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Class notes, test review, and all vocabulary MENA 160A
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Date Created: 01/30/15
TEST 1 The First Couple I Adam and the Angels 0 When Adam was created God ordered the angels to protect him I Adam and Satan 0 Satan Why should I box down to someone you have created out of clay 0 Does not accept Adam or the angels I Eves Role 0 Her name is never mentioned in the Qur an O The process of creating Eve is not mentioned not created from Adams rib 0 Also known as Hawa 0 Both Adam and Eve were deceived by Satan and ate from the forbidden tree I There is no original sin because Adam and Eve were forgiven when they repented morally equal I Men and women are equal Sura of Women I Another account of human origin I No mention of Eve or Hawa I No mention of how exactly Eve was created I Story of creation 0 Both Eve and Adam are equal 0 They were punished because they did not obey God s commands I Never mentioned that they were punished because they ate from the tree Family Law in the Qur an I Orphans 0 Women and children with no male support I Polygyny and restrictions 0 Permitted 43 I A man has the right to marry up to four women 0 Not permitted 4 129 I Only marry multiple women if you can deal with them justly I Being able to support them financially and mentally I This section actually says that if you have more than one wife you will never actually be able to support them I Dower O A dower is a sum of money given to a woman who has lost her husband 0 Depends on the social status of the woman I Half can be paid before marriage and half after deathdivorce 0 Also given to a woman before marriage as a type of contact I If a woman wants a divorce she must pay back part or all of her dower 0 Divorce 0 Revocable vs Irrevocable I Divorce is considered the right of men I Divorce is oral no court involved I Revocable they can reconcile their differences I Irrevocable requires the couple to start a new contract before being able to reconcile 0 If a man divorces a woman 3 times a new contract is required 0 Unless the woman marries someone else in between 0 The waiting period I Allows the man to reconsider his decision I Lasts for 3 months legit waiting period cycles I Within these 3 months if the man wants to reconcile with his wife he may 0 Women can make stipulations I If a woman is pregnant the divorce is not valid until she gives birth 0 The man must support her for those 9 months 0 Fair Manner I No blame on either the man or woman as long as the woman was willing to give up something 0 Woman must give up dower and deal with a judge Two Main Sources of Islamic Law I Qur an I Sunna O Acts of the prophet his sayings his approvals etc 0 Opinions on early Muslim authorities 0 Consensus ijma 0 Analogical Reasoning qiyas Sunni Schools of Law 0 Hanafi 0 Maliki I Shafi i 0 Hanbali Shi a Schools of Law 0 Twlevers largest group 0 Zaydis 0 Isma ilis The Hadith 0 Terminology O Sunna Example practice custom I To Muslims today Sunna is the acts conduct and tacit approval of the prophet I What the prophet has done 0 Hadith Reportsrecording of prophetic sunna I Oral or written 0 Relationship between HadithSunna and Qur an I Hadith tells what the prophet has said about prayers rules customs etc I Qur an was revealed to Muhammad from God through the angel Gabriel I Hadith is not the word of God but more the inspirations that the prophet received due to his enlightenment I Sunna explains some of the statements rituals and acts in the Qur an 0 Components 0 Isnad Chain of transmitters I Narrators of the hadith make up the chain I Ibrahim reported that Hasan informed him that he heard Salim who heard from Ali that the prophet stated I Types of Hadith I Sahih Sound and authentic 0 Could be transmitted with trustworthy chain of transmitters I Hasan Fair 0 Not as strong as Sahih O The prophet has said it but one of the transmitters is not reliable I Da if Weak and unauthentic O Matn Text I Sunni vs Shi i Hadith 0 Both groups value the sunna of the prophet 0 Primary difference I Isnad I Sunni Isnad Must be an unbroken chain of reliable transmitters all the way to the prophet via a companion of the prophet 0 Shi i Isnad Must be an unbroken chain of reliable transmitters to one of the twelve imams I Shi i Imams vs Prophets Companions I Shi i Imams are infallible individuals starting with Ali and his two sons Hasan and Husayn 0 There are three main Shi i branches 0 They all agree to the infallibility of their Imams I Sunnis do not have this doctrine of infallibility of Imams I Sunni s have six books 0 Most important is the Sahih of alBukhari 0 Second to the Qur an in reliability 0 The Sahih of Muslim 0 AlNawawi O Forty Hadith O Gardens of the Righteous 0 Commentary on Sahih Muslim I Shi i Hadith 0 TwelverImami Shi i have four conical hadith collections 0 Al Tusi compiled two books contains multiple volumes 0 AlIstibsar O Tahdhib alAhkam 0 AlKylayni compiled one book contains multiple volumes 0 AlKafi 0 Major Topics 0 0000000 0 Prayer and Purity Pilgrimage Fasting Morals Theology Warfare and Governance Excellences of the Companions Family law Sales 0 Ethical Hadith Example 0 Abu Hurayra reported that alAgra b Habis saw the prophet May God bless him with mercy and peace kissing his grandson alHusayn I Encourage people to be compassionate with their grandchildren and children I Sunni Legal Hadiths O O O O O The five pillars Limits of religious law A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim Limitation on divorce Thabits unhappy wife I Permission for a wife to divorce her husband I How a woman can divorce her husband What if someone jokes about divorcing their wife I Abusing the term divorce and therefore abusing the woman and her rights I Never joke about divorce Hadiths on the Marriage Guardian wali I The prophet once said no marriage without the permission of a wali I Ai sha related that the prophet said If any woman marries without the consent of her wali her marriage is void Her marriage is void Her marriage is void I The woman without a husband has more rights than her wali and the bikr s single virgin girl permission must be sought in her silence I A woman who is single is required to have a wedding but a woman who was previously married does not need to be married again I Ai sha acted as a wali for women whose father was away on a journey I Usually the wali is related to the woman 0 Mutawatir Hadith I A hadith that is so massively transmitted that it could not possibly be forged TEST 2 Caliphs after the death of Muhammad 632661 CE 0 Abu Bakr O Chosen as successor of the prophet 0 Now he is called a caliph I Caliph Meaning the successor of the prophet 0 Older man very patient and well liked O Ruled for two years I On his death bed he asked for Umar Ibn AlKhattab to become the next leader 0 Apostasy wars 0 Weaker tribes paid money to stronger tribes to protect them 0 Many Muslims did not want to follow Abu Bakr and wanted to split from his rule I He would no longer be able to collect taxes from these people I Abu Bakr said that since the tribe was splitting from their allegiance with him he would wage war on them 0 Many people started to pronounce themselves as prophets O Abu Bakr was very successful in his raids O Apostasy The abandonment of a religious belief O Abu Bakr unified the tribes I Umar Ibn AlKhattab 0 Appointed by Abu Bakr O Called the Commander of the Believers O A humble commander with a strong personality I Known for strictly following the way of