscontamination nerable Food Examples Meat Meatloaf Hamburger Salads Egg dishes Green beans Fresh fruits and vegetables 0 Prevention 0 0 Location Restaurants most outbreaks smaller due to smaller distribution of food Food processing plants 3 of outbreaks issue because of wide distribution of food Personnel Food service personnel Training Personal hygiene Meat 0 0 Purchasing I Written speci cation Inspection I On delivery Storage I The danger zone for bacterial growth is between 40140 Should be below 40 and above 140 165 kills the bacteria Thawing I Fridge bottom shelf I Submerged under running water Crosscontamination I Raw meat cooked meat fresh foods I Washing Cookingheating I Minimum internal temperature I Heating and reheating CooHng I To 40 degrees within 4 hours of cooking Sanitation I 3 compartment sink pest control types of meat 0 0 beef and veal lamb and mutton 0 pork 0 other deer elk moose horse kangaroo possum squirrel composition 0 Structure Water Muscle Connective tissue Adipose tissue Bone 0 Nutrient pro le 0 Lean 7 grams protein 3 gram fat 55 calories 0 mediumfat 7 grams protein 5 grams fat 75 calories 0 highfat 7 grams 8 grams fat 100 calories 0 muscle 0 most protein 0 muscle bundle of connective tissue 0 part of ligaments and tendons 0 holds muscle cells together 0 coHagen tough and brous converts to gel with moist heat hydrolyze connective tissue to gelatin muscles used for movement neck shoulders legs ank increase with age of animal 0 elastin does not soften only found in neck and shoulder fat tissue 0 cover fat on outside of meat separable often trimmed o marbling within muscles notseparable higher price 0 color and texture white yellow carotenoid pigments in feed fat makeup of feed in uence fat makeup of meat grading o voluntary USDA quality grades marbling prime most saturated fat choice select others standard commercial utility cutter canner 21114 0 Preparation heating 0 Tendernessjuiciness Loss of weight Collagen denatures at 102 degrees Fahrenheit and collapses at 149 degrees Fahrenheit Searing pan fry at high initial temp caramelizes outside seals in avor Blanching brie y boil lose watersoluble compounds 0 Flavor Protein coagulation Breakdown of fats organic acids Trace CH0 0 Prepartation dry heat 0 Usually used for tender cuts 0 Roasting o Broiling and grilling Preparation moist heat 0 Usually for less tender cuts 0 Braising Browning rst 0 Simmering or stewing o Microwaving Decrease juiciness Don t brown meats Do not kill all pathogens Inferior taste 0 Other Issues 0 Antibiotics 20M lbsyear antibiotics withheld prior to slaughter may spread of drug resistant bacteria 0 Hormones Used to promote weight gain Allowed in US with cattle and sheep Forbidden in EU Pigment o Pigment containing proteins Myoglobin main Hemoglobin small amount in meat 0 Red from myoglobin concentration 0 O O Heavily exercised muscle Increase with age Species Oxygen Heat red bright redgrayish brown excess storage yellow green faded Extra ctives 0 Contribute to avor 0 Most common creatinine and creatine 0 Others urea uric acid 0 Depends on age 0 Water soluble Cooking liquid as gravy Tenderness 0 Cut 0 Age 0 Heredity 0 Diet grain nished vs grass fed 0 Marbling o Slaughtering conditions 0 Aging beef not pork or veal 0 Arti cial tenderizing lnspchon 0 Federal meat inspection act of 1906 Crossing state lines Imported USDA food safety and inspection service Guarantee of wholesomeness not quality 0 Additional laws Processed meats o Nitrite keeps meats from turning brown Pink meats o Concern with cancer Animal studies Epidemiological studies and cancer 0 Help prevent botulism 22014 0 13 of sold meats 0 ex ham bacon sausage salami bologna bratwurst pastrami 0 methods curing smoking canning drying Storage refrigeration 0 Best ar 3226 0 0 Storage freezing 0 At or below 0 degrees 0 612 months 0 freezer burn Poultry 0 Types 0 Chicken 0 Turkeys o Ducks o Geese o Quail o Pigment 0 White and dark meat skinless Depends on amount of myoglobin Nutrient Pro le 0 Same as meat 0 Type and style 0 Readytocook whole Less expensive I More prep onger