Notes Env H 311
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ENV H 111
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Jen Morgan on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Env H 311 at University of Washington taught by Charles treser in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to environmental health in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/17/15
Lesson 13 reading Monkeypox Viral disease endemic in central and western Africa. In 2003 first us case appeared Infection spreads from bite or animal blood Suspected to spread from giant gambian rats The smallpox vaccine is 85% effective West Nile Virus First found in Uganda Causes encephalitis or inflammation of brain Transported in birds and mosquitoes No vaccination for humans but there are supportive therapies that help keep from developing a secondary disease Highlighted outdates communication systems that were in place Lyme disease Transmitted through black-legged ticks after they nibble on rodents who carry the bacteria Can cause encephalitis and arthritis Early stage patients take antibiotic while later patients may need IV antibiotics Mad cow disease Fatal disease in cattle that attacks the nervous system Can be in humans too and there is no treatment or vaccination Starts with slow nervous system deficits leading to brain shut down and death Chronic wasting disease Fatal nervous system disease affecting elk and deer No known cases to humans also no cure or vaccines can be taken Lesson 13 Lecture Zoonotic disease-diseases transmitted from vertebrae animals to humans through various routes (pets, livestock, wildlife) Vectorborne disease- diseases transmitted by a vector o Vector- arthropod that carries pathogen; organism the helps pathogen reach new host Reservoir host- a host that serves as a source of infection and potential reinfection or humans and animals Dead end host- host is infected but cannot act as source of infection for others Vector problem o Nuisance (spend 600 mill on pest control, 2.9 billion on professional pest control) o Economic impact; every year: A third of crops are destroyed A fourth of gardens destroyed $20 billion in crop loss o vectorborne diseases arboviral disease, lyme disease, rmsf, plague o important vectors include moswuitoes, fleas, flies, ticks, lice, mice, rats, mites, bats, birds diseases transmitted by rodents o plague, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, lassa fever, mechanical transmission of bacteria tick-borne diseases include lyme, tularemia anaplasmosis, paralysis, babeiosis moswuitoes borne diseases include malaria, yellow fever, west nile, chikungunya, rift valley fever IPM=environmentally sensitive pest management Inspect- look for vectors, damage, habitat and document findings Identify- confirm vector and document Monitor- determine distribution and density levels, determine origin and age of infestation, map, locate key sites, determine factors/conditiond that may impact control measures and document Make a plan and take action Action types and cultural (sanitation, temp), biological (predators, parasites), mechanical (trapping, window screenings), and chemical (pesticides) Evaluation (determine effectiveness and compare pre and post treatment results) and summary (control necessary to control transmission, know organism, integrate most effective strategy) Lesson 14 Reading chapter 8 and lecture Zoonoses-diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans o Transmitted from animals to humans o Common o Can be easily and quickly transported around globe o Recognize risk factors and take precautions Endemic/enzootic disease- a disease that is present in humans and animals in a particular area or region Rabies is the most fatal disease known Animal imports are largest source of disease, especially since so much illegal importation occurs Swine flu o Respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenze virus 1999 nipah virus outbreak o cause by deforestation so bats sought food on orchards on hog farms o 300 human cases o industry devastated o 2001 Bangladesh outbreak and occurs annually since then Lesson 16 Reading chapter 9 and pdfs after the civil war, expansion and popularity of cities gave birth to organized food industry adulteration- adding under quality materials to something that is supposedly pure to increase profit pure drug and food act in 1906 was first legislation aimed at protecting consumers against adulteration and mislabeling of food contaminants-substances accidently incorporated into food defect action level-level at which max contamination could be or the FDA would take legal action to take product off shelf tolerance levels for pesticide used on food crops to represent max pesticide residue o established by the EPA 1996 food protection act- provision that made the EPA rethink there safety standards to include standards that were suitable for children food additives-modify taste, shape, smell etc Delaney clause- prohibits use of any cancer causing agents in food GRAS list is a list of additive determined as safe and the FDA