the prophet O Ruled for ten years 634644 0 Conquest of Jerusalem O I After Jerusalem was conquered by the Muslims their leader requested to turn over the city only to Umar I Umar switched back and forth with his servant who was riding the camel all the way to Jerusalem I Umar actually let the conquered leader hand over the city to his servant Suspended punishment for stealing during times of drought no more cutting off hands Set the date for the immigration of the prophet to 622 I Established the IslamicHijiri calendar Favored immigrants early Muhajirun over other Muslims I Rewarded with this because they had converted earlier than other Muslims Established the system of pensions I An individual who is not able to earn income due to age will receive money from the state Diwan Register of the tribes I Tribes must register themselves in order to get money and support Created the counsel shura to choose a new leader I Ali I Zubayr I Talha I Uthman I Abi Waqqas I Al Rahman Uthman was assassinated 0 Ali 656661 0 O O 0 Commander of the faithful Rumors spread that it was Ali that murdered Uthman Emphasizes equality among believers The Caliph must be a practicing Muslim I Not just a tax collector 0 Opposition to Ali 0 O 0 Ali Ibn Abu Talib 656661 First Civil War Ali against A isha I Battle of the Camel 656 I Ali wins Mu awiya governor of Syria I Family of Uthman I Wants to avenge the death of Uthman I Battle of Siffin 0 Ali was winning but then Mu awiya had his army say that the Qur an would decide who was guilty and who was not 0 Ali s army dispersed I Arbitration 0 Ali s camp thought that Ali had given up his rule and was now equal to Mu awiya O Considered to be a grave sin 0 Ali becoming equal to Mu awiya is really bad I Due to Mu awiya history I Kharijite group rejected arbitration and assassinated Ali in 661 0 End of the first four Caliphs O Called the period of Righteous Caliphs 0 Mu awiya now emerges as a strong contender for leadership I Exchanged letters with Ali discussing how the perpetrators need to be brought to justice 0 Ali wanted to punish them in the future while Mu awiya wanted to punish them now 0 Mu awiya 661680 0 Foundation of the Umayyad Caliphate O Damascus is made into the new Caliphate capital 0 Makes peace with Ali s son Hasan after Ali is assassinated O Siege of Constantinople and minor conquests I Currently Istanbul and Turkey I Gate to Europe I Muslims wanted this Appointed his son Yazid as his successor I Revolt of Husayn Due to other son of Ali known as Jose 0 0 Husayn grandson of prophet assassinated I Revolt of Ibn alZubayr in Mecca and Medina I Ibn alZubayr claims the Caliphate when Yazid dies 0 Even though Yazid appoints his son as leader it doesn t last 0 Two Caliphs O Marwan a cousin of Uthman from the Umayyad I Will only rule if his son is his successor 0 Abn alZubayr the Caliph O Secures Hijaz and Iraq 0 A special Shi i revolt in Kufa alMukhtar I Fighting in the name of the Shi i and the prophet O Kharijites all over Eastern Arabia 0 Abd alMalik Marwan becomes the next Umayyad Caliph 685 O Retakes Iraq 691 I Appoints one of the worst army leaders in their history I Burned down the Kaaba I Retakes Mecca and kills Ibn Zubayr 0 Contributions 1 Second conquest prelude to the conquest of Spain 2 Minted coins in Arabic 3 Arabic became the official language 4 Established a postal service 5 Built the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem Legacy of the Umayyads 0 Muslim political rule from Spain to Central Asia 0 Caliphate as a political ideal 0 Islam as a state religion 0 Minority favor of Ali s descendants 0 Become the Shi a 0 Arabic culture and administration 0 Tolerance of nonMuslim minorities Islamic Law and Theology 0 Sources of Islamic law What makes up the Shari a O Qur an O Sunna recorded in Hadith 0 Opinions of early Muslim authorities 0 Consensus ijma of lawyers 0 Analogical Reasoning qiyas 0 Islamic Jurisprudence fiqh and Shari a O Shari a vs Fiqh O Shari a Revealed divine law taken from the Qur an and Sunna O Fiqh Understanding the revealed texts divine law Shari a 0 Types of Laws 0 Acts of worship 0 Transactions 0 Gods law is eternal O GodDShari al Fiqh 0 Five categories 1 Obligatory Wajib 2 Recommended Mandub 3 DisapprovedReprehensible Makruh 4 Permitted Halal 5 ProhibitedForbidden Haram 0 Fatwa Legal opinion 0 Shari a Revealeddivine laW 0 Ijtihad Exertion through examination of the legal sources 0 Ulama Muslim religious scholarslawyers Jurists O Qadi O Mufti O Preachers O 0 Three types of legal authorities 1 Jurists lawyers Engages in the probable but fallible interpretation of infallible texts 2 Qadi Judges individual cases in court 3 Mufti Answers legal questions with a fatwa 0 Four major theological topics 1 God s attributes I Seven eternal attributes 1 Knowledge 2 Power 3 Will 4 Speech 5 Life 6 Hearing 7 Sight 0 Some people think that this gives God a body and that this is not good complex theological debates I God is not a substance nor an accident nor a body I God is independentselfsufficient I The Qur an is the speech of God I There is no judge for God and nothing is obligatory for him 2 Qadar Free will vs determinism I Do humans create their own actions I Determinism It doesn t matter if you are a sinner or not because you are predestined I Free will Removes God from the situation I People have limited free will and are still responsible for their actions 3 Faith and deeds I What does one call a Muslim who commits grave sins 1 Kharijites Disbeliever 2 Sunnis Believers 3 Mu tazila Sinner intermediate status 4 Leadership of the community I Kharijites The most pious person I Shi a Ali and his descendants I Sunnis Abu Bakrlj Umarlj UthmanEI Ali 0 Their excellence is in this order TEST 3 Sufism I Not a sect Linguistically Sufi O From the term suf which means wool Sufism The inner mystical aspectdimension of Islam 0 Also the name given to a social movement in Baghdad I Practiced mystical piety starting from the ninth century Early Sufi s were concerned with O Experiencing the knowledge of God s unity 0 All human beings are servants of God Originated in Baghdad 0 Central Asia Iran and rest of the world Four Sufi Saints and Orders 0 Abd alQadir alJilani d 1166 I Qadiri Order 0 Mu in alDin Chishti d 1235 I Chishti Order 0 Maulana J alal alDin Rumi d 1273 I Mevlevi Order I The life of Rumi 0 1207 Birth in Wakhsh Afghanistan 0 1216 Family left Central Asia 0 1220s Settle in Anatolia Konya 0 1244 Shamsuddin alTibrizi enters Konya 0 12467 Shams in Syria 0 1247 Shams back in Konya disappears 0 126273 Rumi composes the Masnavi 0 1273 Rumi dies Husamuddin leads Order 0 Muhammad alSanusi 17871859 I Sanusi Order Sufi Concepts 0 Arabic tasawwuf 0 Love Asceticism I Rabi a al Adawiyya d 801 O Ma rifa Unveiling I Experiential Knowledge Fana Union and annihilation Shari al Tarian Haqiqa MasterGuide Shaykh or Pir Dhikr Invocation Sama Audition Wali Friend of God or Saint Baraka Blessing Fana Annihilation of the Ego The Hidden Treasure OOOOOOOO O I was a hidden treasure and I wanted to be known so I created the world 0 Types of divine attributes I Beauty jamal amp I Power Majesty jalal 0 Tendencies of the Saints Biography 0 Saints are sources of authoritative ethical and spiritual teachings I Authority does not end with the death of the individual I To become a saint you must go through many steps 0 Tells a story I One hand has a bucket of water and one has a torch 0 Burn down paradise 0 Water down hellfire 0 Then people can just focus on loving God I A shopkeeper sells alimonies 0 At one