cooking 0 Convenience smaller pieces deboned Less prep shorter cooking time 0 Ground chicken and turkey Fat and sat fat I Quality 99 lean dry and hard to work with o Additives I Sodium solution injected I Solution with gluten o Nuggets and related products I Tenders I Paste of minced meat skin fat salt I Battered and fried I Additives salt msg sodium erythrobate o Precooked ready to eat I More fat I Salt 0 Preparation 0 Safety I Thawing refrigerator I Wash I Stuf ngtemperature 165F I Brining 0 Storage I Contamination issues I Refrigeration Fish 0 Tenderness o Collagen lower than meat or poultry 0 AA content lower temp for collagen gel 0 Muscle structure short arranged in myotomes 0 Pigments o Myoglobin Red salmon White sole Mixed tuna Wild salmonsteelhead trout carotenoids from crustaceans and krill Farmed salmonsteelhead trout different carotenoids from feed 0 Inspection and grading 0 both voluntary o inspchon I sh condition processing plant condition national marine sheries service of US 0 Condition and Contaminants o Freshness smell skin condition 0 Mercury contamination Brain development Pregnant women n Shark sword sh king mackerel tile sh n Up to 1202week from other sources I Tuna steaks more mercury vs canned tuna Loca waters 0 Preparation raw 0 Potential hazards especially mollusks 0 Types 0 Storage Bacteria Viruses Parasites Sashimi Ceviche 0 Fresh n sh Consume within 12 days coldest portion of the refrigerator Spoilage factors bacteria proteolytic enzymes natural toxins contaminants bacterial enzymes I lead to histamines 0 Fresh shell sh Eat day of purchase Only use live shell sh other than shrimp 0 Freezing Must be done if not cleaned within 24 hours Lean sh lasts longer than fatty Up to nine months 0 Omega3 Fatty Acids 0 Fatty sh I Salmon Steelhead and rainbow trout Mackerel Herring Sardines 0 Recommendations 4 ounce serving of sh 2 times per week 0 Shrimp 0 Wild caught 0 Maine shrimp 0 Farmed Antibiotic use Almost always imported 3414 Milk 0 Composition nutrients o Skim milk has more calcium than whole milk because the calcium is in the water soluble portion of the milk 0 Carbohydrate Lactose glucose galactose Lactose intolerance n Lactase de ciency n Fermented milk products 0 Protein Complete protein a Casein 80 whey 18 leftover from cheese used as emulsi ers foaming and gelling agents I Added to food to increase texture mouthfeel moisture retention avor protein pro le 0 Low lactose Milk and substitutes o Cow s milk 0 Soy milk Usually calcium forti ed 0 Rice milk Usually calcium forti ed o Almond milk Often calcium forti ed o 300mg calcium per cup 0 Cultured Milk Products 0 Buttermilk Bacteria added Lactose lactic acid Substitute at home 0 Yogurt Bacteria added Lactose lactic acid Cultures I Killed with heat I Live when chilled a Treatment for diarrhea immunity support digestion o Sour cream 0 Composition 0 Forti ed with vitamins A and D Not required in whole milk or reduced fat Added by 98 of milk processes 0 Minerals Calcium 300mgcup P K Mg Na 120mg Na cup 0 ribo avin exposure to light Additives 0 Conventional Vitamins A and D Recombinant bovine growth hormone No steroid growth hormone Antibiotics Pesticides in feed 0 Organic Vitamins A and D No rbGH No steroid growth hormone No antibiotics No pesticides in feed 0 Pasteurization 0 Milk as a growth medium for bacteria Typhoid diphtheria scarlet fever tuberculosis 0 Heating for short time below boiling point 245 161 kills 100 of pathogenic bacteria yeast molds 9599 of other bacteria remaining can convert lactosel lactic acid inactivates many enzymes activity of alkaline phosphatase tested raw milk 0 raw milk available in some states 0 makes up lt1 of milk sales about 23 of all milk related disease outbreaks 0 Massachusetts only through direct sale from the farm 0 USDA recommendation do not consume raw milk 0 Associated with decreased allergies but also a lot of other potential confounders Ultrapasteurization 0 Higher than regular temperatures 0 Extends shelf life 0 UHT ultrapasteurization sterile packaging Destroys more bacteria Unrefrigerated shelf life up to 