Reading Notes Weeks 7-10
Reading Notes Weeks 7-10 INFO 1010
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INFO 1010: Data Management and Analysis Reading Notes Weeks 7-10 4.1-4.3 from INFO Textbook Section 4.1 • Experiments, Counting Rules, and Assigning Probabilities • Experiment: a process that generates well-deﬁned outcomes • Sample space: the set of all experimental outcomes • Sample point: an experimental outcome • Counting Rule for Multiple-Step Experiments • The total number of experimental outcomes is given by (n1)(n2)…(nk) • Example (two coins): ﬁrst toss can yield two outcomes, and second toss can yield two outcomes so two times two is four. • Atree diagram is a graphical way of depicting outcomes for multiple-step-experiments • Counting Rule for Combinations • Combination = order does not matter • Can be calculated as number of possible outcomes (factorial) over number of outcomes you can select (factorial) • Counting Rule for Permutations • Combination = order does matter Alexandra Tilton Page▯ of ▯36 • Calculated as number of possible outcomes (factorial) over the (number of possible outcomes MINUS number of outcomes you can select) (factorial) • Basic requirements for assigning probabilities • Probability must be between 0 and 1 • Sum of probabilities for all experimental outcomes must equal 1 • Classical method: if n experimental outcomes are possible, then a probability of 1/n is assigned to each experimental outcome • Relative Frequency method: can be used when data is available to predict more outcomes • Subjective method: based on opinion or previous experience without any supporting data Section 4.2 • Events and Their Probabilities • Event: a collection of sample points • Probability of an Event: equal to the sum of the probabilities of the sample points in the event Section 4.3 • Some Basic Relationships of Probability • Complement of A: the event consisting of all sample points that are not in A • Venn diagrams can be used to illustrate events and their complements • Computing probability using complement: P(A) = 1 - P(Ac) Alexandra Tilton Page▯ of ▯36 • Union of event Aand event B: deﬁned as the event containing ALL sample points belonging to Aor B or both. Denoted AU B • Intersection of event Aand event B: deﬁned as the event containing sample points belonging to both AAND B. Denoted as A(upside down U) B • Addition Law: P(AUB) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A(upside down U) B) • Mutually Exclusive Events: Events have NO sample points in common • Addition Law for Mutually Exclusive Events: P(AUB) = P(A) + P(B) Chapter 10 from Information Systems Opportunities in the Network Age • “There is no security on this earth, there is only opportunity.” - General Douglas MacArthur • Many companies and people are blinded to opportunity because they prefer security • “Theory of Competitive Rationality” - Peter Dickson • More supply than demand = more customer choice • Firms must innovate to meet customers’ wants • When there is no apparent choice, innovators work to ﬁnd a new solution Traditional Strategy and Killer Applications • Michael Porter - 80s and 90s • 5 Forces Model gave predictability in business world • Innovation environment so fast moving, hard to predict Alexandra Tilton Pag▯ of ▯36 • Killer Applications: breakthrough technology that changes the way society works and functions (ex. automobile) • Makes things like Porter’s 5 forces harder and harder to predict. The Five New Forces • Moore’s Law • Computer chip capacity doubled roughly every 18 to 24 months • Computing power becomes ever faster and ever cheaper • Metcalfe’s Law • Robert Metcalfe designed ethernet protocol for computer networks • Says: New technology is only valuable if many people use them • Utility of a network = square of the number of users • Example: the internet or other networks • Coasian Economics • Ronald Coase introduced “transaction cost” • Inefﬁciencies in the market that add or should be added to price of good or service in order to measure the performance of the market relative to non-market behaviour • Example: searching, contracting, enforcing • This can explain many outsourcing activities ﬁrms face • Example: cost of an in person bank transaction is much greater for the company than a transaction over the internet. • The Flock-of-Birds Phenomenon Alexandra Tilton Page▯ of ▯36 • There is no “head” or authority when it comes to many new technology innovations. • Example: there is no controller over the internet • The Fish-Tank Phenomenon • People used to put a video camera on top of their tropical ﬁsh tank so you saw that when you logged on to their site • Now this means that really anyone can create something on the internet, and corporations don’t have complete control over innovation. How New 5 Forces Work in Industries • Betfair Example • Betting on games, elections, etc. used to be very difﬁcult and odds were ver stacked. • betfair.com How Moore’s Law Affects Music and Gambling • Music as example: iPods are large capacity devices that can now ﬁt in peoples’ pockets - would not have been possible not long ago. Metcalfe’s Law - Networks in Music and Wagering • Because so many people are using networks to exchange music, bets, etc., the need for a centralised server to transmit these things is becoming smaller and smaller. Alexandra Tilton Page▯ of ▯36 • Some legal issues are questionable, but the larger phenomenon of huge consumer networks is there. Coasian Economics: Transaction Costs in Online Music and Wagering • Greater efﬁciency in communication and transferring things like music or bets make transaction costs of