Class Notes COMM 4820
Popular in Public Opinion & Communicaton
Popular in Communication Studies
This 28 page Bundle was uploaded by Becca Rickard on Friday January 30, 2015. The Bundle belongs to COMM 4820 at Ohio State University taught by George Pearson in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see Public Opinion & Communicaton in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
13015 Framing Devices Exemplar Depiction Visual Images Metaphor Catchphrases mm Representations of characters Rich Mitt Romney 39Eratic John McCain Candidate as too old Trying to make candidates look out of touch based on certain factors Ex Ronald Reagan asked about being too old successfully turns it around on opponent39s youth and inexperience Visual Images Icons and visuals used to draw reader in or frame character set in a way Trying to label candidates to make them more relatable in some way John Kerry windsur ng athletic and outdoorsy Bill Clinton sax musically inclined Obama campaign HOPE Time used the same thing years later to reinterpret amp criticize Obama39s job Metaphor Ongoing headline metaphors about politics framing them as 39battles 39wars or 39f1ghts making them seem more aggressive George Lakoff Conceptual Metaphor Love is a journey they39ve been going steady two paths met Debate is war shots red punches thrown Illness is war war on u ebola outbreaks violent Social movements are plants seeds planted for gay rights Competing Metaphors State like a mother State like a father Democrats vs Republicans issue ownership mm Summary statement on subject Catchy phrase to sum up position socialized medicine Washington takeover PC brigade Washington bureaucrats Democratic Competence How competent do we need citizens to be How intelligent to vote What do you need to educate yourselves on What role do they play How important is their vote really How do we inform citizens How do we create a system for ensuring citizens know enough Many Different Media Systems Fox BBC News North Korean News Swedish News Dichotomy one end of extreme is a very liberal free press America the press will do their job and naturally inform people gt other end of the scale is full government oversight assume that the media will meet certain standards like so many hours to news etc many restrictions on free speech North Korea gt middle of the road has some restrictions but some capabilities of free speech UK Citizens vs Consumers Are people citizens or consumers of news Do people buy into the media or do they need information Should news be entertaining Should news just be about education ldealized notion that news should be more information than entertainment but that would not sell What will people watch Mix of both with interesting cuts and side stories Walter Lippman Probably the only academic in COMM that39s not an academic no PhD or Master39s Public Opinion 1922 John Dewey Deeply engaged in education Chicago 192039s Wanted to solve poverty with education Was annoyed with Lippman39s book so he wrote his own 5 Problems with Public Opinion Are people actually aware Are people aware and competent but not enough resources Propaganda Are they being unfairly persuaded Worried because people might be too incompetent to avoid the wrong messages Are people just going with the masses Overcontrol of the people in power Lippman amp Dewey debated rst two issues LAM Believes that people are just incompetent The ordianry citizen can39t be fully engaged so they should be minimally involved Gather together and decided that the best solution is technocracy Citizens should only have to decide if they like where things are going or not No involvement in any actual issues or policies Why so Cynical People don39t really see things as they are just based off of improper world perceptions Agenda Setting is concerned with the same thing German bar graph 2008 2000 people saw crime figures from 1998 asked how they thought crimes were now Almost all people thought certain crimes like burglary amp purse theft went up but they actual went down People make decisions based on completely wrong information People gain info from easiest cheapest news source or from gossiping friends etc Dewey39s Optimism Believes the public can be competent enough to deal with things Democracy should be real Everyone can make decisions for the best possible solution as long as they are educated He did not believe that people had the resources necessary to be properly engaged Fundamental disagreement with Lippman Dewey39s Solution The system is not helping people at all Therefore they cannot participate in a democracy Lippman v Dewey Do we train people to involve themselves or to ignore everything save for satisfaction with the decisions of elites Lippman39s Lack of Faith in Press The press is a business that needs profits so it automatically becomes about entertainment over information Because of this news is actually softer gt less about hard issues more about sports weather gossip etc Because news must be condensed nonmainstream opinions are less likely to be shared Commercial business creates restrictions on views The economy use of PR softens the news not investigative People can be convinced to be persuaded Herman amp Chomsky Chomsky believes very strongly that the media is used to convert people to opinions that they don39t actually want New form of oppression 5 filters Size Ownership amp Profit Orientation Organizations naturally become larger with time Merge amp become conglomerates in order to reach more audiences Advertising What used to happen was that govts decided if a newspaper could run but now it39s all based on advertisers because they sponsor and pay for it Weakens any out of the ordinary opinions advertising is pervasive CNN To The Couch sponsored