point the cost of wholesale went up and the shopkeeper did not increase the price 0 Did not take advantage of the needy 0 AlHallaj death in 922 I AlHallaj was considered a heretic by some and considered a Sufi by others I Story says that he became a Sufi and he would tell people I am the truth I Some people thought he was calling himself God 0 He meant that he was following the truth and teaching his followers the truth 0 He was crucified limbs cut off I Other story says that he was one of the people that rose up against the Caliph because he was overtaxing the people 0 Good reason for someone to make up the first story I Sufism has been criticized for a long time 0 A lot of people don t like changes from within 0 The reverence of saints is always under attack I Saints miracles 0 Frowned upon because they should not be able to make miracles I Visiting the tombs of saints 0 Many believe this is a grave sin 0 Associating these saints with God because people are praying to the saints and not to God I Saints may intercede on the Day of Judgment 0 People will go to the tombs of the saints and ask for forgiveness 0 Not considered good 0 The only individual that may intercede on behalf of the people is Muhammad The Rise of Islamic Ideology I Islamic Revivalism O O O Tajdid Renewal I Evidence of a Hadith Islah Reform I God commanded to enjoin the good and prohibit evil I Particularly in the 20th century I Make them strong and unified again Revivalists encouraged Ijtihad and rejected taqlid I Ijtihad Exerting one s utmost efforts to deduce a legal ruling I Taqlid Imitating a previous mujtahidlawyer I Do not imitate the past they come up with new resolutions Aims of Revivalism 1 To return to the practices and creed of the Muslim Uma at the time of the Prophet and the next few generations until 855 AD 2 To purgepurify Islam by removing any new innovation very important 3 Critique of established religious institutions I According to them earlier on people were good and not corrupt I The current society is corrupting religion Religiopolitical revivalists of the 18th and 19th century Revivalists were diverse I Arabia Egypt Sudan and India Revivalists criticized old establishments and claimed the right to interpret Islam to purify the Islamic society and return to pristine pure Islam as it is preserved in Qur an and Sunna I Purify it from Sufi innovations I Shi a practices and monopoly of the old institutions consensus of early and classical jurists I Criticize others I Islam as the revivalists see it at the time of the prophet Muhammad ibn Abd alWahhab 170392 I Born in the city of Najd current day Saudi Arabia I Was trained in theology Islamic fiqh Hanbali and Sufism in Medina and hdecca I Considered society to be in the period of ignorance jahiliyya pre Islamic Arabia I Aqida Purification of creed I Criticism of Sufism O Sufi venerations of saints 0 Visiting saints tombs O Pagan superstitions and idolatry worst sin in Islam I Women would go and touch a tree when they wanted to become pregnant when they should not I Associated a divine power which was supposedly equal to that of God 0 Compromised the unity of God 0 Innovations must be purged from Islam 0 Solution 0 Social and political revolution 0 Return to a community life based strictly on the Qur an and example of the Prophet I Ibn Abd alWahhab joined with a prince Ibn Saud d 1765 I Subdued large area of Arabia 0 British called it Wahhabi movement instead of Unitarians muwahidunIkhwan Brotherhood O Wahhabi movement in uenced other movements in Africa and India 0 In Africa I Nigeria Libya and Sudan I Reformed Sufi leadership did not reject it I Sanusi 17871859 in Libyareaction to colonialismItalians 0 Religious zeal and military power joined hands aged a war against communities who were deemed infidels deviated from the Islamic norm envisioned by Ibn Abd alWahhab I Rejected Sufism I Destroyed Saints tombsTombs of the Prophet and his Companions I Destroyed the tomb of the grandson of the Prophet Imam Husayn in Karbala O Shah Wali Allah of Delhi 170262 I The father of Modern Indian Islamic thoughts I Visited Mecca 0 Value of Sufism amp Hadith Studies I Stayed there for 8 years to study I Partly a reaction to colonialism I Contributions 0 Condemned taqlid imitation and called for opening the gate of Ijtihad independent reasoning I Resolving differences among Sufis and between Sunnis and Shi is The Impact of European Colonialism 0 Timeline OOOOOOOOO 18th century The Netherlands annexes Indonesia 1830 France colonizes Algeria 1857 Great Britain crushes revolt in India Mutiny 1882 Great Britain colonizes Egypt 1911 Italy colonizes Libya 1912 France colonizes Morocco 19201932 British Mandate in Iraq 19221948 British Mandate in Palestine 192343 French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon New Tensions 00000 O Westernized elites vs Traditional elites State regulation of Islam Elimination of traditional artisans Massive military and police forces Muslims are government by Christian Europe Colonialism reduction of religious institutions Responses to colonialism O O O 0 Armed responses jihad to defend Muslimsland or Withdrawalimmigration Need for Islamic reforms through Ijtihad I Blaming the Muslims on the past blind imitation taqlid I Internal selfcriticism REVIVALISM Islamic Modernism Jamal alDin alAfghani 183997 0 0 000000 0 O O Called for internal reforms Called for panIslamism amp anticolonialismdefend Muslim countries against colonialism Attempted to bridge the gap between secularists and religious leaders Ulama Called for reclaiming reason science and technology Reducing power of the rulerparliament Islam is comprehensive way of life To strengthen Islamseek success in life and after Islam is a religion of science and reason a dynamic progressive and creative force Called for reopening the gate of Ijtihad Denounced Sufism and Ulama In uenced early Salafi party and Muslim brotherhood movement Muhammad Abduh 1849 1905 O O O Mufti of Egypt scholar as well Liberal Salafi Islam Maslaha Public welfare OO Considered the father of Islamic Modernism I Against imitating anything established in the 10th century taqlid Focused on educational religious and social issues Religion and reason are compatible Called for the restriction of polygamy I Believed Muslim men had abused this power I If you read the Qur an you will see that it wanted to eliminate polygamy Truly God does not change a people s condition until inwardly they change themselves Q 13 1 1 Did not reject the west I Believed that reason and science were good I Use technology within Islam so that Muslims can become advanced again I Rashid Rida 18651935 0 O O 0 Born in northern Lebanon Trained in Islamic jurisprudence and journalism Founded alManar magazine in Egypt with Muhammad Abduh Two Sources for Islam restricting and limiting the consensus of the jurists I Qur an I Sunna I Called for a new type of consensus which includes intellectuals in various fields Critical of I Kemal Ataturk Turkey and abolition of caliphate 1924 I Traditional Muslim scholars because they were using imitations of previous scholarsin uenced by Abduh I Experiential Sufism I Shi ism Supported Saudi Arabia after its independence 1924 and the teachings of Ibn Abd alWahhab I Want to go back to the way things were at the time of the prophet Teacher amp Mentor of Hasan alB anna Objectives of the Qur an I Three Pillars of Belief I God I Hereafter I Righteous Practice I Prophets and their Miracle I Purification of the Human Soul and Personality I Social and Political