music companies and betting companies very small. The Flock-of-Birds Phenomenon: Lawlessness in Music and Gambling • Music sharing is very hard to regulate over the internet - Recording Industry Association of America has tried, but faces many obstacles. • Betfair has faced legal issues in Britain because some claim they are not authorised to act as a bookmaker. - Betfair has prevailed. • Australian legal battles have forced Betfair to disable some features in order to comply • Taxation is an issue - on net proﬁts or other measures? The Fish-Tank-Phenomenon: The Power of Creative Individuals in Music and Wagering • Things like an MP3 hub and other innovations were created by young people who didn’t have the backing of corporate power or investment. Chapter 12 from Information Systems Alexandra Tilton Pag▯ of ▯36 Introduction • Many companies have been surprised thought history at the adaptation of technology - especially the personal computer • Peer to Peer ﬁle sharing is one of them as well How Hardware, Networking, And Software Technologies Affect File Sharing • Computers ﬁrst introduced into big business in the 50s • First applications automated simple accounting tasks • Transaction data associated with application were linked directly to application that created it • Time sharing made it possible for users to view data on computer screens • TCP and IP were developed to support communication in government agencies • Made communication possible even if enemy were to destroy one or more network notes • Network Working Group began to develop various networking tools • RFC 1 discussed approaches for transferring ﬁles from one computer to another over a network • Many organisations invested in database management systems • MIS departments were to create reports based on information stored in databases • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) created in 70s • Made it easy to share small and large ﬁles • Local Area Networks (LANs) developed to share ﬁles on business campuses • Wide Area Networks (WANs) send transaction data to business partners. Alexandra Tilton Page▯ of ▯36 • Client/server computing developed in the 80s • “Fat” client = lots of software and occasionally relies on server • “Thin” client = heavy reliance on server with little software on their individual computer • Many connections were on slow telephone lines which limited size of ﬁles that could be transferred • Researchers could FTP ﬁles to each other, but PC users did not have access to this tool • New access to PCs and Internet made it easy for users to gain access to large amounts of data in the 90s • Users wanted a way to transfer ﬁles of music and videos to each other which gave way to P2P ﬁle sharing • Since PCs typically sit idle, people wanted to use P2P to capitalise on that idle time capacity that PCs have. How Peer-To-Peer File Sharing Works • Resources are distributed through “peer” computers instead of being concentrated in server computers • Any peer computer can act as either a client or a server • When user wants a ﬁle, he issues request for ﬁle, and agent software searches the Intrnet for machines containing the same P2P software. Once machine is found, agent searches for requested ﬁle • P2P software involves creating at least one index so that agent ﬁrst examines the directory on the machine then uses that information from the index to ﬁnd the ﬁle • Sometimes different computers provide portions of very large P2P ﬁles Alexandra Tilton Page▯ of ▯36 Peer-To-Peer Impacts • Napster created in 1999 to share music ﬁles • Some found it unethical and brought lawsuits to shut it down in 2001 • US courts ruled that if copyrighted material is exchanged over such a service it can be legally shut down • P2P ﬁle sharing can create congestion when users are concentrated geographically like on a college campus • Some colleges have banned P2P ﬁle sharing using school email or other college-provided network services. • Skype also based on P2P • In 02/2007 illegal ﬁles still accounted for about 90% of the music download market • P2P networks can be targets for attacks and hacks • Promise of P2P for business is threefold: • Can tap into cheap under-utilised processing power using distributed processing • Easier collaboration • Make information more accessible • SETI project - Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence - uses volunteers agreeing to download software that enabled their machines to analyse telescope data when they’re otherwise idle • Some don’t think this is P2P since it’s coming from an outside source • Many managers adopt a wait-and-see attitude to spending plans for new technologies, especially P2P - some want to wait until lawsuits are resolved • Increase in government and large companies investing in P2P applications • P2P problem - Pﬁzer had personal information leaked accidentally by the spouse of an employee Alexandra Tilton Page▯ of ▯36 P2P and Law of Double-Edged Sword • P2P is good by avoiding bottlenecks • P2P is bad because it can enable violation of intellectual property rights Videos from Week 8 Future of Mobile Technology • Whoever desires constant success must change with the times - Machiavelli • Technology is transforming society and communication • We reach for our mobile phones in the morning ﬁrst • 77% of the world’s population has a mobile phone • 17 billion text messages sent in 2000 - 8 trillion sent in 2011 • 48 million people use their mobile phone to access maps • People check their mobile phones 120 times a day • 30% of consumers communicate with brands via social networks • $5.4 billion of mobile coupons issued in 2011 • Tablet sales grew from 17 million in 2011 to 70 million in 2012 • By 2013 web surﬁng on a PC will be overtaken by surﬁng on mobile phones • Nearly 50 billion apps will be downloaded • Hand/facial/voice recognition will take over touch screens • Near ﬁeld communications turn mobile phones into IDs, credit cards, etc. • Every place on earth will have Wiﬁ • 1 in 4 consumers have made a transaction via their mobile phone Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 0 of ▯36 Future of Mobile Technology •If you want to create an internet business you have to think online •It's all about mobile. •Television channels are becoming obsolete as well. •If you want to watch something you watch it on mediums such as YouTube and This evolution also reﬂects on our everyday lives and how technology will soon be integrated even into our clothes in order to promote better quality of life and convenience in everyday activities •It's a world of data. •Abetter, digital world •You can ﬁnd in abundance and low cost the necessary means to create your own startup The key is to adapt • Chapter 11 from Information Systems Introduction • Information systems used to be focused on applications within the boundaries of the enterprise, but now the focus is shifting outward. • Business to Business systems are an example of this What is Integration and why is it important? • What is integration? • Integration means causing or allowing things to work together cooperatively. Alexandra Tilton Pag▯ 1o▯ 6 • Part of the ﬁeld of Management Information Systems • Most systems are not very well organised • Acollection of disparate systems are called legacy systems • Also called functional systems • They do not cooperate with each other - not integrated • Reports from these systems usually only provide a snapshot of one speciﬁc function - not the overall status. ERP Systems: The means of Integral Integration • ERP responsible for integrating key business functions so information can ﬂow freely between functions. • Businesses replacing legacy systems with ERPs around mid to late 90s • ERP is packaged software application including collection of software modules designed using best-practice business processes. • Primarily responsible for managing the transactional processing operations of the business in various areas. • Vendors include: SAP, Oracle, Microsoft • Two main drivers for implementing ERP • Solving existing business problems caused by inadequate IT infrastructure and disparate information. • Improving future business operations. The Supply Chain: The Focus of External Integration • Supply Chain is the complex set of relationships between business, suppliers, and customers. • All paperwork to facilitate movement through the supply chain is time-consuming and expensive. Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 2 of ▯36 • So much paperwork and extra transaction work adds to the transaction cost of the supply chain. Businesses want to eliminated as much of this cost as possible. History of B2B Systems • Businesses used to be much closer together, but now that transportation has allowed them to spread out, there is much more paperwork involved in B2B communication. • Internet and B2B systems have eliminated much of the paperwork and now make B2B communication much less work and more efﬁcient. What is a B2B System? • E-commerce divided into three major categories: • B2C - Business to Consumer: Internet sales from business to consumer • B2B - Business to Business: Internet sales between companies over the internet • C2C - Consumer to Consumer: Internet sales between consumers. • B2B involves exchange of goods or services that will further the production process of that business buying the good or service. • E-commerce is not only about buying and selling globally, it is about reducing the production and sales cost of the business. • Largest volume of e-commerce is in B2B transactions Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 3 of ▯36 B2B Technologies • EDI • Electronic Data Interchange • First developed in the mid 60s • Facilitates a computer-to-computer exchange of data according to predeﬁned standards. • Greatly reduces human labor and cost • Usually used for exchanges between large companies and their suppliers • Setup costs can be substantial • Sometimes ﬁnancial subsidies, technological assistance, and mandatory enforcement needed to persuade suppliers • E-Marketplaces • An internet-based digital marketplace that provides a centralised point of access for many different buyers and sellers • Classiﬁed by ownership (private, shared, or public) • Classiﬁed by industry (vertical vs. horizontal) • Classiﬁed by trading mechanism (catalogue, auction, exchange) • Classiﬁed by service type (transactional vs. collaborative) • More than one way to put together an e-marketplace • Having a large number of users is the key to success. • Web Services • Refers to new methods for integrating programs through standardised XML technologies with open, standardised interfaces that mask applications program interfaces. • Four emerging internet standards: Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 4 of ▯36 • XML schema: provides common syntax for representing data • Simple Object Access Protocol (Soap): provides the semantics for data exchange • Web Services Deﬁnition Language (WSDL): provides mechanism to describe the capabilities of a web service • Universal Description, Discover, and Integration (UDDI): an XML-based registry that allows businesses worldwide to list themselves on the internet. Challenges for B2B Adoption • Economic Feasibility • High setup costs due to