Bundle Study Guide For Final
Bundle Study Guide For Final 2070
Popular in Child and Lifespan Development
Popular in Psychlogy
This page Bundle was uploaded by Mieke on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 2070 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Jennifer Joy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Child and Lifespan Development in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 11/17/15
Bundle Study Guide for Psychology Final 1 This Study Guide for Child and Developmental Psychology includes Chapters 1113 however it does not include the Epilogue Death and Dying Ch 11 Emerging Adulthood October 28 2015 1 2 3 4 5 What is emerging adulthood a b c 1825 By the end of the 20th cent early to mid20 can expect later marriage experience frequent job change and pursue higher education Not considered a transition Biosocial Development a b c 0 Every human39s system functions optimally at the beginning of adulthood i Digestive respiratory etc Immune system is well developed Death from disease almost never occurs during Early Adulthood EA Engage in premarital sex but are not prepared for parenthood i A prime group for STIs Risk Taking a b EA has a greater tendency to take risks High sensation seekingimpulsivity i Drug abuse ingestion of drug which impairs physiological well being ii Binge drinking similar to illegal drug use but drops fairly quickly iii Drug addiction chronic user iv Extreme sports forms of recreation which include risk of injurydeath and as a result are considered attractive and thrilling Cognitive Development a Postformal Thought i Formal operational thought is inadequate to describe adult cognition Problem finding Combine emotion and logic Prefrontal cortex development Stereotype threat possibility that one39s appearancebehavior will be misread to confirm another39s oversimplified thoughtprejudice Your worry that someone might have a prejudice against you Mental Health a Positive i Stresses with could be thought to decrease self esteem may actually do the opposite ii Dealing with transition successfully correlates with well being b Negative i Substance abuse ii Possible emergence of mental disorders mood anxiety schizophrenia iii Worldwide adults are more likely to have an episode of mental illness during EA c DiathesisStress Model i View that psych disorders are the product of diathesis genetic vulnerability and stressful factors life events 6 Psychosocial Development a Identity achieved i Crisis begins in adolescence not always solved ii Most EA39s are still searching iii Religious commitments sexgender roles politicalethnic loyalties and career options 7 Ethnic ID a The extent to which one feels connected to their ethnic group b BiCultural ID Assimilation Strong ID with Majority Group Separation Marginalization Weak Strong Weak ID with Ethnic Group c One half of EAs ID with a specific ethnic group d EAs have friends with diverse backgrounds e Ethnic ID affected by aspects of social context immediate social situation f Ethnic ID may affect choices in language manners romance employment neighborhood religion clothing and values 8 Emotion and Acculturation a b Acculturation adherence toward home culture vs host culture Can emotion be acculturated i Culture may shape how emotions are expressed and experienced 9 Intimacy vs Isolation a Erikson39s 6th Stage b Arises from powerful desire to share one39s personal life with someone else c Friendships i More friends ii Crucial iii More single adults have better supportive networks than newly married d Selfexpansion i Understanding experiences and resources enlarged through friends and lovers e Most emerging adults postpone marriage i 1960 married at 21 years old ii 2010 married at 27 years old iii Cohabitation 1 Married couples are more likely to divorce if they have lived together before marriage 10 Family a EAs try to be independent they leave the home b Parents continue to be crucial even more so than in the past c Linked lives experienceneeds of individuals at one stage of life are affected by those at other stages Ch 12 Adulthood Body and Mind November 2 2015 1 Adulthood age 2565 2 The Aging Process 3 4 5 6 a b Senescence a gradual physical decline related to aging and during which the body becomes less strongefficient Physical Appearance i By 30 skin becomes thinnerless flexible and wrinkles become visible ii By 60 all faces have wrinkles Sense Organs a b Vision i Nearsightedness Increases gradually in the 20s ii Farsightedness the lens becomes less elastic and cornea flattens by middle age iii Young adults may have either but older adults generally have both Heanng i Usually doesn t decline until 60 Sexual Responsiveness a b c d e 1 Arousal occurs more slowly and orgasm takes longer Distress at slower responsiveness is associated with anxiety relationships and expectations rather than aging Infertility i Male sperm count ii Female anything that impairs physical functioning 1 Le pelvic inflammatory disease Restoring Fertility i Assisted Reproductive Technology ART ii In vitro fertilization IVR Menopause ovulation and menstruation stop on average at age 50 Hormone replacement therapy is a controversial way to help women with the symptoms Andropause male menopause occurring on average between 40 and 50 years of age This is a controversial term not entirely accepted Measuring Health a b c d Morality Death Morbidity Disease Disability Inability to do what you usually can Vitality Life force Adult Health is more