by BP Sourcing News Argues that people rely on elite sources If you speak to the president there39s automatic authority They39re trained to condense and talk to the media quickest explanation etc More uency than nonprofessionals Flak amp Enforcers If you publish something against what the norm is there will be backlash Can cause threats complaints ad withdrawls costly loss of revenue You have to defend yourself legally Greg Filo Glascow found that during the Irish Rebellion the govt placed huge pressure on the news not to run stories on the IRA 198039s UK went to war with Argentina Britain sank a ship controversial because the ship was on retreat Govt claimed defense against imminent attack Famous headlines like GOTCHA Later heavily pressured into not running stories like that AntiCommunismWar on Terror Stories that criticize govt seem unpatriotic Come off like helping the enemy so they are often blocked Criticism on Herman amp Chosky We don39t all live in a dictatorship views still get through Massive things still happen in the media Watergate scandal Wikileaks publications Attempts to stop the news essentially failed You can print pretty much anything any time anywhere Burglar Alarm Theory Zaller thinks the issue is not about highly informed massives He doesn39t think there were any glory days of debate Enlightenment was worse than it is now it39s just glorif1ed News should inform everyone to the maximum capability People need the most attention for the biggest problems Is something wrong That39s what the media should be showing people 2008 Financial Crisis says that the watchdog burglar alarm actually failed How do you maintain the media The newspaper needs to be successful needs to print everyday Often artificially create emergencies cry wolf 12315 What are the biggest issues facing America today 1 9 9999 Unemployment Economy Education Systems Health Care War on Drugs Gender Equality Abuse of WomenChildren Prison System Terrorism 10 Legal System 11 Race Relations So What is Agenda Setting Media can alter opinions on important issues Max McCombs amp Donald Shaw asked people through campaign what most important issues were Correlation was damn near perfect anything above 3 is really exciting Regardless of party democrat or republican people took cues from media TV magazine amp newspapers TV was more agreement than any other Day to day journalists agree about what should be covered In order to get political info you get it from the media Media produces stories gt opinion leaders gt still getting info from media Level of coverage in media determines how important an issue is How does it work We can only remember so much but beyond that we rely on other sources Fifteen policies repealed don39t ask don39t tell black youth Further Developments The more related you are to a problem the more it will affect you Ex Live Aid Ethiopian problems gt journalism lead to international fundraising to help the issue News Making Process Party Associate Republicans are better at taxes Democrats are better with education 2nd Level Agenda Setting Priming accessibility is how quickly you can recall info speed takes longer to recall when word before is unrelated to word asking people to recall ex bucket gt doctor vs nurse gt doctor Priming in Political Comm initial diff1culty tying the two together Priming the Presidency Iran Contra affair Reagan sold weapons Priming and Agenda Setting certain ideas go hand in hand with issues ex democrats amp education 5 Stages of Public Interest Problem phase doesn39t affect society widely but individuals Problem has to be one that commands attention convince people that it39s more salient than others Proposal phase involves groups coming together to suggest how to x problem many suggested Policy phase in which solutions are debated amp eventually one of them wins Program phase involves chosen solution to be implemented Appraisal Phase involves looking back at the problem and seeing if the intended solution is working well enough if the problem is still intact new solutions can be discussed Complex View If rational discussion isn39t had solutions won39t be reached Sometimes we have to accept that we don39t really get there If an issue becomes super salient people worry that medical procedures might start to go wrong Ex Ebola Issue Attention Cycle In order to hold attention we have to nd new problems 5 Stages Preproblem we have a big problem but we aren39t paying attention to it Alarmed discoveryeuphoric enthusiasm riots protests attack e g this dramatic event will capture the attention of the media amp public US has this perception that we can solve problems better than others Realization of costs problems won39t be easy to solve or authority disorder bias we assume political leaders can solve the problem and we won39t have to have any personal sacrif1ce lt impossible on most issues sacrif1ce needs to come to x shit Gradual Decline in Public Interest people realize that this shit is too expensivehard to x amp stop caring another issue comes into prominence anyways and replaces current issue PROBLEM STILL HASN39T BEEN FIXED People turn off issues because we39re bored with the same things being shown to us realize that the costs are just too high or they feel like they39re going to lose what39s important to them PostProblem might sporadically reclaim attention but won39t get back to peak attention that it had 11415 History of Public Opinion Invention of the Term Debatable who rst used term Early Public Opinion Athenian democracy very successful Athens seen as deliberative ideal sometimes Everyone very similar Small community Not everyone could participate Greek Attitudes to Public Opinion Aristotle valued public opinion but saw the need for movement around the different parts