communication lines, technology setup, education, and training. Becoming cheaper and cheaper • Unsustainable growth due to members dropping out, lack of delivering promises, lack of collaborative spirit • Unconvincing pricing or high annual subscription • Not enough proﬁt means going out of business • Business Environment • Ineffective public infrastructure due to disruptions in telecommunication or power lines • Restrictive regulations from domestic governments means that participants in B2B services would have no protection if something went wrong. Helps to have B2B services endorsed by governments • Buyer Issues Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 5 of ▯36 • Lack of organisational inertia due to limited understanding or inability to use technology or fear of exposing dishonest practice • Buyer’s fear about the capability of the B2B solution provider happens when the provider is not well-known • Buyers can be fearful about the integrity of the B2B solution provider when they are unsure about compliance with data management and security standards • Supplier Issues • Suppliers can have a fear of competitive bidding because there is pressure to offer the lowest price in a bid • Many complications of B2B systems with few beneﬁts to suppliers New Business Models Enabled by B2B systems • B2B systems are reducing the former need of businesses to be located in physical proximity to suppliers and customers • Trending toward globalisation Future of B2B Systems • Trend toward more integrated systems is expected to continue and increase in pace • Users of B2B systems will become more and more sophisticated in their expectations Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 6 of ▯36 4.4-4.5 from INFO Textbook Section 4.4 • Conditional Probability • When an event happens because another event already happened • Denoted P(A|B) • Conditional probabilities can be computed as the ration of a joint probability to a marginal probability • Can also be seen in a tabular representation of probabilities • Independent Events • If events do not inﬂuence each other’s probability, the are independent events • P(A|B) = P(A) OR P(B|A) = P(B) • Multiplication Law for Independent Events: P(A(upside down U) B) = P(A)P(B) Section 4.5 • Bates Theorem • Prior probabilities -> New information -> Application of Baye’s Theorem -> Posterior probabilities Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 7 of ▯36 Chapter 3 from Information Systems Development: From Idea to Detailed Instructions • Development transforms expression of idea into set of detailed instructions to a computer • Waterfall method: ﬁrst well-known effort of formalising the process designed in 1970 • Contains: deliverables, description of rationale for developing a system, results to be achieved, and cost/beneﬁt analysis • Information system’s requirements: functional and quality • Functional: interaction between users and system • Technical design shows how processes ﬂow from one to the other • Code: programming statements in a language for computers • Very necessary to conduct tests: unit tests, string tests, and integration tests • Testing consumes about 50% of IS department resources • Most expensive part of development is maintenance • Changes to system are often required almost immediately after implementation • Minor ﬁxes every month, major ﬁxes every three to six months Issues • Cost • Systems development is high-cost with uncertain returns • Unit cost: addressed by productivity increases • Volume cost: reduced by doing less unnecessary work • Unnecessary work arises from: • Gold plating: demanding unnecessary extra features • Rework: having to correct errors you made Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 8 of ▯36 • Study in 70s said that 29% of systems projects failed before implementation • Speed • Concerns with the speed of the development process overshadow increased productivity • Requirements of business change very quickly • Complexity • Systems are very large and made up of hundreds of components • Components interact in unanticipated ways • Difﬁculty predicting system behaviour • Need for regression testing - making sure things continue to work after changes Technology and Innovation • Drive for IS development due to new technology innovation • Every success saw many failures • New technology means no examples to follow • Too much change can be hard for a business to keep up with Alignment on Objectives • System development undertaken usually to solve operational difﬁculty or to take advantage of new opportunity • If objectives aren’t understood, system likely won’t succeed Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 9 of ▯36 Adoption • Can be very challenging for all stakeholder of a business to adopt a new system right away Useful Life • Planning for the useful life of a system helps determine when you need to make changes or be ready to implement a new system • Every system should have a rough estimated useful life Adoption • Can be very challenging for all stakeholder of a business to adopt a new system right away Iterative Development • Characterised by the following: • Short development cycles for quick feedback • Each cycle delivers something signiﬁcant • Early cycles focus on functionality which is cheap and has a high payback • Functionality in one cycle allows for adjustments to the next • Time Boxing means each cycle has a ﬁrm deadline that cannot be exceeded • Maintenance follows initial development in a smooth transition • First version was called Rapid Application Development Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 0 of ▯36 Alternative