3 months Homogenization o Prevents separation of water and fat 0 Lead to some changes Other Varieties o Chocolate avored milk 13 g added sugar8 oz serving 26gChug same nutrient pro le 0 eggnog serving size is 12 cup 68 milk fat 2x whole milk 0 canned milk evaporated sweetened condensed Cheese 0 Classi cation 0 Production 0 Yield 10 lbs milk 1b 9 lbs whey 1 cup milk 1 ounce cheese 0 pasteurization o coagulation of casein enzyme rennin chymosin rennet bacterial starters molds acid a loss of 14 12 of Ca in whey I usually not aged 0 Nutrient Pro le 0 Fat Contributes to satiety avor texture 9g fatoz 6g sat fat low fat varieties n lt6g fat lt20mg cholesterol lt500mg Naoz a taste texture fatfree n ricotta mozzarella yogurt cheese a taste texture 0 protein I 7902 0 CH0 Very little lactose lactic acid 0 Vitamins A amp D retained Watersoluble lost 0 Minerals Calcium 200mgoz Sodium average 400mgoz 0 Preparation amp cooking properties 0 Shredability 4 oz 1 cup 0 Meltability Fat Moisture 0 Temperature Heat at low temperature Heat for a short time Ripened serve at room temperature Unripened serve chilled o Shred before freezing Eggs 0 Egg white has Selenium 0 Eggs and cholesterol 0 AHA guidelines lt300mg cholesterolday if healthy lt200mg cholesterolday if have CHD or high LDL o USDA Nutrition Evidence Library Moderate evidence that cholesterol linked to CVD 1 eggday NOT associated with CHD or stroke risk less than 7 eggs per week associated with increased CHD and stroke risk Substitutes 0 Lower saturated fat and cholesterol 0 Lower calories 0 Lower protein 0 Increased sodium 0 Pasteurized 0 Valueadded eggs 0 Nutrient content Lower cholesterol Higher n3 fatty acids Higher vitamin E levels 0 Conditions of hens Free rangecagefree Natural grains Not animal by products Organic I Humane I No added hormones 0 Functions in foods 0 Emulsi ng I Lecithin in yolk I Thickener stabilizer 0 Binding I High protein content I Heat coagulates proteinl adhesive 0 Foaming I 68x original size I only egg white 0 boiling eggs I hot start I boil water rst then add eggs I separates membrane from shell I less chance of green I ess rubbery I cold start I bring to a boil remove from heat when boils cover tightly and sit for 1520 minutes I less likely to crack I iron and sulfur simmer 0 Storage 0 Whole Best in carton large ends up Don t wash protective coating 1 month in fridge 1 week recommended 0 separated 2 days yolks 4 days whites 0 storage eggs 0 pasteurized Fruits and Vegetables Phytochemicals o Nonnutritive compounds in plants with protective health bene ts Inhibit cancer in lab animals Other disease prevention substances 0 Provide I Color Flavor Carotenoids o Fatsoluble I Do not leak out into water 0 Converted to vitamin A o Antioxidant Quench free radicals Protect against oxidative damage 0 Stimulate immune function o Decrease risk of heart disease and cancer protect eyes 32714 Cereal Grains Know components of a grain Husk is not found in any grains but used in some ber products because it is high in ber The bran is present in the whole grain 15 of grain important source of ber vitamins and minerals The germ has fat incomplete proteins b vitamins n whole grains The endosperm is where all the CH0 is stored base of ours Additives in Products 0 Fatsoluble vitamins 0 Water soube vitamins o Preservatives BHT BHA I Other oxidants o Enrichment Nutrients lost in processing added back Thiamin ribo avin folate niacin iron Cereal Grain Uses 0 Flour 0 Breakfast cereal Seventh day Adventists and John Harvey Kellogg Charles William Post and William Keith Kellogg I Market 75 of cereals are RTE Shaping depends on preparation method o Alcoholic beverages 0 Animal feed 0 Pasta 0 Nutrient Pro le 0 Calories 8090 kcal per 12 cup 0 CHO 159 per 12 cup ber n lt19 per 12 cup for re ned n 3g per 12 cup for whole brown rice high is arsenic also a recommendation 12 of grains should be whole protein a usually incomplete except quinoa a 39 per 12 cup 0 fat and cholesterol very low fat no cholesterol plant source 0 vitamins and minerals whole vs re ned lost in milling thiamin ribo avin