Reform leading to Political Unity I Personal Obligations and Prohibitions I Islamic Political and International Rule I Financial Reform I Reformation of the System of Warfare and Prevention of its Vices I Giving Women all Human Religious and Civil Rights 0 He was against monogamy and women in leadership positions 0 Against Abduh s ideas about marriage 0 Against legal minimum age for marriage I Emancipation of Slaves Islam Becomes an Ideology 0 Hasan alBanna 190649 0 Founded the Muslim Brotherhood 1928 at the time it was a secret organization I Responsible for assassinating an Egyptian judge because the judge ordered the imprisonment and hanging of some members of the Muslim Brotherhood O The Qur an is our constitution and the Prophet is our example I Called for the return to the Qur an and Sunna of the Prophet 0 Islam is a comprehensive system which deals with all spheres of life I Islam is not only in the heart it is a practice 0 Islam liberates the mind promotes contemplation of the universe honors science and scientists and welcomes all that is good and beneficial to mankind I Against labeling Muslims I Forget about trivial issues it is more important to look at the deep stuff and advance 0 Critical of Muslim youth blamed for being lost etc and juristslawyers I Enlisted Muslim youth under his cause 0 Believed the West was a threat to Islam same ideas as Rida 0 Against magic potions astrology and fortune tellers 0 Against new innovation if not built on Qur an or tradition of the Prophet allowed some innovation 0 Permitted grave visiting as long as the visitors did not ask favors from the dead I Sayyid Qutb 190666 0 Books written in prison I In the Shade of the Qur an I Social Justice in Islam I Milestones mini bookmost famous in the west 0 Member of the Muslim Brotherhood I Politically active physically ill I Jailed by the Egyptian government spent most of his life in prison 0 Assassinatedhanged in 1966 I Considered a martyr 0 Ideas I The isolation of Islam from the active leadership of mankind has been a watershed in human history and by far the worst setback humanity has suffered I The Muslim youth were living in a period of ignorance I Wanted to purge Islam from new innovations get rid of colonialism 0 Against the morals of social culture in the US did not like that women and men were dancing in church 0 Different customs I Islam vs Manmade ideologies 0 Islam is a divine law all of Islam is Shari a 0 Islam is purer than state law I Islam vs Ignorance J ahiliyya I Called this time of colonialism the age of ignorance I Wanted to return to the way Islam was supposed to be I Liberation through submission I If you submit to Islam you are liberating yourself from any evil political leadersregimes I Critical of traditional religious education I Critical of Ulama imitations 0 Connection with later Bin Laden ideas The Iranian Revolution 0 1953 CIA coup d etat O Roosevelt lent Iran military items such as guns trucks armored cars etc 0 Shah left and then returned later when it was safe Shaw was against communism I Appointed by the USA through secret operations I Iran was in debt due to purchasing military equipment from the USA 300 people died during this riot USA got to keep control of almost 50 of Iran s oil Large mobs were actually paid by the CIA 0 People began to realize the power of the mosque again I Ayatollah Khomeini 190289 0 Educated in Qumm I Qumm Mystical tendencies 0 Opposed to Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi 194579 I Succeeded in getting rid of the Shah Arrested in 1963 and exiled in 1964 0 Principle of Wilayat alfaqih Rule of the Expert Jurist I First proposed in 1970 I Islam is fundamentally opposed to the whole notion of 000 O monarchy Monarchy is one of the most shameful and disgraceful reactionary manifestations O Urbanism and Islamism widespread discontent with USsponsored Shah s policies 0 January 7th 1978 Massacre of students in Qumm 40day cycles 0 October 1978 Major strikes 0 February 1st 1979 I Khomeini returns I Revolutionary Committees established I New constitution approved December 1979 I Shah is gone I New horizon for Muslims no longer colonizedsubjected to power Women and Islam 0 Challenges for women 1 Stereotypes about the Muslim woman I Submissiveobedience to their husbands I Need saving I Conservatives I Uneducated I Victims 2 Gender inequality in Islamic Law I Unilateral divorce I Marriage guardian I Spousal obedience and discipline I Inheritance I TestimonyWitnessing I Financial compensation for death or injury I Dress code I Service as a judge or ruler I Scholars O Hadith expertise amp Transmission 0 Law fiqh O Rabi a of Basra 0 Amra of Farghana 0 Fatima of Damascus 3 Gender inequality in traditional societies 4 Women in the Qur an amp Hadith I The Qur an is egalitarian scripture when it comes to moments of creation and judgment spiritual distinction between men and women Both created from a single soul and both reap the rewards of God centered actions equally I Qur an also raises the status of women socially legally and in personal front I What about gender based issues legal issues between me and women there are certain issues 0 Qur an was revealed in 7th century issues were different Q 4 34 men are in charge of women s affairs 0 Men are the protectors and maintainers of women qawwamun because Allah has given the one more strength than the other and because they support them from their means Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient and guard in the husband39s absence what Allah would have them guard 0 Traditional interpreters of the term qawwamun interpret it to mean men s superiority over women 0 Different interpretations exist 0 It is interpreted that men have an inherent degree of advantage over women 0 Modern interpreters argue against this notion making the argument that the Qur an links this notion to economic advantage which changed throughout history There are some hadiths which give different opinions on the same topic 0 Abu Bakra 0 Reported that the messenger of God said A people who entrust their affairs to a woman will never prosper O Fatima Memissi looked into the chain of transmitters in order to see if the prophet had actually said this I She found that Bakra was not very reliable I Bakra was wiped by Omar 11 because he lied 9 about a woman being unfaithful 0 This means he is not reliable 0 Abu Hurayra 0 Reported that the messenger of God said The dog the donkey and woman interrupt prayer if they pass in front of the believer between him and the direction of prayer 0 Fatima Memissi looked into the chain of transmitters again and found Hurayra to be untrustworthy O 5 The search for women in Islamic history Female role models 0 Women in the Qur an 0 Queen of Sheba 0 Mary 0 Wives of the Prophet Mothers of the Believers O Khadij a O A isha Fatima I Muslim Queens Zubayda wife of Harun alRashid Fatima Memissi s Search for Muslim Queens O Mongol Queens 0 Southeast Asian Queens O A Queen in India Arwa An Isma ili Queen in Yemen 0 Ruled 10741 138 0 Supported Fatimid Caliph in Cairo in 1094 6 Understanding the Hij ab head scarf I Babylonians Persians Christians and Jews also used to require women to wear veils I Some opinions Full veils are considered to allow some women to be judged due to what kind of things they have done their opinions their character etc rather than judging them off of their beauty 0 Some women disagree about whether or not it is stated that women need to wear a veil 0 Some women however believe that it is only necessary to cover