of public opinion values of society came from everyday life gt public opinion everyday life Plato less optimistic gt caste society setup highest ranks make decisions founding myth public opinion requires more from people than they are capable of Roman Public Opinion Less room for public opinion known as vulgus mob 1000 Years Later Two Scholars Thomas Aquinas amp Machiavelli Aquinas said people together are stronger than people separated but democracy is inherently divided democracy weaker when both good or corrupt Machiavelli played off the fear of punishment from his people in the hopes that they would obey Rousseau amp The General Will 170039s philosophical political writer who proposed direct democracy for everyone to have open discussions that could spark an idea for society that everyone can agree on general will the government then enforces this don39t agree just leave Printing Press 15th century sees the printing press Guttenberg allowing mass production for literature but wasn39t available to everyone The Enlightenment Widespread discussion that no one should be restricted by any one particular ideology but there was a growing focus on Church having primary reign on things secular rule 17th Century Public Opinion takes off Britain coffeehouses for sitting and discussing what39s occurring coffeehouses make for wide mix of people not just elites talking about it France sees true revolution people gather in salons considered great instiutions of rhetoric but really weren39t that great to discuss politics amp philosophy political discourse is developed opinion still viewed as socially bene cial Jacques Necker Usually cited as rst person to use the term saw a need to appease the King of France Louis XVI so he created a budget for France amp its economy so creditors could see what was actually happening American Revolution Reign of Terror set it back but it was inspired by the thinkers of the Enlightenment gt 1St country to create rep Republican govt for the people Skepticism still existed George Washington contributed to democratic society two term president resigned military commission to be head of state head of world39s rst democratic society Utalitarian Bentham amp Mills 19th Century utilitarianism grows providing a formal role for public opinion gt Bentham amp Mills believed people were selfmotivated towards own interests lead to modern use of pollingmedia as watchdogs need for govt to be checked amp balance These are four key stages 2215 Four Theories of the Press Media systems will naturally evolve amp develop based on where in society they fall Why The Need Huge civil unrest stalemate gt high concentration of power makes things easier to get done Contemporary Examples All varying degrees of this situation Syria is moving away from this Zimbabwe cracks down on any form of independent media shut down opposition groups Sri Lanka Authoritarian regimes don39t really own the media but the government cramps down on any private press that isn39t in line with government views Soviet Communist Theory All the media is controlled by the state No private press You play down bad events in your country play up bad events in other countries End of Soviet Communism People argue that this doesn39t really exist anymore The principle components of it don39t really exist but it still is seen in places like Cuba amp North Korea Libertarian Press 17th Century Ideas Man is inherently rational if he is allowed to make his own decisions he39ll come to the best conclusion Press is totally free no Government interference Historical Roots You need a Libertarian Press because strong press is essential to democracy Theory Might create an overly pluristic system No real discussion Gridlocked No true decisions being made The NonExistant Model No true states meet this model Only in times of great civil unrest because once a strong state develops turmoil occurs These times are only temporary Social Responsibility Model In response to the media having the power we give them we expect certain standards to be met More power gt higher expectations Social Responsibility in Practice Very big distinctions between UK system amp American one Britain gt publicly responsible media system restrictions America gt openly highly partisan news Ex Fox CNN Criticisms of 4 Theories Some systems might run the same way but they39re distinctively different gt oversimpli ed Basically just based on whether you believe things are morally just or not not scienti c Stromback What role do we want citizensmedia to have in democracy Social Contract By being a member of the state you agree to sacri ces laws taxes etc Media ful ll this when they help the government know what the people want informing the people look out for where the government oversteps its boundaries This is effectively universally agreed on disagreements start when figuring out what to tell the people Msurements of Democrgy Measured by elementsindicators Elections can the press say what they want with out restriction everyone who is a citizen has all the same rights people can do what they want Procedural Democrz y Barebones version of democracy Only thing required of the media is that they don39t shit talk democracy can take sides be partisan etc Competitive Democrgy Politicianselite are actors gt citizens react Political figures do what they want citizens decide what they want Elections in Competitive Democrgy Purposes make political figures accountable throw out the bad ones give the winner rights to enact their plans Media Requirements People need to know what39s important know alternative routes know whose to blame for problems what are the laws of the state What are rights amp powers they have brticipgtory Democrgy Not about emotions or direct partisanship just getting