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BIO 104 - Chapter 17 and 20 Notes

by: Olivia Orlando

BIO 104 - Chapter 17 and 20 Notes BIO 104

Marketplace > Grand Valley State University > Biology > BIO 104 > BIO 104 Chapter 17 and 20 Notes
Olivia Orlando
Biology for the 21st Century

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About this Document

These are my notes about Life on Earth and Human Evolution for the course BIO 104. Chapter 20 includes information from the book and lecture, but Chapter 17 only includes information from the book....
Biology for the 21st Century
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Olivia Orlando on Wednesday November 18, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIO 104 at Grand Valley State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Biology for the 21st Century in Biology at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 11/18/15
Biology 104 Life on Earth Chapter 17 Life on Earth Book Radiometric Dating is the use of radioactive isotopes as a measure for determining the age of a rock or fossil Radioactive Isotopes are unstable form of an element that decays into another element by radiation that is by emitting energetic particles HalfLife is the time it takes for onehalf of a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay Radiometric dating is typically performed on igneous rocks with the uraniumlead method used to date the oldest igneous rocks Dating rocks by radioactive isotopes is quite precise and can be confirmed by cross checking with different methods By radioactive dating scientists have established that Earth is indeed quite old old enough for evolution to have been acting for billions of years Extinction is the elimination of all individuals in a species extinction may occur over time or in a sudden mass dieoff Adaptive Radiation is the spreading and diversification of organisms that occur when they colonize a new habitat Mass Extinction is an extinction of between 50 and 90 of all species that occurs relatively rapidly Punctuated Equilibrium are periodic bursts of species change as a result of sudden environmental change Biogeography is the study of how organisms are distributed in geographical space seeks to explain why particular organisms are found in some areas and not others Plate tectonics are the movement of Earth s upper mantle and crust which in uences the geographical distribution of landmasses and organisms Convergent Evolution is the process by which organisms that are not closely related evolve similar adaptations as a result of independent episodes of natural selection Taxonomy is the process of identifying naming and classifying organisms on the basis of shared traits Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Vertebrates are animals with a rigid backbone Mammals are members of the class Mammalia all members of this class have mammary glands and a body covered with hair Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a group of organisms Phylogenetic tree is a branching diagram of relationships showing common ancestry Branch process of natural selection leading to a new species or group of species Root this is the common ancestor of all organisms on the tree Node this is the last common ancestor of the organisms above this point in the tree Domain is the highest category in the modern system of classification there are three domains Bacteria Archaea and Eukarya References Works Cited Shuster Michele Janet Vigna Matthew Tontonoz and Gunj an SinhaBiology for a Changing World with Physiology New York City WH Freeman 2014 Print Biology 104 Human Evolution Chapter 20 Human Evolution Lecture UV light selective pressure high energy ray responsible for sunburn causes DNA mutations but also responsible for the conversion that happens in our skin with Vitamin D destroys folic acid People with light skin are more vulnerable to folate destruction People with dark skin are more vulnerable to insufficient Vitamin D production Melanin is the pigment produced by a specific type of skin cell that gives skin its color more melanin yields darker skin less melanin lighter skin Folate is a B Vitamin known as folic acid folate is an essential nutrient necessary for basic bodily processes such as DNA replication and cell division necessary to make sperm People with light skin are more vulnerable to folate destruction than are darkerskinned people presumably because melanin absorbs damaging UV light and dissipates it as heat Vitamin D is a fatsoluble Vitamin required to maintain a healthy immune system and to build healthy bones and teeth The human body produces Vitamin D when skin is exposed to UV light The weaker the UV light the fairer the skin Mitochondrial DNA MTDNA is the DNA in mitochondria that is inherited solely from mothers Unlike nuclear DNA which is inherited from both parents in most multicellular organisms and which undergoes recombination during meiosis mtDNA passes from mothers to offspring essentially unchanged A hominid is any living or extinct member of the family Hominidae the great apes humans orangutans gorillas chimpanzees and bonobos Humans are grouped with the great apes because fossil evidence shows that modern humans and other presentday great apes evolved from a common ancestor 13 million years ago References Works Cited Shuster Michele Janet Vigna Matthew Tontonoz and Gunj an SinhaBiology for a Changing World with Physiology New York City WH Freeman 2014 Print


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