Approaches: “Big Bang” • All functionality delivered at the same time • Often used for major changes in a business such as a new facility • When you want to create an integrated enterprise-wide system • Finding a gradual approach is best Prototyping • “Spiral Methodology” • Start with highest risk area • Be prepared to throw away ﬁrst few versions Requirements • Find out what system should do • Focus on what functions system should perform • Analyse the current system • Focus on ﬁnding people who have a vision of what needs to be done • Joint Application Design - gather competent users, put them in a workshop, record their feedback, potentially create a prototype on the ﬂy • Be careful of groupthink - majority opinion dominating the group • Be careful of gold-plating - putting too many unnecessary fancy features on system • Devise a way to make outside voices heard through surveys if necessary • Sometimes necessary to ﬁnd an economic analysis like Return on Investment ROI Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 1 of ▯36 • Quality Function Development: series of matrices describing how well each requirement contributes to fulﬁl business objectives and how well they’re implemented Functional Requirements Formulation • System requirements need to be documented unambiguously • Document requirements in plain testable language • Warner Charts: show how a function can be decomposed into sub functions. Easy to grasp easy to use, but only depicts a static structure. No element can be in more than one place • Data Flow Diagram depicts a ﬂow of activities but can be harder to grasp and draw correctly. Not as widely used as before • Entity Relationship Diagrams: depict data structures and entities that correspond to things about which the system maintains data - invaluable tool to point out dependancies and relationships as well as design for relational databases Quality Requirements Formulation • Quality requirements need to be tested with measurable numeric goals Architecture • Architecture: infrastructure and interfaces that enable system components to work together • System architecture is imposed on a project team by IS department • New architecture needed with big innovation Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 2 of ▯36 Importance of Architecture • It is possible to build very small simple systems without a formal architecture • Main role is to help manage the complexity and size of modern business information systems • Advantages: • Risk reduction • Integration ability • Productivity increases • Greater reliability • Easier maintainability • More predictability Selecting, Extending, or Creating an Architecture • Project team best served with existing architecture when both business functionality and technology are well understood • If new development project is driven by innovation, it’s best to adopt existing robust architecture • Novel ideas may need new architecture • Maintenance requests rarely have an effect on architecture Design • External design of how users will interact: • Physically on what device • New developments in Radio Frequency Identiﬁcation put in small items to enable location services • Need to think about how users get access to device • Need to consider user authentication • Interaction Flow Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 3 of ▯36 • Need to develop detailed layouts of screens and printouts • Need to develop descriptions of how the system responds to user interaction • Control Action Response (CAR) • System-driven or user-driven responses are the two usual choices within a system • Batch processing is a system-driven response when the system processes an entire ﬁle or database without human interaction and produces a report when process is complete • Considerations when designing: • Get help from actual users • Be consistent in your controls and actions • Allow for undo functions • Pay attention to those with physical impairments • Make it clear when updates or irrevocable actions have been performed • Do not overcrowd screens and reports • Avoid distracting graphics and other elements • Pay attention to error processing • Let user choose identiﬁer and password with as few restraints as possible Data • Data design is deciding how to organise the permanent data maintained by the application into a relational database • Each entity needs its own key • Relationships are implemented using foreign keys • Assigning attributes to the correct tables is called normalisation Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 4 of ▯36 Media Content • Design of applications whose main purpose is to convey information to the application users • Media can be in text, images, animation, video, or audio - or a combination Internal Design • Description of how the system will be implemented • Identiﬁes and describes all components of the system: • Completeness • High cohesion of all functions performing together • Low coupling meaning each component interfaces as simply as possible without relying on other components • Object Orientation uses data structure as criterion for coding and considers each process as one object by itself even though it is part of a larger system Code • Each programming language has its own peculiarities and each IS department has its own habits • Coding is designed to set a standard language for technology Test • Testing is important to detect any possible errors • Sometimes the cost of correcting errors becomes larger the more time passes during which the error remains undetected Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 5 of ▯36 V Model - Veriﬁcation & Validation