niacin BG panthothenic acid folate vitamin E replaced thiamin ribo avin whole grain health bene ts 0 components ber vitamins and minerals phytochemicals CVD Cancer Blood glucose and risk of diabetes Total risk of death How much do you need Recommended 3 servingsday Start to see bene t 1 servingday 0 Grain types 0 Wheat gluten Different species Forms berries rolled wheat cracked wheat bulgar wheat farina wheat germ wheat bran our re ned and whole grain 0 Rice gluten free Staple for greater than half the world Grain long medium short cultural preference Forms white converted instant brown glutinous specialty rice bran Wild 0 Cornmaize gluten free Pellagra tryprophan and niacin o Barley gluten I Forms hulled pot pearled aked grits malt o Oats gluten free but often contaminated Forms oats steelcut rolled bran OOOOO 0 Grain Types 0 Millet gluten free 0 Sorghum gluten free 0 Rye gluten 0 Pasta 0 Regular 2g ber 2 ounces 0 whole grain 5g ber 2 ounces 0 partial whole grain 4g ber 2 ounces 4314 0 Flours 0 Starch Strengthens through gelatinization Contributes to crumb texture of interior of baked product Color sweetness o Gluten gliadin glutenin Contribute to rming light airy texture Expands with inner pressure of gases 0 Steps to Gluten Formation Hydration a Higher protein more water absorbed a Water draws glutenin and gliadin from crushed endosperm start to l gluten Kneading n Compress and stretch increase gluten strength I Distributes yeasts n Redistributes air bubbles n Warms dough I Gluten net Lipids l exact role is not known 0 Celiac Disease Immune reaction to gluten n Damage to SI D Other physical damage I Result malabsorption and malnutrition Time from Sx to diagnoses a US 10 year Italy lt1 month 0 Wheat Flours 0 White only endosperm Bread higher gluten content All purpose less protein Pastry lower protein Cake very low protein Gluten our contributes to moister bread Graham not whole wheat today 0 Whole wheat entire kernel refrigerate Bran s granules cut gluten strands White whole wheat Nonwheat ours 0 000000 0 Rice our Chickpea our Rye our Cornmeal our Soy our Buckwheat our Triticale our Potato our 0 Leavening agents 0 O 0 Physical Air Steam pie crusts pastry cream puffs popovers Biological C02 Yeast need sugarairwarmthtime n Temp best 100115 degrees F nonegt 130 degrees F n Storage best refrigerated or frozen I Bacteria from starter n Sourdough n Saltrising breads Chemical C02 Baking soda moisture acid n Requires 14 teaspoon per cup not usually used alone except with acidic ingredients I Should be cooked immediately after mixing Baking powder no additional acid needed I Baking soda cream of tartar acid Amount of leavening n Too much falls coarse texture n Too little compact heavy Starches o Gelatinization Process starch heated in liquid HBonds in starch weaken water penetrates swelling n Increase volume gumminess 0 Starch Characteristics Gel formation gelation after gelatinization n Sol uid starch paste a Gel semisolid starch paste form after gelatinized sol has cooled n Dependent on enough amylose molecules 0 Corn starch Retrogradation n Seepage 48 0 Sweeteners 0 Nutrient pro le 4kcallg 1 teaspoon 4g o sugars extraction from plant source re ned CHO 4kcalg 1 food additive by weight in US sources a soft drinks a candy I ketchup a fruit canned in heavy syrup n nondairy creamers o Sucrose table sugar Source n Sugar 60 n Sugar beets 40 a No difference postprocessing n Molasses as byproduct Sucrose types a Raw not legal in US a Turbinado often label quotrawquot a White further re ned turbinado n Powdered pulverized white granulated a Brown rice syrup a Brown molasses syrup added to white sugar I Evaporated can juice 0 Quick Breads 0 Bake immediately after mixing 0 Leavened during baking Air Steam C02 0 Basic ingredients Flour Liquid Salt Leavening 0 May also have Eggs Sugar 0 Preparation Factors n Consistency of batter 0 Don t want gluten development mix just until moist Cooking temperature I Muf n method 0 Sift dry ingredients together 0 In a separate bowl combine moist ingredients 0 Stir together just until moistened but still