the bosom I People may judge a Muslim woman because of her veil Women that wear veils want to be accepted for who they are not what they look like 0 They are not wearing them because they are forced to they wear them because they want to I Why do Muslim women veil l 2 3 4 5 An act of piety A cultural symbol A symbol of belonging A symbol of resistance A symbol of identity I As for women past childbearing who have no hope of marriage it is no sin for them if they discard their outer clothing in such a way as not to show adornment But to refrain is better for them God is Hearer Knower Q 2460 7 Colonialism and Feminism I Colonialist governments France Britain and Italy 1 Instituted laws to control and exclude women 2 Were against women s education Made the veil and issue of oppression the need to unveil Made Muslim women inferior to Western women Instituted the biological differences between men and women Made it seem as if Muslim women are oppressedneed liberation 0 Gender equity vs equality 991 m 0 Equity is used here to mean justice and overall equality in the totality of rights and responsibilities of both genders and allows for the possibility of variations in specific items within the overall balance and equality It is analogous to two persons possessing diverse currencies amounting for each person to the equivalent of US 1000 I Dr Jamal Badawi Gender Equity in Islam p 55 0 Men have unique legal obligations 0 Financial support of wife and children 0 Dower in marriage 0 Military service 0 Friday prayer 0 Prohibition against wearing silk and gold 0 Islamic Feminism 0 Muslim women who offer a critique of some aspect of Islamic history or hermeneutics with andor on behalf of all Muslim women I It is also an attitude and intention to seek justice and citizenship for Muslim women 0 Linking history to the scripture means to study the life of the prophet the strong women that surround him and the Muslim umma in 7th century Arabia 0 Being a Muslim feminist involves direct engagement with the textQur an rather than a reaction to the interpreters I It also means applying this understanding to the present and question the ways in which Islamic knowledge has been produced I They challenge conventional histories and canonical texts that either omit mentioning women or stigmatize them as inferior being 0 They reject gender specific equality that roles of men and women are different complementary roles I They practice Ijtihad independent reasoning Islam in America 0 Over 50 of Americans have some type of negative view of American Muslims 0 Muslims arrived as slaves and immigrants 0 Malcolm X 19251965 0 Decided that having multiple wives was not for him 0 Believed that God was black and that white people are devils O In 1964 Malcolm X went to Mecca for a pilgrimage I When he went he realized that Muslims were all different colors and still praying in the same way and the same clothes 0 He did not like this 0 Broke from the nation of Islam I Assassinated in 1965 0 DiVisions in US 0 Liberalsprogressives I Rejected traditionalist interpretations of the Quran 0 Modern Islamic Movements I Count on traditionalist interpretations to fix issues faced today 0 NeoTraditionalism I Combine traditions and todays interpretations Review for Exam 1 Terms Islam Religion of the Muslims 0 Meaning quotsubmission of Godquot Muslim Male Muslim who is a member of Islam Muslima Female Muslim who is a member of Islam Imam o Sunni type is the leader of the community or the leader of a prayer 0 Shi39i is an individual who is divinely inspired or has religiouspolitical authorty Sunna Customs of the prophet made of hadith 0 Conduct and acts of the prophet o Tacit approval Qur39an The sacred book of Muslims literally meaning quotrecitationquot 0 Outer are the words printed on the Qur39an 0 Inner is the stuff that the Imam knows Hadith Prophetic reports of the prophet Muhammad for other Muslims to follow 0 Isnad Chain of transmitters for a hadith how Muslims trace how reliable a hadith is o Matn Content of the hadith o Sahih Means a hadith is strongauthentic o Da if Means a hadith is weakunreliable Dower A monetary payment or propertyasset given from a husbandtobe to a wifetobe which is part of the marriage contract Irrevocable Divorce After 3 times a divorce is nal and the couple may not come back together Revocable Divorce A couple can get back together within the waiting period Women39s Waiting Period A man can divorce his wife but he has to wait for 3 months People Khadija Wife of Muhammad rst wife of Muhammad Abu Bakr First Muslim caliph and close companion to Muhammad Muhammad39s father in law 39Ali Son in law and cousin of Muhammad the fourth caliph and rst of his followers 39Aquotisha Daughter of Abu Bakr favorite wife of Muhammad Fatima Daughter of Muhammad and wife of Ali 39Uthman Compiler of the Qur an the third caliph Muslim Muslim scholar and compiler of hadith Suni o The Sahih of Muslim AlBukhari Muslim scholar and compiler of hadith Suni o The Sahih of alBukhari AlKulayni Muslim scholar and compiler of hadith Shi39i Dates Seque Questi P P PP NE 00gt 9 10 11 Questi 1 2 3 4 Uquot 101 o AIKafi AlTusi Muslim scholar and compiler of hadith Shi39i o AlIstibsar o Tahdhib alAhkam 610 Muhammad received revelation from the angel Gabriel day that Muhammad became the prophet 622 Year of migration of the prophet from Mecca to Medina 630 Year of the conquest of Mecca 632 The death of prophet Muhammad nce of Events OHS Khadija Ali and Abu Bakr 610632 Judaism and Christianity called people of the book The night journey One God day ofjudgment angels messengers Testimony of Faith prayer fasting giving alms donations and the annual pilgrimage to Mecca Muslims and Pagan Meccans There will be peace between the parties for 10 years if a Meccan converts to Islam and then leaves to Medina in these 10 years the Muslims are to return that individual to Medina and the Muslims with Muhammad leading them would be allowed to do pilgrimage in Mecca Pagan Meccans and their allies Revelation of the Qur39an the night journey from Mecca to Jerusalem and then to heaven and the migration to Medina Loyalty to the Uma in war and peace Muhammad would be the supreme political authority of both the Muslim Uma in Medina and the Jewish tribes Medina is a sanctuary there will be not battles or ghting there Jewish tribes are a community of their own and they are the allies of the Muslims Loyalty of Muslims in to their community rather than to the Muslim tribes ons on the Qur39an 114 subdivided into 6200 verses 39Uthman For God to guide people on a straight path The oneness of god the creator a merciful God family law contract marriage divorce family law Jesus spoke in his infancy and God is not his father he was not divine he was just a human being Moses Jesus David Joseph Abraham Adam etc The story ofJoseph 8 Muhammad 9 Jesus is not divine and is born of Mary not fathered by God 10Jesus was never actually cruci ed although he was on the cross God replaced his body with a different body and then raised Jesus39 body to heaven 11Process of the birth of Eve is not mentioned Satan is not presented as a serpent both Eve and Adams sin is equal Eves name is never mentioned 12Sura of women chapter 4 verse 3 yes there are restrictions only marry four and must treat them equally which is really considered to be impossible restrictions chapter 4 verse 129 13A revocable divorce allows a couple to get back together 3 times 14A woman can give up her dowry to get out of marriage no verses say this directly supported