Testing • Left of V model depicts activities from general down to detailed • Right hand side depicts integration into larger components • Veriﬁcation checks that deliverable is correctly derived from the inputs of the corresponding activity and is consistent • Validation checks that the deliverables satisfy requirements set at the beginning • Testing the entire application when it has been integrated with system How to Test • First need to create test case - description of a unique combination of inputs and data base states - they should all be unique and exhaustive of all functions of the system • Finding errors • Discrepancy may be only apparent • Discrepancy may stem from an error in the test data • Discrepancy may be an actual error in the program • Stop testing when: • Beneﬁts of delivering the system outweigh the risks • or • Cost of discovering additional defects is greater than savings gained from ﬁnding and removing them Problems with the Waterfall Life Cycle • Used to use GANTT chart which meant things couldn’t be started until the previous activity had ﬁnished • Problems include: Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 6 of ▯36 • Project takes too long • Requirements have to be frozen too early in the project • Users do not get full understanding of system until completion • Sometimes developers forget about project after a long period of time • Maintenance is already needed during development • Team members may not know how to perform their activities on innovative projects System Change Requests • Type 0: Emergency ﬁx • Type 1: Error correction - temporary bypass available • Type 2: Enhancement - reliability or performance issues • Type 3: Extension - needs new or modiﬁed functionality to respond to external changes to increase business value • Type 4: No change required - user needs more information or routine action like password reset • Type 0 addressed immediately, Type 1 and @ bundled in dot release usually monthly, some Type 1 and Type 3 requests bundled in major releases usually every three months Testing During Maintenance • Consequences of regression testing: • Time-consuming and costly • System test from ﬁrst release usually becomes regression test • One of the ﬁrst deliverables is the revised regression test model Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 7 of ▯36 Chapter 5 from Information Systems Introduction • IS are affecting most management functions • Essential to competitive advantage • Organisations need to adapt to changes and align with new introduced IS • Need for guidance of methodologies to ensure business value • Hundreds of methodologies for different purposes and scopes - no single methodology is best • Methodologies share general common philosophies and are central role for IS managers Why IS Projects Fail • Between 50%-80% of projects fail • Project budget overrun • Project schedule overdue • Project cancelled or deferred due to inability to demonstrate planned beneﬁts • Organisation does not adopt sound methodology or planning • Business case of project was weak and lacking components Methodologies Deﬁned • Methodology means holistic approach to problem-solving process • Organised collection of concepts, beliefs, values, and normative principles supported by material resources • Aim to reduce complexities and provide holistic picture of requirements and purpose of project Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 8 of ▯36 • Stages: • Plan • Develop • Manage • Common types of methodology used in IS discipline • Business Process Re-engineering (BPRM): maximise corporate proﬁtability • System Development Methodologies (SDM) • Information Security Methodologies (ISM): establish security plan to address vulnerability Waterfall Model Methodology • Oldest and most well known methodology • Involves: • Feasibility study to determine goals • Systems analysis to determine deﬁciencies in current system • Designing features and functions in detail • Implementation of designs into code • Testing system for errors • Maintenance of the system Evolution of Methodologies • Used since the 1960s • Tribal Era (1960-1970): no formal methodology - excessive failures • Authoritarian Era (1970-1980): strict detail of methodology • Democratic Era (1980-Current): holistic based on philosophy - business oriented • Method engineering is mixing and matching different methods to create one that works best for you Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 9 of ▯36 Selecting a Methodology • Choose among proven methodologies • Be clear about the beneﬁts you want to achieve • Choose what criteria you are basing your decision on • Normative Information Model-based Systems Analysis and Design is a tool that can assist users to evaluate and get a better decision • Evaluate these three perspectives: • Understand the organisation and the problem at hand • Understand the problem solver and the methodology user • Understand the process of solving the problem Quality Selection Criteria of Methodologies • Quality Attributes are benchmarks to assess methodology • Provides means of understanding ﬁtness and suitability of a methodology Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 0 of ▯36 Methodologies Misuse • Users are using methodologies as a cover up and not following principles and guidelines of methodology • They are following a methodology they learned previously and not adapting • They misinterpret the methodology’s principles to suit their personal needs • They do not fully understand the methodology Chapter 16 from Information Systems Promise of Information Technology • IS help us better communicate