Week 12 and 13
Week 12 and 13 ANT 304
Popular in Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 0 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah Bruederlin on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 11/17/15
ANT 304 Intro to Archaeological Studies Week 12 November 9th 0 In places where we have the rst preindustrial cities is where we have civilization 0 Where we have the rst Neolithic villages rst concentrations of people is where you get the rst cities 0 With those cities you get civilizations o The time for these vary between Africa Asia America etc 0 Agricultural innovation 0 Diversi cation of labor 0 Establishment of central government 0 Social strati cation The four above are now what de ne urban centers cities and civilization 0 All apply to the present day 0 New systemsnew methods of producing more food 0 One of the rst characteristic changes in life in terms of the cities was a change in farming methods 0 Depending on what part of the world you re in you get more complex innovation of irrigation canals dams establishment of reservoirs etc 0 These system come into play and are established because these systems needed a way to produce more food More people deciding to move to one place so villages become cities these cities have lots of people How do you feed all these people AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION o In some places it s a way to produce two or three crops in a given year Producing more food 0 If you produce more food you re in control of that supply You re not dependent on other plants or the hunt 0 Produce more food Feed more people More labor suppy produce a lot more One thing feeds on the other There are problems and issues with this it is NOT a perfect system O 0 Issues with those rst civilizations all of the issues there are still with us today Still looking for solutions With the surplus supply of food more and more people get freed from having to produce their own food Don t have to stop what they re doing to go plant or harvest crops There are now people who specialize in producing food and farming People can pursue nonagricultural activities People can pursue specialized crafts and careers People can become fulltime rulers priests bronzers etc With craft specialization you have extra materials that can be traded or exchanges Brings on contact with foreign groups Exchange of surplus materials you made for materials that do not occur in your own region Exchange of knowledge is more important that materialistic trade When societies decide to isolate themselves it is almost destined to become stagnant But when societies have a bunch of trade between them that include knowledge what tends to happen are dramatic growths People always take ideas and learn form them play with them grow from them etc Make new ideas from shared ones 0 With more complex societies you get a central governing elite or authority Authority has to deal with problems that arise with cities Centralized authority has to make sure citizens are safe internally Also responsible for making sure that that particular group is safe from external and foreign enemies To protect from foreigners could build walls or create armies Part of centralized authority is to levycollect taxes from its citizens That s what pays for the constructions military building of reservoirs etc Public expenses paid for by this 0 Also takes care of grievances problems con icts that occur internally IE trying to keep people from harming one another Individuals are not supposed to settle disputes on their own 0 The people in charge are usually supposed to be competent and disinterested individuals 0 When we look for this centralized authority there is evidence of it in the prehistoric past Sometimes in the form of law codes temple records or simplistic like giant temples palaces huge irrigation works sculptures etc 0 Existence of writing is a good example of centralized government Recording acts on behalf of authority Various forms of writing that take place through time 0 Means the emergence of social classes 0 Evidence for social strati cation comes different ways such as in Burial customs Size of dwellingswhere people live Documents Correspondence where talked about conquests that took place 0 There are various mechanisms for how civilizations come about 0 Hydraulic theories theories about things like irrigation systems and others Complex issue Gets lots of people you need more crops so do you then build irrigation systems and reservoirs because you have this problem that has developed Or are these systems being put in place and now you need centralized authority to deal with issues that develop around these systems 0 Trade networks you need a centralized authority to control tade and exchange between various groups both internally and externally They can control the values and what commodities you are trading 0 Environmental and social circumscription culture A lives in area of lakes on one side and mountains on the other they are blocked in by a natural environment environmentally circumscribed Vulture A is between culture B and culture C so they can t expand socially circumscribed 0 Religion comes into play as well O to today s Issues of disease waste disposal how people are able to