behind a concept Media Requirements Need to know what they can do what abilities they have to in uence change around themselves No national agenda what39s important to you may not be important to everyone else You can seek to make change wherever you want Deliberative Democrgy People can reach a consensus gt decisions are mutual and of the collective of people Discussion is designed to help everyone understand everyone39s viewpoints Media Requirements It39s not enough to understand basics a complete understanding of issues how it effects everyone is necessary Monica Lewinsky Public Opinion Homework 3 This homework is designed to get you used to using media theories relating to public opinion in relation to specific media stories You may choose from five news stories You may only choose one story You must use the same story to answer all questions For all of these questions there is no specific right answer Instead you will be asked to make a judgment call and justify it accordingly You will be assessed based on yourjustification Sometimes as well it may not be possible to answer the question with any of the applied options if so you should state this but you must justify your answer accordingly The questions will be based on Agenda Setting Priming the Issue Attention Cycle and Framing The five stories you may choose from are Story 1 One San Diego Mother s Battle for her Dyslexic Son httpwwwkpbsorglnewsl2014oct16dyslexiasandiegounifiedandonemothersfightl Story 2 Lunatic Exams City s Unfair Gifted Tests httpnypostcoml20150119Iunatic examscitysunfairgiftedtests Story 3 The Education of Daunasia Yancey httpwwwbostonmagazinecomnewsarticle201501l29educationdaunasiayancey Story 4 Church Leaders Given Spent Convictions After Children in Detention Protest at Julie Bishop s Electorate httpwwwabcnetaunews20150128churchIeadersgivensoentconvictionsafterdetention protest6051 614 Story 5 Tilis Predicts End to Gridlock in Congress httpwwwwracomtiispredictsendtogridlockincongress14330330 Fill out the questions in the spaces provided Once complete please upload to the Homework 3 Dropbox on Carmen which you can find under Activities then Dropbox If possible please save the document as PDF before you upload However I will accept doc Word document or rtf rich text format if you are unable to export as PDF 1 Name Becca Rickard 2 Which story are you answering your questions on delete other stories or highlight chosen answer Story 1 One San Diego Mother s Battle for her Dyslexic Son Continues on next page 3 What issues is the story about If more than one issue what do you think is the dominant issue the story is about Why did you choose this issue as the dominant one Use no more than three sentences to justify your answer This story tackles the issue of how to aid students with the world39s most common learning disability dyslexia View the Agenda Setting amp Priming slides on Carmen Go to slide 20 On the lefthand column there is a list of issues American believed were most important in January 2014 Does the story match any of the issues listed by Americans as most important If so which one If more than one which issue is most relevant How does your chosen story relate to this issue Use no more than three sentences to justify your answer This story matches the issue of education and relates to it because for students with dyslexia diagnosing and treating the learning disorder can be costly and time consuming as school systems do not usually have the means to help students do this without outside help Additionally many schools in America do not test for certain learning disabilities like dyslexia teachers are rarely trained in dyslexia and in order for a student to even qualify for having a learning disability they have to be a grade and a half behind in performance Does this issue also appear as one of the most important in March 2008 andor December 2004 If so which ones The issue of education appears as one of the most important in both March 2008 and December 2004 3 points Continues on next page 4 This question uses the 5 stages of Down s lssue Attention Cycle Thinking of the issue you highlighted as the story s dominant issue in question 3 at what stage of the Issue Attention Cycle do you believe the story is I think the issue of dyslexia and education is caught in between the discoveryenthusiasm phase and the realization of costs phase Why did you think the issue is at this stage Use no more than three sentences I chose this issue to be in between these stages rather than securely at one stage because the lack of educational standards and help for dyslexic students is something that has grown more prevalent in recent years to the public Many Americans like Mrs White are hopeful and even confident that these problems can be helped by teachers39 training and experience However for many families facing this issue the problem is proving to be a difficult one to solve one with enormous expenses for individual families as well as the public at large that will eventually have to pay to have these educational programs integrated into schools requiring much more time money and effort than initially expected 3 points Continues on next page 5 Look at the media frame styles listed on slides 34 and 35 of the Framing slides Does the story match any of these styles If more than one which style is the most dominant Why did you choose this style If you choose none why do none of the styles apply Use a maximum of 5 sentences This article most predominantly matches the Reaction Storyquot style of framing but more minimally fits in with quotConflict Storyquot as well I chose Reaction Story style because the main point of the article involves the direct response and reaction of Elizabeth White whose son is dyslexic Mrs White