Week 11 Notes
Week 11 Notes INR3003
Popular in Intro to International Affairs
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Beatriz Arteaga on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Bundle belongs to INR3003 at Florida State University taught by Whitney Bendeck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Affairs in International Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 11/17/15
Nuclear Weapons Deterrence and Proliferation I Why Don39t We Use Our Nuclear Weapons A Destructiveness Firebombing Daisy Cutter The point of weapons is so that they ARE destructive Allies used Firebombing on Japan and Germany Daisy cutter bomb explodes before it hits the ground greater impact on surrounding area B Battlefield Utility Tactical Nuclear Weapon Still nuclear but much less impact than an original nuclear bomb We have them but don39t use them C They39re WrongImmoral Morally wrong to use these weapons 1 quotNuclear Tabooquot Nina Tannenwald Everything about the weapons is considered quottabooquot even threatening to use them We have not always seen it this way 2 Human Tragedy of Hiroshima and Nagasaki First time we used atom bomb Were hoping they would surrender before actually dropping the bombs US thought the bombs were the weapons of the future Perception of the weapons changed so did world opinion At the surface damage looked the same as firebombing damage Shadows were burned into walls RADIATION effects is what impacted perception the most people kept dying afterwards birth defects for humans AND animals loss of intelligence in humans A balance of power turned into balance of terror US and Soviet Union both being nuclear powers II Effects on Policy A NPT 1968 US GB France Russia China NPT recognizes and these 5 are committed to nonuse Also cannot help anyone become a nuclear weapon state States not recognized Pakistan Saudi Arabia North Korea Israel and Iran B Biological 1972 and Chemical Weapons 1993 Weapons sought to eradicate C Disarmament vs Deterrence Disarmament best way to create a safe world is to disarm EVERYONE not realistic Deterrence the morestronger weapons the greater the change other power will not attack deter them To have deterrence you have to be able to survive to first strike to respond to the enemy second strike capability Nuclear Triad maintained nuclear capabilities in three realms land air and at sea Led to a period of d tente maintain weapons but control them cooling off period balance of capabilities Mutual vulnerability maintain this by limiting defensive capabilities If both sides are vulnerable to attack who is going to start a war III Arms Control History see slide From MAD to MAP Mutual Assured Destruction to Mutual Assured Protection With MAD we limited our defenses MAP we shifted to reducing nuclear arsenals and focused on protection SALT Strategic Arms Limitation Tox President GW Bush threw out ABM antiballistic missile treaty because of N Korea SALT Again addressed ICBM but also their delivery system and not increasing it also reducing number of nuclear weapons Was not ratified by Congress Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty the END of nuclear testing START Strategic Arms Reduction Tox opposite of SALT IV Nuclear Proliferation Spread of offensive nuclear capabilities to states not recognized by NPT as nuclear weapon states Controlling the spread Realists on WeakNew States Some realists think nuclear weapons maintained peace because deterrence Realists were the dominant voice in the Cold War Believe nuclear weapons need to be in the hands of a STRONG and STABLE state Nuclear weapon in a weak state would be a disaster deterrence only exists under certain conditions 1 Need a strong and stable government which most new states did not have 2 Possession of advanced technology and communication system 3 Must possess stock piles spread out amongst MULTIPLE locations 4 State must have control over corruption sabotage and accidents 5 There must be security f right conditions are not there weapon might make state more vulnerable to war V Constructivism and the nuclear norm of nonuse Norm constructivism Moral codes As states we have norms and values that we share these determine our behavior Additional Terms Balance of Terror First Strike Second Strike Capability Nuclear Triad Balance of Capabilities Mutual Vulnerability ICBM Inter Continental Ballistic Missile SDI Reagan quotStar Wars Strategic Defense Initiative in space The Clash of Civilizations PostCold War Environment 0 Samuel Huntington Huntington sees us potentially moving in a negative direction Believes that our focus is changing increasingly becoming civilizational Huntington sees the world that we39re moving into quotfundamentally different than the one from the pastquot Also believes that it will be fundamentally THREATENING we will clash very large clashes What are the Civilizations Civilizational level BROADEST level Huntington gives 7 definite civilization and 2 others Western Confucian Japanese Islamic Hindu Orthodox Latin America 8 possible SubSaharan Africa 9 Buddhist III Conflict Becomes Civilizational 0 From Princes to Peoples to Ideologies to Civilizations Nationalism is what sparked the first idea of quotcommunityquot Nationalistic wars French Revolution Napoleonic wars WWI nterwar years Italy Germany and Spain all became Fascist powers ended after WWII Russia became first Communist country 1917 Bolshevik revolution Huntington would say Cold War was an ideological war between democracy and communism democracy won Democracy is a WESTERN ideology Fukuyama believed EVERYONE should adopt it Huntington believes it is Western only and cannot be applied to everybody IV Why Has Civilizational Identity Increased in the Age of Globalization Liberals believe that globalization is bringing us closer together more cooperation Huntington believes this contact helps to highlight how we are DIFFERENT from each other Huntington identifies that we are more aware of our RELIGIOUS differences Globalization has caused religious fundamentalism going back to our roots V Why Might We Have a Clash of Civilizations A Western Power Other nations reject Western power and dominance People tend to go back to their original ideas B Basic Differences Differences between us can be basic but DEEPLY ENGRAINED Some of these differences are fundamental Can overcome differences of language surface but a lot harder to overcome differences in religion C Immutable Culture Cannot be easily changed deeply engrained quotWho are youquot D quotUsquot versus quotThemquot Goal of globalization was to develop a single ideology to unite everybody But Huntington points out the differences that keeps us from coming together Clear lines of demarcation E KinCountry Syndrome What helps conflicts become civilizational quotwhen things intensify between two states they are likely to get support from other states within their civilizationquot Ex US and Great Britain VI Huntington39s Predictions There is probably going to be conflict especially cross civilizational PUBLISHED 1993 quotcommon conflict was going to be within Western and Islamicquot Islamic and Confucius civilizations come together Conflicts to reject Western hegemity
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