in the hadith Thabits wife 15Lashing 100 and a person cannot give testimony anymore considered a liar 16Sunni hadith go straight back to Muhammad and his companions Shi39i hadith goes straight back to their lmams or the Prophet 17Lashing 80 18Marriage prayers fasting divorce warfare jihad commercial law real estate etc 19No it is implied 20Yes mentioned in hadith for the requirement of a marriage guardian no marriage without the permission of a marriage guardian 21No not all schools of law agree while some require a male marriage guardian others do not 22Qur39an and Sunna Terms and Places Caliph A successor from the prophet into the lieutenant of God political successor Shar39ia Legal rulings in the Qur39an or the Sunna the divine law Jurisprudence qh Understanding Shar39ia Mujtahid Legal scholar who is able to deduce and come up with rulings from the Shar39ia the Qur39an or the Sunna Qadi A judge Mufti An individual who renders a legal opinion Fatwa Legal religious response nonbinding legal opinion Kharijite Group of individuals that split from the camp of quotAli and had their own theology and beliefs Mutazilite Group of individuals best known for coming up with the idea of the creation of the Qur39an Battle of the Camel Occurred between A39isha and Ali 0 Battle of Sif n Occurred between Mu39awiya and 39Ali 0 Event of Karbala Assassination of Husayn in 680 Occultation lesser occultation and Greater Occultation Concealment of the 12th lmam 0 Greater lmams are forced into concealment to prevent persecution and in the absence of the imam mujtahids guide the community 941 Apostasy The abandonment of a religious belief People Abu Bakr The rst caliph Umar The second caliph 39Uthman The third caliph A isha Wife of Muhammad 39Ali Son in law of the prophet and the fourth caliph AlZubayr amp lbn Zubayr Killed in the battle of the camel lbn rose against the Umayyads and established a caliphate Hasan amp Husayn Sons of 39Ali from Fatima o Grandsons of the prophet o Hasan was the second Imam o Husayn was the third Imam Mu39awiya rst Umayyad caliph Yazid The son of the bitch above 39Abd alMalik b Marwan One of the Umayyad caliphs that started the second Umayyad conquest Historical Sequences Battle of the Camel November 7th 656 Establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate 661 The Murder of Husayn October 10th 683 o Beheaded at the battle of Karbala Sack of Baghdad 1258 Questions 1 Name the contributions of the followings a Abu Bakr b Umarl c 39Uthman d Mu39awiya e Abd alMalik Ibn Marwan 2 Who was responsible for the killing of Husayn a Yazid 3 In which city was Husayn killed a Karbala 4 Who were the major actors in the rst Islamic war in 656 What was the outcome a A39isha and 39Ali b 39Ali wins 5 Who were the major actors in the second civil war a Azu Bahr amp Abd almalik b marwan 6 What are some of the legacies of the Umayyad caliphate a Muslim political rule from Spain to Central Asia b Caliphate as a political ideal c Islam as a state religion d Minority favor of 39Ali s descendants i Become the Shi39i e Arabic culture and administration f Tolerance of nonMuslim minorities 7 Name the four Sunni schools of law a Hana b Maliki c Sha d Hanbali 8 Name two Shi39i schools of law a Zaydies b Twelvers 9 Name ve sources of Islamic law according to Sunni Islam a Quran b Sunna c Opinions of early Muslim authorities d Consensus ijma e Analogical reasoning qiyas 10What do Mu39tazilite Kharijites and Sunnis say about the status of a Muslim who committed a grave sin a Mu39tazilite They believe that that person is a nonbeliever b Kharijites They would be considered a sinner between believer and nonbeliever c Sunnis They believe you are still a believer 11Who waswere supposed to lead the Muslim community after the death of the Prophet According to Sunnis According to Shia Kharijite a Sunnis Abu Bakr b Shi39a 39Ali c Kharijite Anyone who is pious 12Name the ve categories of human actions according to Islam a Obligatory b Recommended c Disapproved d Permissible e Forbidden 13Name the three types of legal authorities in Islam a Jurists lawyers b Qadi c Mufti 14Name the attributes of God according to the Sunni doctrine a Knowledge b Life c Sight d Power e Hearing f Will g Speech 15What are the two major sects in Islam a Shi39i b Sunni 16Name three Shi39a sects in Islam a Zaydis 5 imams b lmamiTwelvers 12 lmams c lsmaeli 17What are the rst three Shi39i lmams according to Shi s a quotAli b Hassan c Husayn 18What is the name of the 12th Shi39i imam a Mahdi 19Which Shia lmam is the most popular among the Twelverlmami Shi39a a Husayn 20What is the characteristic of an lmam according to Zaydis lmamiTwlevers lsma ilis a They all believe that the imam is a sinless individual b Zaydis lmam has to be a scholar and a warrior and there may be more than one imam at the same time or no imam c lmamilsma39ilis Only one imam at a time d Twelvers Twelve imams only 21What are the two major differences between Shia and Sunnis a Successorshipleadership i Sunni Caliph Abu Bakrlj39Ali ii Shi39i Imam 39Ali b Doctrine of the belief of the lmami i Sunni Do not have these beliefs ii Shi39i There must be an lmam 22Name two contributions of the Fatimid Caliphate What is the faith of the Fatimid Caliphate a They were Isma ili Shi39i b Conquest of Egypt and foundation of Cairo 969 c Set up colleges d Tolerance of nonMuslims 23Name the three Islamic gunpowder empires in the 16th and 17th century and their location a Safavid 1501 b Ottoman 1453 c Mughal 15561605 PEOPLE Shi i Imams to know Ali Hassan Husayn 0 Ali Son in law and cousin of Muhammad the fourth caliph and first of his followers 0 Hasan amp Husayn Sons of Ali from Fatima I Grandsons of the prophet I Hasan was the second Imam I Husayn was the third Imam Rabi a al Adawiyya sufi woman from the 8th century Rumi Sufi individual that lived in turkey sufi order named after him Muhammad ibn Abd alWahhab Muslim revivalist who called for a return to the pristine islam Wanted to purify islam from new innovations Muhammad Abduh An egyptian scholar as well as a revivalist that wanted to get away from imitation and bring back ij tihad Believed that islam is compatible with western teachings liked their technology Rashid Rida A student of Abduh in the 20th century Currently in lebanon that called for reforms in family law Was a journalist that wrote opinions of Abduh and was against imitation and for ijtihad Hasan alB anna An egyptian intellectual that founded the Muslim brotherhood and advocated that islam is a comprehensive way of lifelaw that can incorporate science compatible with science Fatima Memissi A feminist from morrocco that wrote about hadiths Fights for muslim womens rights Nawal Sa dawi An egyptian muslim feminist who always fought for feminism Wrote about gender issues and wrote novels Was imprissoned for a while Amina Wadud An african american scholar and a muslim feminist Wrote a couple of books Benazir Bhutto Muslim feminist from pakistan Was the prime minister in pakistan and was assasinated Zaynab alGhazali Egyptian muslim feminist that was a member of the muslim brotherhood Wrote about women in accordance with brotherhood Malcom X African american civil rights leader who converted from islam to sunni Believed god was black Went on a pilgrimage and realized that islam was not just for blacks Elijah Muhammad Head of the nation of islam who believed humself to be a prophet Khadij a Wife of Muhammad first wife of Muhammad Abu Bakr First Muslim caliph and close companion to Muhammad Muhammad s father in law A