lumpy n Toothpick test clean toothpick from center Pour batters El El 1 cup our 1 cup liquid pancakes o muffin method 0 baking powder crepes thin pancakes 0 not muffin method blender or hand mixture 0 more with liquid less concern with gluten formation batter made in advance and allowed to sit steam waf es more fat than pancakes beaten egg whites crispness and lightness baking powder popovers o muffin method but beaten until free of lumps 0 very thin batter l leavening with steam 2 eggscup of our for structure hard to form gluten with so much h20 drop batters El El 1 cup our 12 34 cup liquid muffins o 112 ourliquid o mixing muffin method avoids over mixing undermixing 0 acids and baking powder vs baking soda a muffin breads boston brown bread a coffee cakes nutsraisin brown sugar and butter topping baking powder a dumplings o simmered in water stock gravy need plenty of liquid overcookingl eggs toughen dough a two kinds 0 stiff rm 1 cup our 18 cup liquid 0 soft 1 cup our 13 cup liquid n leavened by steam n types tortillas chapatis biscuits 0 1 13 0 short kneading 0 dry ingredients mixed together fat cut In scones 0 similar to biscuits but also eggs and milk or cream 0 baking powdersoda 0 Yeast breads Ingredients n Flour n Liquid n Sugar optional if really long rise time n Salt n Yeast Optional fat and or eggs I Importance of gluten in yeast breads Additives n None in fresh homebaked bread a Used in commercial breads to o Inhibit mold 0 Provide stability 0 Increase shelf life 0 Improve texture Common mixing methods a Straight dough method 0 All ingredients placed in a bowl together and mixed 0 Kneadedl gluten o Allowed to rise 12x n Batter method 0 No kneading required 0 Ingredients mixed until sticky but not sticking to sides 0 Used for rolls buns l bread with more coarse porous texture kneading n develops gluten a result smooth soft nonsticky surface a right amount 0 10 minutes by hand 0 gluten window 0 4 minutes with stand mixture I fermentation I rst rise C02 production from yeast and food grease dough 0 large bowl covered 0 warm humid environment until 2x volume I changes in dough o more acidic carbonic acid formed from C02 and H20 lactic and acetic acid from yeast 0 alcohol evaporates during baking a overfermentation l collapsed dough coarse grain sourodor dough preparation a punching down 0 additional kneading a shaping into loaf n proo ng 0 nal rising in pan or on sheet 0 creates properly aerated dough baking El El decorating just before baking usually 400 degrees Fahrenheit for 1st 1015 min then 350 for nal 30 minutes 0 oven spring quick expansion of dough during 1st 10 minutes of baking color maillard reaction rxn of a sugar protein l brown color crumb development gases from fermentation and air from kneading altitude less yeast more liquid types of yeast bread El loaf white 0 whole wheat sourdough o malt speciality special cooking methods 0 special ingredients rolls many shapes pita bread 0 round pocket bread 0 very hot oven l pocket formation bageb English muffins a Pizza crust n Pretzels and bread sticks n Doughnuts Fresh I Eat within 12 days a Preventing staling Refrigeration a Not usually recommended speeds staling Freezing n Maintains texture avor of fresh bread a Best if thawed at room temperature a Dough 41714 Fats and oils 0 Function Heat transfer a Transfer heat to foods without burning them a Minimal saut ing n Moderate panfrying n Submersiondeepfrying Deep fat frying Quickly cooked Several stages 0 Moisture transfer 0 Fat transfer 0 Crust formation 0 Interior cooking Shortening Power a Impedes gluten softer more tender n Essential to pastries pie crusts biscuits cakes I Increased saturation increased shortening power a Separates starch and protein a Melts into dough when heated air space Emuan n Liquid dispersed in other liquid in which it is usually not capable of being mixed a Two kinds 0 Oil in water most food mayo sauces 0 Water in oil less in food butter margarine n Stability 0 Temporary Semipermanent Permanent 0 Melting Point Degree of saturation Length Cistrans con guration Crystalline structure 