or cannot move to another territory 0 Those early cities face social problems that are amazingly similar 0 Evidence of warfare in early civilizations is common November 11th 0 Civilization the outcome of qualitative developments of culture 0 The rst historical dynasties of ancient China 0 O Xia Shang Chou 1st archaeologically veri ed dynasty of ancient China 1st literate people of Asia important activity of state that was written on bamboo scripts that were tied into a book form Writing on pottery and bone Use of oracle bones Inscriptions on bronze vessels 0 Ancient China has two parts 0 Prehistoric must depend on archaeology 0 Historic refer more to available text Collaboration between historian and archaeologist 0 Myths of Ancient China 0 Rise of Emperor He s the rst celebrated emperor He took power around 2700 BC allegedly These are more symbolic stories rather than true ones He was the greatest of cultural heroes of ancient China Credited for all components of civilization of ancient China He was a war hero Everyone claimed to have descended from him he was everyone s ancestror Huang Ti came AFTER Shen Nung Unlike Shen Nung who was super peaceful and harmonious Huang Ti created ruleslawpenal codes and created an army 0 These myths suggest a transition from self contained Neolithic villages into states that were controlled by a centralized government o 2ncl dynasty after Xia 0 An Yang city in Shang An archaeologist excavated it and found a huge number of tombs In the tombs there were tamps that lead down to more tombs Some of these ramps were 30ft in length Tombs were for the elite of Shang and were lined with bone jade jewels etc o Archaeologist found things that de ned Shang as a civilization Ram earth construction of tombs Organization of human power in their architecture Effort to make their structures was incredible Reality and magnitude of sacri cial burials Many people sacri ced to go with king to next lifeafterworld High level of artistic material in their bronzes pottery bone carving etc Speaks to leisure of ruling class Incredible bronze industry 0 Different bronze cups and vessels for various parts of the day 0 With Shang came the rise of urban cities and sites Nobles artisans farmers and craft specialists o Shang civilization consisted of Aristocracy we know about them through writing on oracle bones Craft specialists identi ed nearfarmers and by aristocracy Ones that were closer to aristocracy held higher status and had more skillsknowledge 0 Bronze sculptors and potterers had above ground homes near the aristocracy Farmers Shang subsistence was based on agriculture and was supplemented by hunting 0 Ate millet later white rice 0 Used large wooden digging sticks that were pulled by cattle and dogs 0 Two signature crops were raised every year MILLET AND RICE They also shed and hunted 0 Fish bones present and prove this 0 Deer rhino tiger bones 0 Hunting was also referred to in the oracle bones o AGRCULTURE WAS THE BASIS OF SHANG SUBSISTENCE o Replaced the Shang THIS WAS NOT A MILITARY INVASION 0 Horse becomes a mount animal So not just used to drag and pull things Now a means of transportation 0 Burial mounds become fashionable 0 During this time we see the introduction of crossbows November 16th 0 Stone tool technology 0 Techniques and methods used in chipped stone tools 0 Similar technology used for OBSIDIAN natural glass or volcanic glass SUPER SHARP Sharpest natural substance that we know of o In making a chipped stone tool is to take an item called a big chunk 0 Core 0 From the core we remove akes The 1st ake removed is usually done with a nice sized pebble of some kind in a signi cant hit or way 0 Flakes will have certain diagnostic characteristics Hasa O O O O O Has a bulge on back called or Hitting hard hammer stone against core is called percussion A nice ake is removed and you can still use hammer stone to get some rough shape to a point Removing additional akes When chipped on both sides we call it a Can be rough and crude or a ne piece of workmanship If only chipped on one side it s called a When you have rough shape that you want to trim down perhaps to something a little more speci c in form almost looking like pointed or bipointed tool To achieve that we use a Billet is used in If you want to make a point notched Accomplished using the pointy part of an antler called Tine is used for Done by pressing the tine against the edge of the tools and with pressure you remove little akes pieces where core has been removed We have a ake and we modify the edges If you look at this is pro le you get an edge uniface It would be called a SCRAPER If the ake is modi ed on the side we call it SIDE SCRAPER If it s modi ed at the end END SCRAPER Modi ed on side and end called SIDE AND END SCRAPER Scrape is used for scraping The same stone tools are the models of what we then end up with in terms of iron and steel tools For the core is the rough outer exterior For some cores only some of the cortex may be removed AKA lithic technology When the ake is at least twice as long as it is wide then we call ita This technology is incredibly dif cult It s incredibly dif cult to make a ake or any stone tool for that matter Takes lots of practice
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