isha Daughter of Abu Bakr favorite wife of Muhammad Fatima Daughter of Muhammad and wife of Ali Uthman Compiler of the Qur an the third caliph Muslim Muslim scholar and compiler of hadith Suni O The Sahih of Muslim AlBukhari Muslim scholar and compiler of hadith Suni O The Sahih of alBukhari AlKulayni Muslim scholar and compiler of hadith Shi i O AlKafi AlTusi Muslim scholar and compiler of hadith Shi i 0 AlIstibsar O Tahdhib alAhkam Umar The second caliph AlZubayr amp Ibn Zubayr Killed in the battle of the camel Ibn rose against the Umayyads and established a caliphate Mu awiya First Umayyad caliph Yazid The son of Mu awiya Abd alMalik b Marwan One of the Umayyad caliphs that started the second Umayyad conquest TERMS Islam Religion of the Muslims 0 Meaning submission of God Muslim Male Muslim who is a member of Islam Muslima Female Muslim who is a member of Islam Imam O Sunni type is the leader of the community or the leader of a prayer 0 Shi i is an individual who is divinely inspired or has religiouspolitical authority Sunna Customs of the prophet made of hadith 0 Conduct and acts of the prophet O Tacit approval Qur an The sacred book of Muslims literally meaning recitation 0 Outer are the words printed on the Qur an 0 Inner is the stuff that the Imam knows Hadith Prophetic reports of the prophet Muhammad for other Muslims to follow 0 Isnad Chain of transmitters for a hadith how Muslims trace how reliable a hadith is O Matn Content of the hadith O Sahih Means a hadith is strongauthentic 0 Da if Means a hadith is weakunreliable Dower A monetary payment or propertyasset given from a husbandtobe to a wifetobe which is part of the marriage contract Irrevocable Divorce After 3 times a divorce is final and the couple may not come back together Revocable Divorce A couple can get back together within the waiting period Women s Waiting Period A man can divorce his wife but he has to wait for 3 months Caliph A successor from the prophet into the lieutenant of God political successor Shar ia Legal rulings in the Qur an or the Sunna the divine law Jurisprudence fiqh Understanding Shar ia Mujtahid Legal scholar who is able to deduce and come up with rulings from the Shar ia the Qur an or the Sunna Qadi A judge Mufti An individual who renders a legal opinion Fatwa Legal religious response nonbinding legal opinion Kharijite Group of individuals that split from the camp of Ali and had their own theology and beliefs Mutazilite Group of individuals best known for coming up with the idea of the creation of the Qur an Battle of the Camel Occurred between A isha and Ali Battle of Siffin Occurred between Mu awiya and Ali Event of Karbala Assassination of Husayn in 680 Occultation lesser occultation and Greater Occultation Concealment of the 12th Imam 0 Greater Imams are forced into concealment to prevent persecution and in the absence of the imam mujtahids guide the community 941 Apostasy The abandonment of a religious belief DATES 610 Muhammad received revelation from the angel Gabriel day that Muhammad became the prophet 622 Year of migration of the prophet from Mecca to Medina 630 Year of the conquest of Mecca 632 The death of prophet Muhammad Battle of the Camel November 7th 656 Establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate 661 The Murder of Husayn October 10th 683 O Beheaded at the battle of Karbala Sack of Baghdad 1258 QUESTIONS 1 Name five eternal attributes of God a Knowledge b Seeing c Life d Compassionate e Creator f Forgiveness 2 Who are the four greatest men after Muhammad according to most Sunnis first four caliphs in order a Abu Bakr b Umar 1 c Uthman d Ali 3 What is the definition of Sufism a A mystical aspectdimension of Islam Not a sect of Islam Practiced by Shia and Sunnis 4 What are some of the points of contentions that other Muslims held against Sufism a Reverence of saints and walis visiting the graves of walis or saints considering these saints to be mediators between humans and god and considering them on par with imams and the prophet 5 What are five primary sources for Islamic law a Quran b Analytical reasoning c Sunna d Consensus of scholars e Ijtihad 6 Where in the world are Imami Shi a found a Mostly in Iran Iraq Lebanon Saudi Arabia Pakistan Afghanistan India etc 7 What are some of the common themes that some of the Muslim revivalists called for in the Muslim states a Returning to the pure Islam rejecting some innovations if they did not have evidence in Quran or sunna rejecting immolation of previous scholars calling for Ijtihad 8 Name five revivalists we studied in this course a Wahhab b Abduh c Rida d AlBanna e Quda 9 What did Ibn Abd alWahhab call for to preserve Islam a He called for Muslims to purge any new innovations and go back to pristine Islam and the time of the prophet and his companions 10 Name some of the reforms that Muhammad Abduh called for a Reforming al Aznar as a college education b Reforming courts particularly Shar iaparticularly for women c Restrict polygamy d Ijtihad 11 Who established the Muslim brotherhood in Egypt What did he call for a Hassan al Banna and he called for a comprehensive way of liferituals practices Islam as a political system 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 What made Ayatollah Khomeini s concept of Rule of the Expert Jurist such a radical idea in the Imami Shi i tradition a Called for the jurists instead of the imam Shia only believed in the imam He said that an expert jurist may take the place of an imam in jihad and becoming the leader of the state What is Islamic Feminism a Muslim women who offer critique of some aspect of Islamic history and its interpretations b Stand against injustices against Muslim women What sources do Islamic feminists study and reinterpret a Quran as a primary source as well as hadiths What does wearing the veil mean or symbolize for Muslim women who wear it a Act of piety b Cultural symbol c Symbol of belonging d Symbol of resistance e Symbol of identity Which m European countries colonized most Muslimmaj ority countries Identify at least one country each of these European countries colonized a BritainIraq Egypt b FranceSyria c ItalyLibya d NetherlandsIndonesia Name some of the obstacles facing Muslim women a Stereotypes b Colonialism c Gender inequality in Islamic law d Gender inequality in traditional societies Name three Muslim feminists discussed in the lecture a Described in names section What are some of the accusations of Muslims women in stereotyping Muslim women a They were considered victims b Uneducated c Submissive d Codependent e Inferior What are three Qur anic verses relevant to debates over women s dress Provide a general description of the content of each verse a 2231 women should lower their gaze b 3359 wear a loose dress c 2460 exempts women who are over the age of bearing children from wearing a loose dress Which branch of Islam did Malcom X convert to in his latter part of life What was the event which led him to convert and why a Went from nation of Islam to Sunni Islam Major event was his pilgrimage to mecca when he saw all types of people dressed equally 22 Name some of the effectsconsequences of colonialism regarding Muslim women a Laws to control and exclude women b Against women s education Made veil an issue of oppression Muslim women were considered inferior to western women Biological differences between men and women f Considered Muslim women to be oppressed 23 What are some of the Obstacles Muslims face in the West a Racial profiling b Considered inferior to the west c Considered