0 Other properties Texture a Smooth creamy mouthfeel n Tenderizing n Lubricating Appearance n Pigments butter milk a Oil coating chicken pastries chocolate Satiety feeling full n Take longer to digest than CHO n Delay stomach emptying o Oils Extraction n Coldpress mechanically pressed most avor I Expeller pressed high pressures some heat retain most avor color aroma nutrients a Chemical solvents most inexpensive ose nutrients avor Re ning n Unre ned salad oils 0 Saturated Link to CVD n Decrease removal of LDL from blood a Contribute to plaque formation a Increase blood TG eves Source animal products Recommendation lt7 of kcal 0 Trans Linked to CVD n Increased LDL levels a Decreased HDL levels Sources hydrogenated fats baked good some chips some margarine nondairy creamers popcorn Look for quottrans fatquot on nutrition facts panel quotpartially hydrogenatedquot in ingredients Avoid 0 Hydrogenation Reasons I Can be heated higher without smoking a Increases shelf life a Contributes to aky pie crusts and creamy puddings Process a Hydrogen pumped into unsaturated FA a Double carbon bonds break rotate I Some carbons accept hydrogen form single bonds I Some reform as trans bondstrans fatty acid 0 Monosaturated Link to CVD n Decrease LDL cholesterol Sources olives olive oil nuts 0 Polyunsaturated Omega3 link to CVD n Decrease in ammation n Sources fatty sh ax seed canola oil walnuts I Eat more Omega6 link to CVD is unclear n lncrease in ammation n Sources vegetable oils corn oils seed oils I Use omega3 instead 0 Frying 350450 degrees F faster heating compared with boiling traits of good fatsoils for frying a little avor I smoke point 0 much higher than boiling waterl DANGEROUS varies by oil type a ash point 0 600 and 700 degrees F 0 don t use water to put out fatgrease re 0 use baking soda 0 reducing fat in cooking a moistheat and dryheat preparation methods a saut ing and stirfrying instead of panfrying and deepfrying in recipes I know the contributors and use less meat a fruit puree for 12 fat a single crust instead of double crust u change the condiments 42214 know allium for the nal Cakes and Cookies 0 Basic types of cakes o Shortened butter or conventional Leavened with baking powder or soda air also types yellow plain white chocolate spice fruitcakes pound cake leavened only by air and steam o unshortened cakes sponge or foam cakes beaten egg white little or no fat types angel food sponge meringue dacquoise roulade o chiffon hybrid of shortened and unshortened include fat types lemon and chocolate 0 cake ingredients 0 contribute to strength our and eggs too much tough and or dry 0 provide moisture and tenderness sugar and fat too much too weak cake wont set 0 our provides structure when starch gelatinizes and proteins form gluten 0 sugar tenderizes by diluting our proteins sweetness increases volume browns crust 0 milk hydrates dry ingredients 0 leavening agents gas air and or steam 0 fat tenderize through shortening vmume avor olive oil increase moistness ois not used from scratch strengthen structure increase leavening emulsi es coor avor 0 salt for avor food additives 0 not in cakes made from scratch 0 present in commercial mixes cakes and toppings bakingstorage 0 baking conditions 325350 degrees F 25 degrees cooler for glass 0 changes during baking increase volume structure set protein and starch browned crust maillard rxn and carmelization 0 storage stale quickly cover frosting to decrease moisture loss 0 types of cookies 0 bar 0 dropped 0 pressed 0 rolled o iceboxrefrigerator cookie ingredients 0 puffy soft pale cake our shortening brown sugar eggs 0 thin crisp cookies all purpose our butter baking soda corn syrup white sugar no egg 0 baking 0 cookie baking sheets except for bars low sides allow air circulation 0 temperature 325375 degrees F o Doneness Browning complete centers cooked 0 Cooling Remove from pan cool on rack Pastries and Pies Types 0 Nonlaminated Plain pastry n Pie n Ta rt n Galettes How water crust pastry n Potpies n Less aky Short or sweet dough n Includes sugar I Tartlets some crisp cookies Brioche