related to habits than hormones a Tobacco b d i Decline in US over the last 50 years ii However the worldwide trend is not as promising iii Smoking is affected by social norms laws and advertizing Alcohol i In Moderation 1 Reduces coronary heart diseasestroke 2 Increases good cholesterol and reduces bad 3 Lowers blood pressure and glucose ii Heavy drinking Harmful Overeating i US facts 1 6070 of US adults are overweight 2 50 of those overweight are obese and 6 are morbidly obese Regular physical activity protects against illness i Sitting long hours correlates with almost every unhealthy condition ii A little movement is good but more movement is ideal iii Two factors help adults keep a physical routine 1 Friendship if you have a person relying on you to show up you39re more likely to go 2 Access 7 Gender Variations in Health a b Women live longer than men about 5 years Men die younger of homicide suicide etc However women suffer more on other measures i Superficial signs of aging ii Higher rates of depression 8 Socioeconomic those who are welleducated and financially secure live longer 9 Coping with Stress a b c d Stressor any situation that causes stress Allostatic load the total combined burden of stress and disease a person must cope with Problem focused coping tackle a stressful issue directly Emotion focused coping change feelings about the stressor rather than changing the stressor itself 10 Cognition in Adulthood The Aging Brain a b c Difficulty with multitasking Need for sleep Serious brain confusion i Dementia is uncommon before age 65 less than 1 have it before 65 ii Four factors make Dementia more common before 65 1 Drug abuse including alcohol 2 Excessive stress 3 Viruses 4 Poor Circulation 11 Definition of Intelligence a 2 Clusters Cattell i Fluid innate ability vs crystallized acquired b 3 Clusters Sternberg i Analytic school creative valuesdesires and practical daily life c 9 Clusters Cultural Variation Gardner i Linguistic logicalmathematical musical social understanding interpersonal intelligence self understanding intrapersonal intelligence and existential intelligence 12 Expertise a Expert someone who is notably more skilledknowledgeable than the average person about whichever activities are personally meaningful b Characteristics of Expert Thought i Expertise is Intuitive ii Expertise is Automatic iii Expertise is Strategic iv Expertise is Flexible 13 Maslow Hierarchy of Needs a One must meet all needs in one tier before the next b Generativity vs Stagnation i Generativity what I put out to support others ie mentoring helping the growth of others ii Stagnation stuck 14 Social Clock a Based on social norms b Driving drinking voting getting married signing a mortgage and being entitled to retirement benefits 15 Personality a Genes parental practices culture and adult circumstances all contribute b Substantial continuity 16 Choosing a lifestyle a Choose social context ecological niche b Select vocations mates neighborhoods and settling down c Age 3050 more stability in personality than at any other age 17 GenderPersonality a Women contentiousness and agreeableness b Men extroversion and openness c Gender convergence menwomen become more similar as they move though middleage 18 Intimacy a Lifelong b Relatives friends coworkers romantic partners c Social convoy squad i Collectively the people who move through life with an individual 19 Friends a Most crucial members of the social convoy b Practical helpuseful advice when serious problems arise c Friendships tend to improve with age 20 Family a Fictive kin chosen family i Some people choose to create their own families if they feel they are not getting enough support from their family 21 Committed Partners a Less than 15 of people are married before age 25 but 85 are married by age 40 22 Caregiving a Kinkeeper a caregiver responsible for coordinating the family b Sandwich Generation must take care of parents and siblings May be forced into the role of Kinkeeper 23 Employment a Relative depravation people compare themselves to the group and are satisfied if they39re no worse off than the group b Positive outcomes of employment i Developuse personal skills ii Aidadvice coworkers as a mentorfriend iii Support education and health of families iv Contribute to community c Extrinsic awards tangible benefits money d Intrinsic awards intangible benefits satisfaction selfesteem and pride Ch 13 Late Adulthood October 4 2015 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ageism a form of prejudice in which people are categorized and judged solely on the basis of their chronological age Elderspeak speaking to someone over 65 in a condescending manner Elder Categories note that the age ranges are not concrete and can vary depending on the person a YoungOld 70 i Healthy vigorous financially secure older adults 6075 who are well integrated into the lives of their families and communities b Old Old 20 i Older adults 7585 who suffer from physical mental or social deficits c OldestOld 10 i Elderly adults over 85 who are dependent on others d Dependency ratio is the number of selfsufficient productive adults compared to the number of dependents i The current ratio is 21 in industrialized nations Caregivers or Care Receivers a Older people give more care than they receive b Only the OldestOld need ongoing care i 4 over 65 are in nursing homeshospitals in the U5 Senescence is pervasive and inevitable a Obvious in appearance and senses skin first Primary Aging