immigrants even though they may be born in the West d Not a part of western society 24 Who were the rst three individuals to rst believe in the message of Muhammad a Khadij a Ali and Abu Bakr 099 25 What was the period of revelation of the Qur an a 610632 26 What are the names of the two other religions that Islam recognized What does the Qur an call the followers of these two religions a Christianity and Judaism b People of the book 27 What was the name of the event were Muhammad received the order of the ve daily prayers a The NightJourney 28 What are the ve pillars of faith Oneness of God Day of judgment Angels Messengers 29 What are the ve pillars of practice Testimony of Faith Prayer Fasting Giving alms donations Annual pilgrimage to Mecca 30 Who were the parties to the treaty of Hudaybiyya a Muslims and Pagan Meccans 31 Name two Articles stipulations that were part of the Hudaybiyya treaty a There will be peace between the parties for 10 years if a Meccan converts to Islam and then leaves to Medina in these 10 years the Muslims are to return that individual to Medina 999 9909 b The Muslims with Muhammad leading them would be allowed to do pilgrimage in Mecca 32 Against who did Muhammad and his followers fought the three major battles Uhud Badr and the Trench a The Pagan Meccans and their allies 33 What are the four primary components of the Constitution of Medina a Loyalty to the Uma in war and peace b Muhammad would be the supreme political authority of both the Muslim Uma in Medina and the Jewish tribes c Medina is a sanctuary there will be not battles or fighting there d Jewish tribes are a community of their own and they are the allies of the Muslims e Loyalty of Muslims in to their community rather than to the Muslim tribes 34 How many chapters are there in the Qur an a 114 Subdivided into 6200 verses 35 Who compiled the Qur an into a single text a 39Uthman 36 What is the single request found in Surat alFatiha a For God to guide people on a straight path 37 What does the Qur an teach about the birth ofJesus a Jesus spoke in his infancy and God is not his father he was not diVine he was just a human being 38 Name ve Prophets mentioned in the Qur an aside from Prophet Muhammad Moses Jesus David Joseph Abraham Adam 39 Which of the Prophet s stories is complete in the Qur an a The story ofJoseph 40 Who was the last Prophet according to the Qur an a Muhammad 41 What does the Qur an say about the birth ofJesus and the divinity ofJesus a Jesus is not divine and he is born of Mary b Not fathered by God 42 What is the common belief among Muslims about the cruci xion ofJesus a He was not cruci ed 43 What are three differences between the story of Adam and Eve in the Qur an and in the Bible a Process of the birth of Eve is not mentioned b Satan is not presented as a serpent c Both Eve and Adams sin is equal wmeom d Eves name is never mentioned 44 Which Qur anic verse allows polygyny Are there any restrictions Which verse restricts polygyny a Sura of women chapter 4 verse 3 b Yes there are restrictions i You can only marry four women and must treat them equally which is really considered to be impossiblerestrictions chapter 4 verse 129 45 What is the difference between a revocable divorce and an irrevocable divorce a A revocable divorce allows a couple to get back together 3 times 46 How can a woman get out of her marriage Are there any Qur anic verses or hadiths that support this procedure a A woman can give up her dowry to get out of marriage b No verses say this directly supported in the hadith Thabits wife 47 According to the Qur anic what is the punishment of falsely accusing a married woman of adultery a Lashing 100 and a person cannot give testimony anymore considered a liar 48 What is the primary structural difference between Sunni and Shi39i hadith a Sunni hadith go straight back to Muhammad and his companions Shi i hadith goes straight back to their Imams or the Prophet 49 What is the punishment of intoxication from the hadiths a Lashing 80 50 Name some of the legal topics present in the books of hadith Marriage Prayer Fasting Divorce Warfare jihad Commercial law Real estate 51 Does the Qur an contain any clear verses regarding the requirement of a marriage guardian If so name a verse which mentions that a Yes it is mentioned in hadith for the requirement of a marriage guardian no marriage without the permission of a marriage guardian 52 Name the two most important sources of Islamic law a Qur an and Sunna 53 Who was responsible for the killing of Husayn a Yazid b In Karbala 54 Who were the major actors in the first Islamic war in 656 What was the outcome earnerwa 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 a A isha and Ali b Ali wins Who were the major actors in the second civil war a Azu Bahr amp Abd almalik b marwan What are some of the legacies of the Umayyad caliphate a Muslim political rule from Spain to Central Asia b Caliphate as a political ideal c Islam as a state religion d Minority favor of Ali s descendants i Become the Shi i e Arabic culture and administration f Tolerance of nonMuslim minorities Name the four Sunni schools of law a Hanafi b Maliki c Shafi d Hanbali Name two Shi i schools of law a Zaydies b Twelvers Name five sources of Islamic law according to Sunni Islam a Quran b Sunna c Opinions of early Muslim authorities d Consensus ijma e Analogical reasoning qiyas What do Mu tazilite Kharijites and Sunnis say about the status of a Muslim who committed a grave sin a Mu tazilite They believe that that person is a nonbeliever b Kharijites They would be considered a sinner between believer and non believer c Sunnis They believe you are still a believer Who waswere supposed to lead the Muslim community after the death of the Prophet According to Sunnis According to Shia Kharijite a Sunnis Abu Bakr b Shi a Ali c Kharijite Anyone who is pious Name the five categories of human actions according to Islam a Obligatory b Recommended c Disapproved d Permissible e Forbidden Name the three types of legal authorities in Islam a Jurists lawyers b Qadi 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 c Mufti Name the attributes of God according to the Sunni doctrine a Knowledge b Life c Sight d Power e Hearing f Will g Speech What are the two major sects in Islam a Shi i b Sunni Name three Shi a sects in Islam a Zaydis 5 imams b ImamiTwelvers 12 Imams c Ismaeli What are the first three Shi i Imams according to Shi s a Ali b Hassan c Husayn What is the name of the 12th Shi i imam a Mahdi Which Shia Imam is the most popular among the TwelverImami Shi a a Husayn What is the characteristic of an Imam according to Zaydis ImamiTwlevers Isma ilis a They all believe that the imam is a sinless indiVidual b Zaydis Imam has to be a scholar and a warrior and there may be more than one imam at the same time or no imam c ImamiIsma ilis Only one imam at a time d Twelvers Twelve imams only What are the two major differences between Shia and Sunnis a Successorshipleadership i Sunni Caliph Abu Bakrlj Ali ii Shi i Imam Ali b Doctrine of the belief of the Imami i Sunni Do not have these beliefs ii Shi i There must be an Imam Name two contributions of the Fatimid Caliphate What is the faith of the Fatimid Caliphate a They were Isma ili Shi i b Conquest of Egypt and foundation of Cairo 969 c Set up colleges d Tolerance of nonMuslims Name the three Islamic gunpowder empires in the 16th and 17th century and their location a SafaVid 1501 b Ottoman 1453 c Mughal 15561605
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