would have to prove a substance was harmful in order to remove it. Top 5 food-pathogen pairs responsible for outbreak-associated illnesses and outbreaks in 2013 o Salmonella by chicken has 9 outbreaks and 700 illnesses o Salmonella by pork had 8 outbreaks and 436 illnesses o Salmonella by seeded vegetables had 5 outbreaks and 268 illnesses o Salmonella by beef had 5 outbreaks and 210 illnesses o Norovirus by fruits had 6 outbreaks and 196 illnesses Top 5 outbreaks o Scombroid toxin by fish had 25 outbreaks and 68 illnesses o Ciguatoxin by fish had 15 outbreaks and 50 illnesses o Vibrio parahaemolyticus by mollusks had 13 outbreaks and 80 illnesses o Salmonella by chicken had 9 outbreaks and 700 illnesses o Campylobacter by dair had 9 outbreaks and 114 illnesses Lesson 16 lecture Food-borne illness Happening all the time Food safety Impacts us all High risk populations are most susceptible High risk individuals(yobis) are everywhere and increasing o Yobis are children, infants, pregnant women, seniors 1 in 6 Americans get sick a year; 3000 deaths; 128000 illnesses disease symptoms can be immediate or can show much much later with more complicated symptoms (kidney damage, etc) stomach flu nausea vomiting diarrhea headache fever outbreak- two or more people with same or similar symptoms who ate the same food(s) and it has to be lab confirmed or epidemiologically confirms or probable if not evidence is available all food-borne illness is preventable in some point of the process outbreaks multi-state, lots eat few sick, faster discovery, extended time frames neurovirus is making a cruise ship nightmare imports many from third-world countries, lower sanitation standards, lack of regulation, so food can enter market already contaminated written procedures don’t equal compliance in food safety there is an economic incentive for employees and managers to work while sick Reading 17 Three easiest ways to spread disease hand hygiene o wash for at least 20 seconds o wash after/before put on gloves take out trash sneeze handle raw meat change tasks food temperature avoiding cross contamination Lecture 16 Key points from Wednesday Microbes are ever evolving Our food distribution systems have changes over time Our behaviors around food change Science-based regulations depend on continued surveillance and evaluations of current trends Potentially hazardous food Food capable of supporting bacterial growth Animal products Cooked plant products HACCP Conduct hazard analysis Determine critical control points Establishing critical limits Establishing monitoring procedures Establish corrective actions Establish verification procedures Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures Lesson 18 Lecture Radiation can be found in food, space, earth and building materials It is used in waste disposal, nuclear power, consumer products, and medical uses Radiation means matter or energy moving outward from a point of origin Wilhelm Roentgen: in 1895 while working with electrically-enerized, sealed-glass “Crookes” tubes, he discovered that photographic plates kept near the tubes become darkened; discovered x-rays and that they penetrate soft tissue Henri Becquerel: in 1896 discovered other invisible rays coming from natural uranium would also darken photo plates; they discovered ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation- are generated by high energy natural or man-made processes occurring within the atom Possess enough energy to remove electrons from atoms, creating ion pairs o Ion pairs go on to create highly reactive chemicals that can damage DNA and other important cellular molecules 5 types: gamma rays, alpha particle, beta particle, neutron particle, x-ray electromagnetic radiation: no mass, no charge, very penetrating particle radiation- includes alpha, beta and neutron; has high mass and charge, not very penetrating can be naturally occurring or man-made, produced at all times, but decays away over time; often unsealed and loose and can be easily spread around can be machine produced by high energy materials Radiation dose absorbed dose- amount of energy absorbed per unit mass in gray (J/kg) dose equivalent- absorbed dose adjusted for biological damaging ability in Sievert (J/kg) radiation health affects high-energy radiation effects- are acute effects which are manifested shortly after a large exposure o acute radiation syndrome bone marrow injury-may cause death gi tract injury-causes death in days or weeks central nervous system injury-causes death in hours or days o radiation burns- local or whole body o cataracts low-level radiation effect- are latent effects, appearing many years after a non lethal dose or chronic effects after may years of small doses o genetic mutations- have been observed in animals, but not humans o abnormalities include exposed fetus- depend on dose and period of pregnancy risk of abnormality is considered negligible at 5 rad or less when compared to the other risks of pregnancy o cancer annual radiation dose limits o occupation (5 rem) whole body; lens of eye (15rem) o embryo (.5rem) o general public (0.1 rem) 3 principles means to reduce external exposure o reducing time; increasing distance (follows 1/r2 relationship); and shielding methods to reduce intake o containment; hygiene; protective clothing; and general protective measures Lesson 19 reading chapter 11 Atmosphere 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon, .3% CO2 Lesson 19 Lecture Air pollution primary pollutants-emitted directly from a process: o CO, Sox, PM, Pb Secondary pollutants-from reactions of primary pollutants in the atmosphere o Ozone, aerosols Regulation 1970:clean air act was passed by Congress clean air act o epa, national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) major pollutants o particular matter (PM), CO, SO2, nitrogen compounds, O3, Pb o CO-vehicular traffic and other combustion o PM- wood burning, diesel vehicles, automobiles and industry Complex mixture of aerosols from traffic, wood burning, marine activity and industry Health effects are determined by both the size of particle and its constituents o NO2- combustion; precursor of O3 Both an outdoor pollutant and an indoor pollutant Precursor of ozone Exposure is associated with increases in response to allergens and potential compromise of the immune system o SO2- coal fires power pants, smelters, food processing, paper and pulp mills Coal fired power plants Highly water soluble-deposits in nasal passages and oral cavity Adverse respiratory health effects SO2 and H2O make acid rain o O3- secondary pollutant. Formed from precursor such as auto emmisions Good ozone screens uv light and thus prevents skin cancers Bad ozone- secondary pollutant formed by photochemical eactions between precursors and uv light, highly reactive o Pb- airborne lead mainly from re-entrained dust contaminated from leaded gasoline Global Climate Change o “Disappearing world: global warning claims tropical island” o first time an inhabited island has disappeared under seas o Lohachara island, off of India o Once home to 10,000 people National ambient air quality standard of criteria pollutants o NO2-0.05ppm over 1 year o O3-0.08ppm over 8 years o SO2-0.14ppm in 24 hours of 0.03ppm over 1 year o PM2.5-none? o CO-35ppm over 1 hour or 9ppm over 8 hours o Lead- none? Lecture 20 Reading –chapter 13 Primary standards protect human health Secondary standards protect crops and things humans use Buildings can carry disease Lecture 20 London Killer fog- December 1952- a mix of dense fog and sooty black coal smoke killed thousands in four days. Deadliest environmental episode in history Major air pollutants Ozone o Secondary pollutant formed by photochemical reactions between precursors and UV light o Causes oxidative stress and stiffens the lungs in experimental animals Particulate matter o Aerosols; smoke, dust, haze, traffic and wood smoke o Causes oxidative stress and inflammation Effects of air pollutants Decrements in lung function Aggravation of asthma symptoms Increases visits to hospitals Increased heart rate variability Increase low birth rate and premature infants Increased cardiac and pulmonary deaths Research Animal toxicology- controlled; hard to extrapolate Human studies- controlled; small samples and short exposures Epidemiology- asks the right question; estimates heath outcomes Health assessment Determine organ system affected Use tests that are reproducible and non-invasive Some individuals are more susceptible than others Respiratory outcomes Lung function Respiratory systems Airway inflammation Bronchitis Pneumonia asthma Population disparities in asthma Current asthma prevalence is higher in children, boys and women Asthma morbidity is higher among African americans PM health affects airway irritation; cough, wheezing; decreased lung function; decreased heart rate variability and increased blood viscosity; increased ER visits; increased mortality-cardiorespiratory and infant diesel-mix of gas and particles o gas- NO, CO, hydrocarbons including aldehydes o particles- carbon, sulfides, nitrates, metals traffic o ultrafine PM is emitted by mobile fleet cardiac outcomes o heart rate; blood pressure; heart rate variability; serum biomarkers of inflammation or clotting abnormalities o Irregular heart beats Ozone health outcomes Pain on deep inspiration Decreased lung function Airway inflammation from BALstudies Chronic exposure-possible stiffening of the lung Lifetime exposure associated with decreased lung capacity in young adults Newest effect=mortality National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) o 0.05 ppm (100 μg/m3) 1 year Ozone (O3) o 0.070 ppm (137 μg/m3) 8 hours Sulfur dioxide (SO2) o 0.14 ppm (365 μg/m3) in 24 hours o 0.03 ppm (80 μg/m3) a year Particulate matter (PM2.5) o 35 μg/m3 24 hours o 15 μg/m3 a year Carbon monoxide (CO) o 35 ppm (40 μg/m3) in 1 hour o 9 ppm (10 μg/m3) in 8 hours Lead (Pb) 1.5 μg/m3 24 hours Ranked in order of concern among pollutants particulate matter > Ozone > NO2 > SO2 > CO > Pb It has been shown that when no longer exposed to air pollutants, lung function can increase and get better
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