a Universal and irreversible Secondary Aging a Specific physical conditions are more common with aging b Results from poor health habits genetic vulnerability and other influence c Vary from person to person Nutrition a Less efficient at digesting food b Need fewer calories c Drugs can affect nutrition i Ie aspirin antibiotics antacids laxatives caffeine d Many elders don39t drink enough water Exercise a Elders benefit from regular exercise b Movement is better than sitting still c Regular exercise can compress morbidity 10 Drug Use a Most people stop usingabusing drugs before middle age and active users rarely live to old age b Addiction typically seen in legally prescribed medications such as pain killers may begin in late aduhhood c Alcohol i Changes in metabolism less efficient liver functioning and increased likelihood of living alone are all factors for alcoholism ii Moderation is best it may postpone dementia 11 Living a Long Life Maximum and Average a Maximum Life Span i Oldest possible age to which members of a species can live under ideal circumstances ii For humans its age 122 b Average Life Expectancy i In the US at birth the ave expectancy is 75 for men and 81 for women ii There are dramatic variations from nation to nation c Centenarian a person who has lived to 100 years or more 12 Cognition The Aging Brain a Senescence reduces production of neurotransmitters b Neural fluid decreases myelination thins and cerebral blood circulates more slowly c Speed of process and ability to multitask decreases d A gradual decline in output of primary mental abilities is normal 13 Two Important Modifiers a Health is a better predictor of cognition than age b Training can improve cognitive ability 14 Dementia irreversible loss of intellectual functioning caused by organic brain damage or disease 15 Alzheimer Disease AD a Most common cause of dementia characterized by gradual deterioration of memory and personality and marked by the formation of plaques and tangles b Beginning Stages i Forgetfulness personality changes ii Memory loss eventually becomes dangerous c Final Stage i Full time care needed communication ceases ii ID and personality lost death 16 Parkinson39s a Starts with rigidity or tremor of the muscles as neurons that produce dopamine degenerate 17 Treatment of Dementia a Taking care of overall health of person b Get proper diagnosis c Start appropriate treatment 18 Prevention of Impairment a Regular physical activity reduces all instances of dementia by half b Avoiding the pathogens that cause dementia 19 Psychosocial Development a Life Review an examination of one39s own part in life which often takes the form of stories 20 Erikson and Maslow a Integrity vs Despair i Was my life meaningful b Selfactualization i Creative philosophical and spiritual understanding 21 Wisdom a An expert knowledge system dealing with the conduct and understanding of life b Life review self articulation and integrity are part of wisdom 22 Theories of Late Adulthood a Self Theories emphasizes core self or search to maintains one39s integrityID b Continuity Theory behaves toward others in a way consistent with hisher behavior in earlier periods of life c Positivity Effect remember the positive more than the negative d Stratification Theory society39s categorization of people into rankings of socioeconomic tiers based on factors of wealth income social status occupation an dpower e Disengagement Theory aging makes a person39s social sphere more narrow resulting in role relinquishment withdrawal and passivity Intentional f Activity Theory elderly wantneed to remain active in a variety of social spheres and become withdrawn unwillingly as a result of ageism 23 Activities a Work provides i Money ii Social recognitionselffulfillment 24 Home Sweet Home a Many people prefer to age in place b Naturally Occurring Retirement Community NORC i A group of young adults who move to a communityneighborhood and simply never leave 25 Continuing Education a 15 of US adults age 66 and up were enrolled in some kind of continuing education in 2005 26 Political activism a Many government policies affect the elderly especially those regarding housing pensions prescription drugs and medical costs 27 Religious Involvement a Faith increases with age praying and other religious practices 28 FriendsRelatives a Provide longterm partnership 29 Family Members a The relationship between parents and adult children is affected by many factors b The relationship evolves based on need and the ability to provide 30 Grandchildren a b c d e Four approaches based on personality ethnicity national background past family interactions and the agepersonality of the child Remote i Emotionally distant Companionate i Funloving Involved i Have a good relationship see one another day to day and live close by Surrogate i Takes on the role of the parent 31 Negative Factors in Late Adulthood a b c d e Impact of retirement Death of spouse Beanpole family i Several generations without many people on either side of the tree Familycaregiver resentment Loss of independence i Activities in daily life independent living ii Instrumental Actions in daily life actions important to independent living which require competence and free thought 1 Such as paying bills and driving a car 32 Assisted living a b Combine privacyindependence with medical supervision Range from group homes of three to four residents to large apartmentstownhouses
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