explained the deep struggle her family faces providing insight to the struggles that many others with learning disabilities face Additionally Conflict Story Style is seen as the struggle of trying to provide fair and equal education for students with learning disabilities is discussed 3 points Continues on next page 6 Look at the media frame themes listed on slides 36 and 37 of the Framing slides Does the story match any of these themes If more than one which theme is the most dominant Why did you choose this theme If you choose none why do none of the themes apply Use a maximum of 5 sentences The most dominant theme of this article is optimism I chose this theme because despite the struggles that Zachary and the entire White family have faced they are still remaining hopeful that the education system can help their son and other individuals with learning disabilities They believe that their son deserves another chance at a quality education so they provided him with a tutor and extra learning aids Additionally there is a minimal AntiEstablishmentarianism theme as there is talk of the educational system failing families with students that have learning disabilities 3 points 21615 Problem with Person y Abstract concept not concrete amp not easily observed Really can only observe traits Trying to create a measurement of personality is difficult De nitions of Personality Three strong elements of the concept of personality multifaceted enduring and in uences patterns in behavior Multifaceted Many elements to what entails a personality A confession that comes with it is that values morals beliefs motives etc is even more difficult than measuring actual personality traits Enduring Generally the same throughout a lifetime Eson For Endurance People are not susceptible to change The most major in uence is actually biology In uencing Behavior Central tendency variance around natural typical behavior EX Talk a lot vs Talk a little natural tendency will be somewhere on this scale with a general area of action possible People may behave differently based on a setting Ex swearing whilst playing video games with friends is appropriate swearing at work is not Where Does Personglitv Come From Early childhood experiences are generally a large factor By adolescence you39re pretty much who you are Trauma can change this a little bit Our Brains and Personality Some parts of the brain that are centered around personality are bigger in some people versus others Big Five Personality Trm Pretty much the mainstream way to measure personality since the 8039s It works in essentially any culture with fairly reliable results Not every single personality trait is covered but a wide range are Conscientiousness Clever selfaware Very strong willed HERMIONE You expect more from others because you have higher more traditional moral values You uphold them strongly Extraversion Confident happily speak in public Gain stimulation from others greagarious People who are more extraverted are more likely to be directly politically active Agreeableness Very understanding empathetic Not highly judgmental Rarely lose temper Mild correlation with liberal ideology People don39t really expect much from others in their moral standards and standings Emotional Stability Neuroticism OCEAN People who score highly in emotional stability are more likely to be conservative Measures of the Big 5 People are typically pretty good at knowing what their own personality is But taking a survey can pose problems with people fixing problems desirability bias in answers etc bit for Ide0102v We can but the relationship is complex Big 5 can connect to policies Personglitv amp SameSex Marriage People were predicted to have certain feelings on the issue based on their personality type If you scored highly on conscientiousness you were likely to disapprove of samesex marriage If you scored highly on openness you were likely to approve of samesex marriage The Theory of the Burglar Alarm Model John Zaller states that the public does not need to be highly informed about every single problem or dissenting views about issues He says that the people really need a watchdog within the media that will only give the most prevalent problems attention and newsworthiness Zaller suggests that the media engage in factchecking the information put out there by government officials and political figures as well as interviewing and challenging them and acting out investigative journalism Criticizing the Burglar Alarm Has the media as a watchdog failed This criticism questions whether or not the media actually does what Zaller is proposing it is questionable as to whether or not the media engages in the practices it should in order to provide quality news about the most important current issues to the public The Bargain of Newsworthiness Brian J Fogarty presents a model which states that the news the public sees every day is actually a product of careful negotiations made between the press and elected government officials The process is frequently hidden from the public making it very difficult to measure exactly how political news is created and shared Effectively the Burglar Alarm as a theory for news reporting in modern day society is nonexistent However Fogarty does suggest that even though the government has an advantage and larger say in what news is reported the public should work to increase the outlets that news reporters have to choose from therefore allowing for people to exercise judgment on when the news can and cannot be accountable 22015 What is Knowledge Gap SES social economic status or in this case usually Education Higher SES means college amp beyond Lower SES is less educated When we as a society spend our time amp effort people of Higher SES are more impacted EX