pastry a Sweet yeast dough airy buns and loafs Choux pastry n Cream puffs ecairs a Whole eggs beaten into dough o Laminated Puff pastry a Light airy aky n Expand greatly without yeast or chemical leaveners a Fat folded into dough Blitz pastry Phyllo Croissant DanEh basic ingredients O 0000 our liquid salt sugar fat 0 eggs 0 preparation basics 0 00000 Beverages 0 water O 0000 0 cold ingredientsimpede gluten formation minimal liquid minimal handling chill relax gluten lamination involves making multiple layers of ourfat baking pyrex glass pans or dull nishes hot oven 425450 human survive only 7 days without water bottled water 2nCI most popular beverage mineral water all water that has not been dionized or distilled deionized water all mineral content removed distilled water sparkling water 0 ca rbonated beverages O O O in north America higher soft drink consumption than water huge increase in last 50 years health concerns link with obesity HFCS pH sugar and dental health bone health 42414 0 Coffee 0 Water and compounds extracted from coffee beans 0 Bitter substances polyphenols o Methylzanthines caffeine and theobromine Positive alertness increased exercise performance Negative increased heartbeat and stomach acid sleep disturbance diuretic withdrawal 0 Caffeine 130180mgcup Tea 0 Types Black fully fermented Green unfermented Oolong partially fermented White from tip buds Herbal derived from other plants 0 Compounds Polyphenolics n Tannins Methylxanthines caffeine Alcoholic beverages 0 Beer Fermented grain Malt extract of grains sugars Serving 12 ounces 0 Wine Fermented juice usually grape Average 11 alcohol Health heart disease breast cancer Serving 6 ounces 0 Spirits Distilled beverages n More alcohol than beer or wine a Vaporized cooled and condensed allows higher alcohol concentration a Proof amount of alcohol 80 proof 40 alcohol by volume I Made from many different foods Potatoes vodka Grains l gin whiskey n Serving 15 oz Food preservation 0 Methods 0 Remove foods water inhibits growth 0 Sun 0 Commercial 0 Curing Salt binds water in food water unavailable for microorganisms o Fermentation Vegetables Need CHO Salt Pickling Vinegar Salt Canning High temperature to kill microorganisms Clostridium Botulinum can t survive acidic pH below 46 min 240 degrees C Edible coating Increase shelflife appearance improve handling Allow additions Fruits and vegetables cheese nuts eggs in shell processed meat poultry sh Freezing Least damaging to avor nutrients and texture Flash freezing longer shelf life Issues freezer burn cell rupturing uid loss recrystallization Irradiation Sterilization process foods treated with low dose of gamma rays xrays or electrons Breaks chemical bonds in DNA and other molecules Doesn t kill botulinum spores or all viruses kills bacteria yeasts Consumer concerns a Free radicals Modi ed atmosphere packaging Quiz One 0 Chapters 13 chapter 4 through viruses 0 Match chemical structures with names Filling in tables 0 Very short answer 0 Fill in the blank 0 Multiple choice 0 Learning Objectives 0 List sensory criteria and components and describe how they are used for food selection Selection criteria sensory nutritional cultural religious psychological budgetary Sensory criteria include sight odor taste sweet sour bitter salty savory touch and hearing 0 List nutritional criteria and describe how they are used for food selection 2nol reason in the US for choosing food There are changes in practices like fat US government guidance and health reasons 0 Describe how cultural criteria can affect food selection and give examples Ethnic in uences immigrant populations place of birth geography and climate manners 0 Describe the religious criteria for selection of foods for the religions discussed Distinguish between different food selection criteria Buddhism 300M worldwide vegetarianism common believe in compassion and karma Hinduism 930M worldwide Vegetarianism common Some are against killing animals Strict no poultry no eggs no animal esh no garlic onions mushrooms turnips lentils or tomatoes Dairy is ok Seventhday