which helps to improve commerce • Gives us opportunity to capture required data and use it effectively • Companies are building their strategies around what information can be obtained and how they can use it • Three concepts to base models for future industry structure • Rendering things as information • Exponential growth of hardware power • Sustained increase in programmability • Some consequences • Separation of information from actual artefacts • IT structures are much more accessible to everyone • Importance of interactions to be monitored • More data about interactions are made available Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 1 of ▯36 Promise of Business • Business more focused on Triple Bottom Line and Corporate Social Responsibility • IT is growing and means there are more consequences for sustainability Challenges of Information Technology • Technology is changing more and more rapidly • Growing expectations due to more technology • Programmers must focus more on the needs of the user Resources for Systems Innovators • Project Management Institute • Project Management and Development Association • Organisations have libraries which catalogue successes and failures of the past • Scenario planning is a technique used by businesses today to plan their strategies • Greater focus on design • Professional associations such as Association for Computing Machinery provide support for systems innovators Video from Week 10 What’s So Great About Project Management • Project management applied in both public and private sector • Project is a temporary endeavour to create a unique product or result Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 2 of ▯36 • Set of processes required for project • Discipline - body of knowledge to deﬁne expected outcomes • Project management stared in industrial revolution • Henry Gantt created GANTT charts to sequence projects • Helped build ﬁrst battleship • Project management expanded in WWII • Need for more consistency within many industries • Can be certiﬁed in Project Management • Constraints of budget, time, and scope • Program: related projects or sub-programs • Portfolio: projects managed as a group to achieve a single objective • Critical Success Factors: measures of success a project is judged by • Project ends, processes can continue • PMBOK guide sets standards for conducting a project • Phases: Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring & Controlling, Closing • Integration Management: Unifying the various parts of a project • Scope Management: Making sure the project covers all work required • Time Management • Cost Management • Quality Management: making sure all quality standards are met • Human Resources Management: selecting the right team • Communications Management: making sure team communicates accurately and clearly to all stakeholder • Risk Management: Managing any risks • Procurement Management: Making sure all necessary supplies ﬁt together Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 3 of ▯36 • Stakeholder Management: Managing everyone involved in the process Document from Week 10 Systems Development Life Cycle: Objectives and Requirements • Chapter One - Introduction • Two objectives • What a Systems Development Lifecycle is and why one is needed • Provide a yardstick for evaluating any SDLC • Chapter Two - Executive Summary • SDLC has three primary objectives • High quality systems are delivered • Provide strong management controls over project • Maximise the productivity of the systems staff • Must be able to • Support projects • Support all technical activities • Support management activities • Be highly usable • Provide guidance on how to install • Technical activities include: • System deﬁnition • Testing system installation • Production support • Deﬁning releases • Evaluating alternatives • Reconciling information • Deﬁne project’s technical strategy • Management activities include: Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 4 of ▯36 • Setting priorities • Deﬁning objectives • Project tracking • Status reporting • Risk assessment • Commitment • Cost/Beneﬁt analysis • User interaction • Managing vendors • Post implementation reviews • Quality assurance reviews • Chapter Three - Why an SDLC? • Development process is complex and needs to be right • Outputs need to be deﬁned • Systems integration needs to be monitored • Chapter Four - SDLC Objectives • Ensure the delivery of high quality systems • Provide strong management controls • Maximise productivity • Chapter Five - SDLC Requirements • Five major requirements • Scope • Project types that need to be supported: • New development • Rewrites of existing systems • Maintenance • Package selection • System conversion • Technical Activities • Management Activities • Usability • Installation Guidance Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 5 of ▯36 • Testing Steps • Deﬁne test criteria • Design test cases • Execute tests • Verify test results • Store test cases • Deﬁning the installation Process • Set goals • Do an impact assessment • Deﬁne the strategy • Deﬁne the stages • Deﬁne and build the support systems • Chapter Six - SDLC Design • Must be an example of itself • Must use a layered approach • Must keep distinct what must be done from how it is done • Must be organised in a hierarchical manner • Should be automated support for the SDLC itself • Chapter Seven - SDLC Project • Amajor project that needs committed people • People need to have a level of expertise • Must have a clear idea of objectives Alexandra Tilton Page▯ 6 of ▯36
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