Drunk driving info will reach Higher SES people first Gap starts small grows as education is continued amp time goes by nsic Cause of Knowledge Gap Higher SES can just retain more information from messages received The Original Studv Articles were already in the news They were quizzed after reading More publicized items would see a higher gap The Original Studv believing is knowing issues weren39t clear cut at the time measured beliefs a little more than actual knowledge the gap kind of tapered off as satellites were out of the news more The Original Studv 3 People who didn39t suffer from newspaper strike had higher knowledge gap success Knowledge Gal Over Time Variations Locality MARGINAL difference vs other countries TopicIssue Some issues that are simply more appealing to Lower SES see a smaller gap 6 Issues 1 Economy small 2 Entertainment small 3 Foreign Politics biggest 4 Science Technology big 5 Domestic Politics middle 6 Medium Radio Tv News Internet don39t necessarily lower the gap Lower SES are more likely to listen watch read surf less serious content Television has the smallest effect Size amp Homogeneity of Community Communities where there is less of a general variance in most factors race genetics culture etc Genetics Environment is actually a larger impact than actual genetics Such a large range for variability does not seem like a good measurement Selective Exposure Level of Socigl Contact The people you talk with are just as important as the news you are purposely consuming Issue of Familiarity The more you39re familiar with a story or content the quicker you are able to process and understand Education If you come from a background where going to college is expected gt you39re expected vice versa Attention rates are higher when you39re wealthier Once you39re past collegeage education gets even harder 22515 What is the Digital Divide If you have information you can vote accordingly or create political in uence Optimist Skeptic Cynic Optimist thinks it39s basically the future Skeptic thinks that the problems we have now will still exist with or without technology Cynic thinks that the people who are disadvantaged will only be more disadvantaged as this gap widens Conceptualizing the Divide Talk about race SES ages etc Desktops vs Laptops Landlines vs Cellphones measured literally in terms of how fast your connection is How the technology is used are they doing things like online banking or are they being basic How competentconfident are people with using technology Is the divide getting larger 0 The divide is not necessarily universal in how it is measured many different ways that it can be conceptualized EXAM How other people are likely to or how you yourself conceptualize the divide Digital Divide in America Bill Clinton said having a computer amp knowing how to use it would close the digital divide He brought it to the forefront of the public policy issue right around the end of his presidency Every time some new technology comes out the gap increases Most people think that the gap is smallest now because most people have smartphones amp access to wifi etc First Level vs Second Level Access as a problem Maybe but reaching a computer etc and being able to use it are two totally different things Where isthe Divide in the US Ge02ranhic Urban areas have more access than rural areas It39s an infrastructure problem you want to reach the most amount of people per dollar spent for laying cables so urbansuburban areas get reached more Where isthe Divide in the US Groups Women are actually more likely to use technology than men Younger people use the internet much more for everyday things than older people Benefits Most companies are trying to have access amp switch to paperless People most likely to feel like digital access improves political part in things How to Bridge the Gap More technology investments more costs lowered Libraries Public offering of access training workshops etc 3215 Spiral of Silence People are more likely to adjust their opinions to fit in and feel a part of the group From Psvchologicgl to Socioloaicil One of the few theories in the world that fits into both groups We all have our individual opinions if we are in the minority we tend to hold back and keep our opinions to ourselves If you selfcensor and everyone else selfcensors then the actual opinions perceived are 100 different from what they actually are Routes Social Setting Social customs elevator video Gauging Opinion Quasi Statistical sense we pick up on cues from people around us and we try to estimate how many people believe the same things as we do You might think you39re in the minority so you censor then everyone else thinks the same thing gt pluralistic ignorance If you ask anyone everyone perceives the situation incorrectly Role of Media The media39s interpretation of a certain view is constant across most media and time Polls are designed to gauge public opinion then broadcast them Type of Issue Some issues are static and some issues are ux still debated and discussed Some issues become too stable and become customs Valueladen issues based on our moral senses or beliefs more vulnerable to spiral of silence If you get into a debate about a valueladen issue confrontation is more likely Cultural Issues Most classic studies will take America as the standard for an individualistic culture Collectivistic cultures have a much higher spiral of silence because people are less willing to speak out against the group Local vs Societal We tend to assume that people around us have a particular viewpoint Media vs individual perception is frequently very different Not Evervone is Ouiet Young males with high extroversion are more likely to speak out If you39re going to speak out you39re going to spend a lot