Adventist about 17M worldwide Vegetarianism recommended Discouraged between meal snacks hot spices alcohol tea coffee Mormon Church about 14M worldwide Discouraged alcohol coffee tea Encouraged minimal meat consumption regular physical activity Judaism 13M worldwide Kosher law focus kosher animals allowed no blood no mixing meat and milk Three groups meat dairy pareve Practice fasting for hoHdays Islam 18 worldwide Ramadan fast all day Halal permitted Haram prohibited no blood correct slaughtering no carrion no intoxicants no pork Describe how psychological and social criteria can affect food selection and give examples of these criteria Describe the ways that food can be bioengineered Food security vs food insecurity advertising social conscience eating environment social norms Distinguish between subjective and objective evaluation Objective numbers tools objects Subjective senses For water describe properties sources in food speci c heat functions and role in food preservation Speci c heat amount of energy to heat For water it is 1 Freezing point is 32F and 0C and boiling point is 212F and 100C the less water the less spoilage Salting and sugar increases osmotic pressure which cause dehydration which is helpful in food preservation ln cooking used to transfer heat in boiling braising simmering steaming stewing For carbohydrates know kcalg sources speci c mono di and polysaccharides including storage form bers lDlabel chemical structures 4 kcalg found in grains legumes fruit milk Major monosaccarides glucose major sugar in food unit of starch and seen as dextrose on labels Fructose sweetest primarily in fruits Galactose part of lactose less sweet Disaccharides Sucrose glucose fructose table sugar Lactose glucose galactose in milk humans need lactase to digest Maltose glucose glucose production of beer produced when starch breaks down Polysaccharides Starch and glycogen Glycogen is animal starch Branched molecules Starch glucose stored from plants Amylose straight chain Amylopectin highly branched For lipids know kcalg sources essential FA function sterols lDlabel chemical structures 9 kcalg fats solid at room temperature Oils liquid at room temperature Sterols sex adrenal vitamin D cholesterol For proteins know kcalg sources function de ne completeincomplete lDlabel chemical structures 4 kcalg sources meat poultry beans eggs Complete proteins are all amino acids present Quiz Two Vitamins and minerals know fatsoluble vs watersoluble vitamins describe function in food de ne and give examples of enriched and forti ed distinguish between vitamins and minerals in chemical structures Fat soluble vitamins ADEK Water soluble all others b vitamins Vitamins contain Carbon Mineral cannot be destroyed by heat light or 02 Function is foods to regulate metabolic functions Enrichment is nutrients lost in processing added back Forti cation extra nutrients added to food Additives describe functions Improve appeal of foods extend storage life maximize performance protect nutrient value Plant compounds give ID examples of bene cial and harmful Bene cial anticarcinogens and antiin ammatory Harmful caffeine cyanogenic plants solanine the parts of Chapter 4 Food Safety that we did not cover in Quiz 1 Meat Poultry Fish and Seafood Highlighted Notes in Class Vulnerable foods conditions 0 O 0000 Vu OOOOOOO QUIZ 3 To retain fruit shape add sugar Tofu is soy cheese False raw milk has not been shown to decrease allergies 12 cup of starchy vegetable 90 High water activity High protein content great nutrient source for bacteria Low acid content Suf cient oxygen for bacteria Extensively handled foods Crosscontamination nerable Food Examples Meat Meatloaf Hamburger Salads Egg dishes Green beans Fresh fruits and vegetables fruits are low in minerals 59 decrease in CHD risk the American heart association s daily guideline is about the same as the amount of cholesterol in one egg which of the following statements is true 0 Conventional milk cows can be given growth hormones while organic milk cows cannot
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