of time bolstering your opinion up in your social circle Less subjective to the spiral of silence In reality people are willing to speak on a topic but they are less likely to do so on social media than in other settings Criticisms How do you test something that comes out of things that are difficult to measure Difference of culture vs peoples39 individual issues no clear definition of What makes people an avantgarde or hardcore National perception is not as important as What you and the people directly around you believe This is also a situationally based 3415 Who riots Average rioter is likely to be young male working class employed etc Peaceful riots often turn violent very quickly History of Riot Studv French Revolution recognized as first point of rioting that occurred Begins to lead people to be concerned with the idea of rioting etc Rioting becomes a feature of posturbanization higher population higher crime rate De ning of Riots Legal definitions are based on governmentcourt usage When you39re a government it39s useful to be able to label things as riotous when you need to so legal definitions are frequently more loose 2 people smashing bus stop vs 50 Seven or eight people count as a riot Methodological Problems Because the govt set threshold for riot much lower it39s really hard to study how many riots there have actually been Almost all riot studies are entirely descriptive how many people died damages etc So we need to look at causes of rioting etc Is it sociological Is it psychological Understanding Motiiation Everyone interprets riots differently Riot leaders have the power over how riots are defined political motivation usually This becomes the accepted norm Usually start as a more singular issue then grow Group Phenomenon amp Socigl Networks Riots are often part of social identity within groups Indian riots are religious American riots about race Rumors Rumor publics gt groups of people more likely to believe rumors get caught up in rioting theoretically Rumors are generally spread about an outgroup that is oppressive to you in some way generalized spreading There is a particular potential problem arising specific threats There is a particular event in which rumors around the event spark the riot murder killing rape specific trigger Rumors spread incredibly fast lots of things said intense spreading Not So Random Early scholars had this idea that at some point people would just mass panic and riot Since the 19th century riots happen fairly frequently it39s just that mass riots with casualties and such bring them to attention Irrational and Emotional Marx basically says that riots have a middle ground between irrationality and rationality Role of Media When tension exists about a problem in society the media builds that up Highlights the divide amp makes more problem Pictures are an important factor in fueling the fire Thrill Seeking People like to riot because it39s fun Northern Ireland riots had people that felt like there was a power in doing so Almost rules around it Rioters in NI threw rocks into the air but high enough so that people could react amp not get hurt 3615 glee amp Gender Stand Out Because people are easy to identify these people experience more saliency with their identity and the particular qualities that come with it Race amp Gender Girls toys vs boy toys Social Construction Power Rangers colors Selena genre of music for Mexicans Mental Categories Identifiable in our lives very early on Svstematic IneauzLity Gender gap how long races live Political power for the first time we have a black president never had a female UK has had one female PM Exploitation these groups are particularly used to our own power resource those in power use groups of a lesser power based on gender or race to take advantage of for their own power struggle Emulation Employment rates in businesses may follow similar patterns re ect this perceived distributions of roles in society The Difference Race is about pushing people apart Gender is about keeping people close Closer Look at Race Difficult thing to even measure AsianAmerican roots are full of vastly different people We expect a blanket ideology but that39s kinda ignorant There ARE differences glee Sometjmes Arbitrary In the past Irish people were prejudiced against heavily by Anglosaxans Now people can identify physically with multiple races but also identify with racial identities based on customs etc Multiple levels and layers Group Cognition How strongly you feel bonded to the group you are a part of Shared agenda between you and others of the same identity People can choose multiple identities to associate with Different issues can probe your identities and can affect your philosophies Group Consciousness There are areas in society where certain groups tend to hang out in their own spheres People who are discriminated against feel more strongly about their groups Linked Fate We39re all in this together All for one One for all Attitude Towards Disadvantaged Groups Really strong divide between distributions in society Women39s traditional role is revered amp respected Contact anothesis Threat hypothesis is older if you have two groups that meet amp are forced to integrate it breeds the idea of competition gt both competing for same resources causes hostility Contact hypothesis says that if people meet and talk prejudice and hostility come down If group you are being asked to judge amp other group has different SES you are more likely to feel threatened General SES about people making judgment gt people of lower SES in white cultures are more likely to be hostile Key distinction towns vs neighborhoods gt in towns the town is largely divided in neighborhoods more assimilated
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